Province of Jambi
Coat of arms of Jambi
Sepucuk Jambi Sembilan Lurah (Jambi Malay)
(One Jambi indigenous territory, formed by nine river settlements)
Location of Jambi in Indonesia
Location of Jambi in Indonesia
Coordinates: 1°35′S 103°37′E / 1.583°S 103.617°E / -1.583; 103.617
Established6 January 1957
and largest city
 • BodyJambi Provincial Government
 • GovernorAl Haris [id]
 • Vice GovernorAbdullah Sani [id]
 • Total49,026.58 km2 (18,929.27 sq mi)
 • Rank11th
500 m (1,600 ft)
Highest elevation3,805 m (12,484 ft)
 (mid 2022 estimate)[1]
 • Total3,631,136
 • Rank19th
 • Density74/km2 (190/sq mi)
  • Rank23rd
 • Ethnic groups43.57% Jambi Malays
29.10% Javanese
5.37% Other Malays
5.33% Minangkabau
3.46% Batak
3.33% Banjarese
3.13% Buginese
2.58% Sundanese
1.88% Palembang
1.215 Chinese
1.04% Others[2]
 • Religion95.08% Islam
3.88% Christianity
- 3.31% Protestant
- 0.58% Catholic
0.94% Buddhism
0.06% Folk religion
0.02% Confucianism
0.013% Hinduism[3]
 • LanguagesIndonesian (official)
Jambi Malay, Kerinci, Kubu (regional)
HDIIncrease 0.721 (High)
HDI rank19th in Indonesia (2022)
GRP NominalIncrease$15.40 billion[4]
GDP PPP (2019)Increase$50.33 billion[4]
GDP rank15th in Indonesia (2019)
Nominal per capitaUS$ 4,248 (2019)[4]
PPP per capitaUS$ 13,963 (2019)[4]
Per capita rank7th in Indonesia (2019)

Jambi is a province of Indonesia. It is located on the east coast of central Sumatra and spans to the Barisan Mountains in the west. Its capital and largest city is also called Jambi. It is bordered by the provinces of Riau to the north, West Sumatra to the west, Bengkulu to the southwest, South Sumatra to the south, and sharing a maritime border with the Riau Islands to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the east. The province has a land area of 49,026.58 km2, and a sea area of 3,274.95 km2. It had a population of 3,092,265 according to the 2010 census[5] and 3,548,228 according to the 2020 census;[2] the official estimate as at mid 2022 was 3,631,136.[1]


Mosque in Jambi, during the colonial period. ca 1900–1939.

Jambi was the site of the Melayu kingdom that engaged in trade throughout the Strait of Malacca and beyond. It was recorded as having sent a mission to China in 644 CE. It was annexed by Srivijaya by 685 CE, but tried to declare its independence in the 9th century. Jambi succeeded Palembang, its southern economic and military rival, as the major player in trade in the Malacca straits. After the 1025 Chola raids in Southeast Asia, Jambi still sent missions to China.[6]: 72, 114 

In the early decades of the Dutch presence in the region, when the Dutch were one of several traders competing with the British, Chinese, Arabs, and Malays, the Jambi Sultanate profited from trade in pepper with the Dutch. This relationship declined by about 1770, and the sultanate had little contact with the Dutch for about sixty years.[citation needed]

In 1833, minor conflicts with the Dutch East Indies who were well established in Palembang, meant the Dutch increasingly felt the need to control the actions of Jambi. They coerced Sultan Facharudin to agree to greater Dutch presence in the region and control over trade, although the sultanate remained nominally independent. In 1858 the Dutch, concerned over the risk of competition for control from other foreign powers, invaded Jambi with a force from their capital Batavia. They met little resistance, and Sultan Taha fled upriver, to the inland regions of Jambi. The Dutch installed a puppet ruler, Nazarudin, in the lower region, which included the capital city. For the next forty years Taha maintained the upriver kingdom, and slowly reextended his influence over the lower regions through political agreements and marriage connections. In 1904, however, the Dutch were stronger and, as a part of a larger campaign to consolidate control over the entire archipelago, managed to capture and kill Taha, and in 1906, the entire area was brought under direct colonial control.

Following the death of Jambi Sultan, Taha Saifuddin, on 27 April 1904 and the success of the Dutch controlled areas of the Sultanate of Jambi, Jambi then was set up as a Residency and entry into the territory Netherlands Indies. Jambi's first Resident OL Helfrich was appointed by the governor general under Dutch Decree No. 20, dated 4 May 1906, with his inauguration held on 2 July 1906.

In 1945, Sumatra comprised a single province, but in 1948 this was divided into three provinces, including the province of Central Sumatra (which included present-day Jambi Province). In 1957 this short-lived province was itself divided, and Jambi was created as an independent Province.

