Province of Jambi
Coat of arms of Jambi
Sepucuk Jambi Sembilan Lurah (Jambi Malay)
(One Jambi indigenous territory, formed by nine river settlements)
Location of Jambi in Indonesia
Location of Jambi in Indonesia
Coordinates: 1°35′S 103°37′E / 1.583°S 103.617°E / -1.583; 103.617
Established6 January 1957
and largest city
 • BodyJambi Provincial Government
 • GovernorAl Haris
 • Vice GovernorAbdullah Sani [id]
 • Total49,026.58 km2 (18,929.27 sq mi)
 • Rank11th
500 m (1,600 ft)
Highest elevation3,805 m (12,484 ft)
 (mid 2023 estimate)[1]
 • Total3,679,169
 • Rank19th
 • Density75/km2 (190/sq mi)
  • Rank23rd
 • Ethnic groups43.57% Jambi Malays
29.10% Javanese
5.37% Other Malays
5.33% Minangkabau
3.46% Batak
3.33% Banjarese
3.13% Buginese
2.58% Sundanese
1.88% Palembang
1.215 Chinese
1.04% Others[2]
 • Religion95.08% Islam
3.88% Christianity
- 3.31% Protestant
- 0.58% Catholic
0.94% Buddhism
0.06% Folk religion
0.02% Confucianism
0.013% Hinduism[3]
 • LanguagesIndonesian (official)
Jambi Malay, Kerinci, Kubu (regional)
GDP (nominal)2022
 - Total[4]Rp 276.3 trillion (15th)
US$ 18.6 billion
Int$ 58.1 billion (PPP)
 - Per capita[5]Rp 76.1 million (8th)
US$ 5,125
Int$ 15,991 (PPP)
 - Growth[6]Increase 5.13%
HDIIncrease 0.728 (19th) – high

Jambi is a province of Indonesia. It is located on the east coast of central Sumatra and stretches to the Barisan Mountains in the west. Its capital and largest city is also called Jambi. It is bordered by the provinces of Riau to the north, West Sumatra to the west, Bengkulu to the southwest, South Sumatra to the south, and shares a maritime border with the Riau Islands to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the east. The province has a land area of 49,026.58 km2, and a sea area of 3,274.95 km2. Its area is comparable to the European country of Slovakia. It had a population of 3,092,265 according to the 2010 census[7] and 3,548,228 according to the 2020 census;[2] the official estimate of population as of mid-2023 was 3,679,169 (comprising 1,872,177 males and 1,806,992 females).[1]


Mosque in Jambi, during the colonial period. ca 1900–1939.

Jambi was the site of the Melayu kingdom that engaged in trade throughout the Strait of Malacca and beyond. It was recorded as having sent a mission to China in 644 CE. It was annexed by Srivijaya by 685 CE, but tried to declare its independence in the 9th century. Jambi succeeded Palembang, its southern economic and military rival, as the major player in trade in the Malacca straits. After the 1025 Chola raids in Southeast Asia, Jambi still sent missions to China.[8]: 72, 114 

In the early decades of the Dutch presence in the region, when the Dutch were one of several traders competing with the British, Chinese, Arabs, and Malays, the Jambi Sultanate profited from trade in pepper with the Dutch. This relationship declined by about 1770, and the sultanate had little contact with the Dutch for about sixty years.[citation needed]

In 1833, minor conflicts with the Dutch East Indies who were well established in Palembang, meant the Dutch increasingly felt the need to control the actions of Jambi. They coerced Sultan Facharudin to agree to greater Dutch presence in the region and control over trade, although the sultanate remained nominally independent. In 1858 the Dutch, concerned over the risk of competition for control from other foreign powers, invaded Jambi with a force from their capital Batavia. They met little resistance, and Sultan Taha fled upriver, to the inland regions of Jambi. The Dutch installed a puppet ruler, Nazarudin, in the lower region, which included the capital city. For the next forty years Taha maintained the upriver kingdom, and slowly reextended his influence over the lower regions through political agreements and marriage connections. In 1904, however, the Dutch were stronger and, as a part of a larger campaign to consolidate control over the entire archipelago, managed to capture and kill Taha, and in 1906, the entire area was brought under direct colonial control.

Following the death of Jambi Sultan, Taha Saifuddin, on 27 April 1904 and the success of the Dutch controlled areas of the Sultanate of Jambi, Jambi then was set up as a Residency and entry into the territory Netherlands Indies. Jambi's first Resident OL Helfrich was appointed by the governor general under Dutch Decree No. 20, dated 4 May 1906, with his inauguration held on 2 July 1906.

In 1945, Sumatra comprised a single province, but in 1948 this was divided into three provinces, including the province of Central Sumatra (which included present-day Jambi Province). In 1957 this short-lived province was itself divided, and Jambi was created as an independent Province.

Historical population
1971 1,006,084—    
1980 1,445,994+43.7%
1990 2,020,568+39.7%
1995 2,369,959+17.3%
2000 2,407,166+1.6%
2005 2,635,968+9.5%
2010 3,092,265+17.3%
2015 3,397,164+9.9%
2020 3,548,228+4.4%
2023 3,679,169+3.7%
Source: Badan Pusat Statistik[1] 2024 and previous

Administrative divisions

When Jambi Province was created in 1957, it comprised three regencies - Kerinci (renamed from South Pesisir Regency on 19 March 1956), Batanghari and Bungo Tebo - as well as the independent city of Jambi City . On 14 June 1965 two new regencies were formed - Sarolangun Bangko from part of Bungo Tebo Regency, and Tanjung Jabung from part of Batanghari Regency. On 4 October 1999 four additional regencies were created by splitting each of four existing regencies in two - Muara Jambi was formed from part of Batanghari Regency, while Sarolangun Bangko Regency was split into separate Sarolangun and Merangin Regencies, Tanjung Jabung Regency was split into separate Tanjung Jabung Barat (West Tanjung Jabung) and Tanjung Jabung Timur (East Tanjung Jabung) Regencies, and Bungo Tebo Regency was split into separate Bungo and Tebo Regencies. Finally, a second independent city of Sungai Penuh (Penuh River) was split off from Kerinci Regency on 1 July 2008.

