Kalimantan
Location of Kalimantan (Indonesia) in Borneo Island
Location of Kalimantan (Indonesia) in Borneo Island
Coordinates: 1°S 114°E / 1°S 114°E / -1; 114
CountryIndonesia
ProvinceWest Kalimantan
Central Kalimantan
South Kalimantan
East Kalimantan
North Kalimantan
Largest citiesBalikpapan
Banjarmasin
Palangkaraya
Pontianak
Samarinda
Tarakan
Tanjung Selor
Population
 (2020 Census)[1]
 • Total16,625,796
ISO 3166 codeID-KA
Vehicle signDA
KB
KH
KT
KU
HDIIncrease 0.708 (High)

Kalimantan (Indonesian pronunciation: [kaliˈmantan]) is the Indonesian portion of the island of Borneo.[2] It constitutes 73% of the island's area. The non-Indonesian parts of Borneo are Brunei and East Malaysia. In Indonesia, "Kalimantan" refers to the whole island of Borneo.[2]

In 2019, President of Indonesia Joko Widodo proposed that Indonesia's capital be moved to Kalimantan, and in January 2022 Indonesian legislature approved the proposal.[3] The move is expected to take up to 10 years.[4]

Etymology

Most Indonesian refer to The name Kalimantan as derived from the Sanskrit word Kalamanthana, which means "burning weather island", or island with a very hot temperature, referring to its hot and humid tropical climate. It consists of the two words kal[a] ("time, season, period") and manthan[a] ("boiling, churning, burning") because of Indianized culture [5] But the Native people of the Indonesian Borneo referred to their island as Pulu K'lemantan or "Kalimantan" when the sixteenth century Portuguese explorer Jorge de Menezes made contact with them.[6][7] Its association with the island and its people has also been attributed to British scientist and colonial administrator Charles Hose from the early 20th century.

Area

Map of Kalimantan (light colour) and its component provinces.

The Indonesian territory makes up 73% of the island by area, and 72.1% of its 2020 population of 23,053,723 (the population was 13,772,543 at the 2010 Census of Indonesia, and 16,625,796 at the 2020 Census).[8] The non-Indonesian parts of Borneo are of Brunei (460,345 in 2020[9]) and East Malaysia (5,967,582 in 2020), the latter comprising the states of Sabah (3,418,785) and Sarawak (2,453,677), and the federal territory of Labuan (95,120). The region within Indonesia is also known as Indonesian Borneo.

Kalimantan's total area is 539,237.77 square kilometres (208,201 sq mi).[10]

The widespread deforestation and other environmental destruction in Kalimantan and other parts of Indonesia has often been described by academics as an ecocide.[11][12][13]

Administrative divisions

Kalimantan is now divided into five provinces. It was administered as one province between 1945 and 1956, but in 1956 it was split into three provinces – East Kalimantan, South Kalimantan and West Kalimantan; then in 1957, the province of Central Kalimantan was created when it was split away from the existing South Kalimantan. There remained four provinces until 25 October 2012, when North Kalimantan was split off from East Kalimantan.

Provinces of Kalimantan
Province Area (km2) Pop. (2005
Census)
Pop. (2010
Census)
Pop. (2015
Census)
Pop. (2020
Census)[8]
Density
per km2
(2020)
Provincial
capital
Largest metro
West Kalimantan 147,307.00 4,042,817 4,393,239 4,783,209 5,414,390 36.8 Pontianak Pontianak
Central Kalimantan 153,564.50 1,913,026 2,202,599 2,490,178 2,669,969 17.4 Palangkaraya Palangkaraya
South Kalimantan 38,744.23 3,271,413 3,626,119 3,984,315 4,073,584 105.1 Banjarbaru Banjarmasin
East Kalimantan 127,346.92 2,840,874 3,550,586 3,422,676* 3,766,039 29.6 Samarinda Balikpapan
North Kalimantan 72,275.12 473,424 524,526 639,639 701,814 9.7 Tanjung Selor Tarakan
Total 539,237.77 12,541,554 14,297,069 15,320,017 16,625,796 30.8 Banjarmasin

* excluding North Kalimantan, split off from East Kalimantan with resulting population and area loss for the 2015 census.