Historical population
1971 1,006,084—    
1980 1,445,994+43.7%
1990 2,020,568+39.7%
1995 2,369,959+17.3%
2000 2,407,166+1.6%
2005 2,635,968+9.5%
2010 3,092,265+17.3%
2015 3,397,164+9.9%
2020 3,548,228+4.4%
2022 3,631,136+2.3%
Source: Badan Pusat Statistik 2023 and previous

Administrative divisions

Jambi province is divided into nine regencies (kabupaten) and two cities (kota), listed below with their areas and their populations at the 2010[5] and 2020[2] censuses, together with the official estimates as at mid 2022.[1] These are divided into 141 districts (kecamatan), in turn sub-divided into 153 urban villages (kelurahan) and 1,399 rural villages (desa).

Name of
City or
mid 2022
Capital HDI[7]
2018 Estimates
15.01 Kerinci Regency 3,445.20 229,495 250,259 253,863 Siulak 0.705 (High)
15.02 Merangin Regency 7,540.12 333,206 354,052 357,577 Bangko 0.688 (Medium)
15.03 Sarolangun Regency 5,935.89 246,245 290,047 298,091 Sarolangun 0.694 (Medium)
15.04 Batanghari Regency 5,387.52 241,334 301,700 313,209 Muara Bulian 0.693 (Medium)
15.05 Muaro Jambi Regency 5,225.80 342,952 402,017 412,830 Sengeti 0.683 (Medium)
15.06 West Tanjung Jabung Regency
(Tanjung Jabung Barat)
5,546.06 278,741 317,498 324,530 Kuala Tungkal 0.671 (Medium)
15.07 East Tanjung Jabung Regency
(Tanjung Jabung Timur)
4,546.62 205,272 229,813 234,164 Muara Sabak 0.633 (Medium)
15.08 Bungo Regency 4,760.83 303,135 362,363 373,344 Muara Bungo 0.694 (Medium)
15.09 Tebo Regency 6,103.74 297,735 337,669 344,816 Muara Tebo 0.686 (Medium)
15.71 Jambi City 169.89 531,857 606,200 619,553 - 0.774 (High)
15.72 Sungai Penuh City 364.92 82,293 96,610 99,233 - 0.746 (High)
Total province 49,026.58 3,092,265 3,548,228 3,631,136 Jambi 0.705 (High)

World Heritage Sites

Mount Kerinci, the tallest mountain in Sumatra
Muaro Jambi Temples
Detail of a Kain Batik Tulisan, late 19th century, from an unknown village in Jambi.

The largest of the three national parks comprising the Tropical Rainforest Heritage of Sumatra, Kerinci Seblat has the distinction of being the second-largest national park in all of Southeast Asia, only after Lorentz National Park on Papua. It is one of the Sumatran Tiger's last strongholds on the island, and within its borders sits the highest active volcano in Southeast Asia - Mount Kerinci.

May 2011: The Jambi provincial administration is striving to have the ancient Muaro Jambi temple site at Muaro Jambi village in Maro Sebo District, Muaro Jambi Regency, recognized as a World Heritage Site.

The site was a Buddhist education centre that flourished during the 7th and 8th centuries and is made from bricks similar to those used in Buddhist temples in India.[8]


The official language of Jambi province is Indonesian as in all parts of Indonesia. However Jambi is also home to several indigenous languages and dialects such as Jambi Malay, Kerinci language, Kubu language, Lempur Malay, and Rantau Panjang Malay, all of which are Malayan languages.[9]

Due to transmigration policy, many ethnic groups from various parts of Indonesia, especially Java, Borneo, Sulawesi and other parts of Sumatra brought their native languages as well. The non-Pribumi people such as the Chinese Indonesians speak several varieties of Chinese.

Ethnically, the population comprises:

Islam is the largest religion in Jambi, being practised by 96.5% of the population. Minority religions are Christianity with 3%, Buddhism 0.97%, Confucianism 0.05% and Hinduism 0.25% of the population.[10]

See also


  1. ^ a b c Badan Pusat Statistik, Jakarta, 2023, Provinsi Jambi Dalam Angka 2023 (Katalog-BPS 1102001.15)
  2. ^ a b c d Badan Pusat Statistik, Jakarta, 2021.
  3. ^ "ArcGIS Web Application".
  4. ^ a b c d "Indonesia". Badan Pusat Statistik. Retrieved 20 May 2020.
  5. ^ a b Biro Pusat Statistik, Jakarta, 2011.
  6. ^ Miksic, John M. (2013). Singapore and the Silk Road of the Sea, 1300–1800. NUS Press. ISBN 9789971695583.
  7. ^ All Stats search jambi.bps.go.id
  8. ^ "Waspada Online – Pusat Berita dan Informasi Medan Sumut Aceh". waspada.co.id. Retrieved 22 March 2018.
  9. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-07-14. Retrieved 2014-07-02.((cite web)): CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  10. ^ "Penduduk Menurut Wilayah dan Agama yang Dianut". sp2010.bps.go.id. Retrieved 2018-02-25.