Thus Jambi province is now divided into nine regencies (kabupaten) and two cities (kota), listed below with their areas and their populations at the 2010[7] and 2020[2] censuses, together with the official estimates as at mid 2023.[1] These are divided into 141 districts (kecamatan), in turn sub-divided into 153 urban villages (kelurahan) and 1,399 rural villages (desa).

Name of
City or
mid 2024
Capital HDI[9]
2018 Estimates
15.01 Kerinci Regency 3,445.20 229,495 250,259 255,120 Siulak 0.705 (High)
15.02 Merangin Regency 7,540.12 333,206 354,052 368,390 Bangko 0.688 (Medium)
15.03 Sarolangun Regency 5,935.89 246,245 290,047 302,240 Sarolangun 0.694 (Medium)
15.04 Batanghari Regency 5,387.52 241,334 301,700 312,730 Muara Bulian 0.693 (Medium)
15.05 Muaro Jambi Regency 5,225.80 342,952 402,017 418,800 Sengeti 0.683 (Medium)
15.06 West Tanjung Jabung Regency
(Tanjung Jabung Barat)
5,546.06 278,741 317,498 330,470 Kuala Tungkal 0.671 (Medium)
15.07 East Tanjung Jabung Regency
(Tanjung Jabung Timur)
4,546.62 205,272 229,813 236,730 Muara Sabak 0.633 (Medium)
15.08 Bungo Regency 4,760.83 303,135 362,363 376,380 Muara Bungo 0.694 (Medium)
15.09 Tebo Regency 6,103.74 297,735 337,669 350,760 Muara Tebo 0.686 (Medium)
15.71 Jambi City 169.89 531,857 606,200 627,770 - 0.774 (High)
15.72 Sungai Penuh City 364.92 82,293 96,610 99,770 - 0.746 (High)
Total province 49,026.58 3,092,265 3,548,228 3,679,169 Jambi 0.705 (High)

World Heritage Sites

Mount Kerinci, the tallest mountain in Sumatra
Muaro Jambi Temples
Detail of a Kain Batik Tulisan, late 19th century, from an unknown village in Jambi.

The largest of the three national parks comprising the Tropical Rainforest Heritage of Sumatra, Kerinci Seblat has the distinction of being the second-largest national park in all of Southeast Asia, only after Lorentz National Park on Papua. It is one of the Sumatran Tiger's last strongholds on the island, and within its borders sits the highest active volcano in Southeast Asia - Mount Kerinci.

May 2011: The Jambi provincial administration is striving to have the ancient Muaro Jambi temple site at Muaro Jambi village in Maro Sebo District, Muaro Jambi Regency, recognized as a World Heritage Site.

The site was a Buddhist education centre that flourished during the 7th and 8th centuries and is made from bricks similar to those used in Buddhist temples in India.[10]


Due to transmigration policy, many ethnic groups from various parts of Indonesia, especially Java, Borneo, Sulawesi and other parts of Sumatra brought their native languages as well. The non-Pribumi people such as the Chinese Indonesians speak several varieties of Chinese.

Ethnically, the population comprises:

As of 2022, Islam is the largest religion in Jambi, being practised by 96.09% of the population. Minority religions are Christianity with 3,9%, Buddhism 0.92%, Confucianism 0.02% and Hinduism 0.01% of the population.[11]

See also


  1. ^ a b c d Badan Pusat Statistik, Jakarta, 28 February 2024, Provinsi Jambi Dalam Angka 2024 (Katalog-BPS 1102001.15)
  2. ^ a b c d Badan Pusat Statistik, Jakarta, 2021.
  3. ^ "ArcGIS Web Application".
  4. ^ Badan Pusat Statistik (2023). "Produk Domestik Regional Bruto (Milyar Rupiah), 2022" (in Indonesian). Jakarta: Badan Pusat Statistik.
  5. ^ Badan Pusat Statistik (2023). "Produk Domestik Regional Bruto Per Kapita (Ribu Rupiah), 2022" (in Indonesian). Jakarta: Badan Pusat Statistik.
  6. ^ Badan Pembangunan Nasional (2023). "Capaian Indikator Utama Pembangunan" (in Indonesian). Jakarta: Badan Pembangunan Nasional.
  7. ^ a b Biro Pusat Statistik, Jakarta, 2011.
  8. ^ Miksic, John M. (2013). Singapore and the Silk Road of the Sea, 1300–1800. NUS Press. ISBN 9789971695583.
  9. ^ All Stats search jambi.bps.go.id
  10. ^ "Waspada Online – Pusat Berita dan Informasi Medan Sumut Aceh". waspada.co.id. Retrieved 22 March 2018.
  11. ^ "Jumlah Penduduk Menurut Agama" (in Indonesian). Ministry of Religious Affairs. 31 August 2022. Retrieved 29 October 2023.