Demographics

Historical population
YearPop.±%
1971 5,154,774—    
1980 6,723,086+30.4%
1990 9,099,874+35.4%
1995 10,470,843+15.1%
2000 11,331,558+8.2%
2005 12,541,554+10.7%
2010 14,297,069+14.0%
2015 15,320,017+7.2%
2020 16,625,796+8.5%
Sources: Statistics Indonesia[14]

Ethnic groups

Number of the largest population of ethnic groups according to the 2010 census:

Ethnicity West Kalimantan Central Kalimantan South Kalimantan North and East Kalimantan Total
Banjarese 14,430
(0.33%)
464,260
(21.28%)
2,686,627
(74.84%)
440,453
(12.45%)
3,605,770
(26.31%)
Dayak 1,531,989
(34.93%)
1,029,182
(46.62%)
80,708
(2.23%)
351,437
(9.94%)
2,993,316
(21.78%)
Javanese 427,238
(9.74%)
478,393
(21.67%)
523,276
(14.51%)
1,069,605
(30.24%)
2,498,512
(18.18%)
Malay 1,484,085
(33.84%)
87,348
(3.96%)
3,681
(0.10%)
6,053
(0.17%)
1,581,167
(11.51%)
Buginese 137,282
(3.13%)
17,104
(0.77%)
101,727
(2.81%)
735,819
(20.81%)
991,932
(7.22%)
Madurese 274,869
(6.27%)
42,668
(1.93%)
53,002
(1.47%)
46,823
(1.32%)
417,362
(3.04%)
Chinese 358,451
(8.17%)
5,130
(0.23%)
13,000
(0.36%)
32,757
(0.93%)
409,338
(2.98%)
Kutai None None None 275,696
(7.80%)
275,696
(2.01%)
Sundanese 49,530
(1.13%)
28,580
(1.29%)
24,592
(0.68%)
55,659
(1.57%)
158,361
(1.15%)
Batak 26,486
(0.60%)
12,324
(0.56%)
12,408
(0.34%)
37,145
(1.05%)
88,363
(0.64%)
Others 80,996
(1.85%)
42,378
(1.92%)
114,971
(3.18%)
485,056
(13.72%)
723,401
(5.26%)
Total 4,385,356
(100%)
2,207,367
(100%)
3,613,992
(100%)
3,536,503
(100%)
13,743,218
(100%)

Religion

Religion in Kalimantan (2022)[15]

  Islam (78.39%)
  Protestantism (9.28%)
  Roman Catholic (9.09%)
  Buddhism (1.98%)
  Hinduism (1.09%)
  Confucianism (0.10%)
  Folk religion and others (0.07%)

Number of the largest population of religious groups according to the 2010 census:

Religion West Kalimantan Central Kalimantan South Kalimantan North Kalimantan East Kalimantan Total
Islam 2,603,318
(59.22%)
1,643,715
(74.31%)
3,505,846
(96.67%)
378,478
(72.14%)
2,655,227
(87.68%)
10,786,584
(78.23%)
Protestantism 500,254
(11.38%)
353,353
(15.97%)
47,974
(1.32%)
109,358
(20.84%)
228,022
(7.53%)
1,238,961
(8.99%)
Roman Catholic 1,008,368
(22.94%)
58,279
(2.63%)
16,045
(0.44%)
29,366
(5.60%)
109,263
(3.61%)
1,221,321
(8.86%)
Hinduism 2,708
(0.06%)
11,149
(0.50%)
16,064
(0.44%)
288
(0.05%)
7,369
(0.24%)
37,578
(0.27%)
Buddhism 237,741
(5.41%)
2,301
(0.10%)
11,675
(0.32%)
3,879
(0.74%)
12,477
(0.41%)
268,073
(1.94%)
Confucianism 29,737
(0.68%)
414
(0.02%)
236
(0.01%)
175
(0.03%)
905
(0.03%)
31,467
(0.23%)
Other religions 2,907
(0.07%)
138,419
(6.26%)
16,465
(0.45%)
25
(0.00%)
824
(0.03%)
158,640
(1.35%)
Not Stated 671
(0.01%)
220
(0.01%)
3
(0.00%)
454
(0.09%)
1,497
(0.05%)
2,845
(0.02%)
Not Asked 10,279
(0.23%)
4,239
(0.19%)
12,308
(0.34%)
2,633
(0.50%)
12,903
(0.43%)
42,362
(0.31%)
Total 4,395,983
(100%)
2,212,089
(100%)
3,626,616
(100%)
524,656
(100%)
3,028,487
(100%)
13,787,831
(100%)

See also

References

  1. ^ Badan Pusat Statistik, Jakarta, 2021.
  2. ^ a b "Kalimantan". Britannica. Retrieved 2008-02-26.
  3. ^ "Indonesia president proposes to move capital to Borneo | Reuters". Reuters. 2021-07-16. Archived from the original on 2021-07-16. Retrieved 2022-07-01.
  4. ^ "Nusantara will replace Jarkarta as the new capital of Indonesia". 18 January 2022.
  5. ^ "Central Kalimantan Province". archipelago fastfact. Retrieved 13 October 2014.
  6. ^ "Notice historique du royaume Banjarmasin (Bornéo) par M. le Baron T. Van Capellen, lieutenant d'artillerie , aide-de-camp de S. Exc. le gouverneur-général des indes néerlandaises" [Historical record of the Banjarmasin Kingdom (Borneo) by Baron T. Van Capellen, lieutenant of artillery, aide-de-camp of His Excellency, the Governor General of the Dutch Indies]. Le Moniteur des Indes-Orientales et Occidentales [The Monitor of the East and West Indies] (in French). The Hague, Netherlands: Belinfant Brothers. 1847. pp. 164.
  7. ^ "A Discourse Delivered at a Meeting of the Society of Arts and Sciences in Batavia, on the Twenty-fourth day of April 1813, being the Anniversary of the Institution, by the Honorable Thomas Stamford Raffles, President.". Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap, der Kunsten en Wetenschappen [Treatises of the Society of Arts and Sciences in Batavia]. Vol. 7. Batavia, Dutch East Indies: A. H. Hubbard. 1814. p. 21.
  8. ^ a b Badan Pusat Statistik, Jakarta, 2021.
  9. ^ "Department of Economic Planning and Development – Population". www.depd.gov.bn. Retrieved 2017-12-12.
  10. ^ "Indonesia General Info". Geohive.com. Archived from the original on 2009-10-15. Retrieved 2009-08-11.
  11. ^ "Forensic Architecture". forensic-architecture.org. Retrieved 2023-07-05.
  12. ^ "Explainer: What is ecocide?". Eco-Business. 2022-08-04. Retrieved 2023-07-05.
  13. ^ Aida, Melly; Tahar, Abdul Muthalib; Davey, Orima (2023), Perdana, Ryzal; Putrawan, Gede Eka; Saputra, Bayu; Septiawan, Trio Yuda (eds.), "Ecocide in the International Law: Integration Between Environmental Rights and International Crime and Its Implementation in Indonesia", Proceedings of the 3rd Universitas Lampung International Conference on Social Sciences (ULICoSS 2022), vol. 740, Paris: Atlantis Press SARL, pp. 572–584, doi:10.2991/978-2-38476-046-6_57, ISBN 978-2-38476-045-9, retrieved 2023-07-05
  14. ^ "Penduduk Indonesia menurut Provinsi 1971, 1980, 1990, 1995, 2000 dan 2010". Archived from the original on 2013-07-01. Retrieved 2013-07-17.
  15. ^ "Jumlah Penduduk Menurut Agama" (in Indonesian). Ministry of Religious Affairs. 31 August 2022. Retrieved 29 October 2023.