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Lampung
Province of Lampung
Coat of arms of Lampung
Nickname(s): 
Bumi Ruwa Jurai (lit. 'Land of the Two indigenous peoples (Lampung and Abung)'),[1] Bumi Tapis (lit. 'Land of Tapis')
Motto(s): 
Sang Bumi Ruwa Jurai (lit. 'One Land, Two indigenous peoples (Lampung and Abung)')[1]
Anthem: Sang Bumi Ruwa Jurai
Location of Lampung in Indonesia
Location of Lampung in Indonesia
OpenStreetMap
Coordinates: 5°27′S 105°16′E / 5.450°S 105.267°E / -5.450; 105.267Coordinates: 5°27′S 105°16′E / 5.450°S 105.267°E / -5.450; 105.267
Capital
and largest city
Bandar Lampung
Established18 March 1964
Government
 • BodyLampung Provincial Government
 • GovernorArinal Djunaidi
 • Vice GovernorChusnunia Chalim
Area
 • Total35,376 km2 (13,659 sq mi)
 • Rank22nd in Indonesia
Highest elevation
(Mount Pesagi)
2,262 m (7,421 ft)
Population
 (mid 2021 estimate)[2]
 • Total9,081,792
 • Rank8th in Indonesia
 • Density260/km2 (660/sq mi)
Demonym(s)Lampungese (in English)
Ulun Lappung (in Lampung Nyo)
Orang Lampung (in Indonesian)
Demographics
 • Ethnic groups64.17% Javanese
13.56% Lampung
11.88% Sundanese
5.64% Malay
1.38 Balinese
3.37% Others[3][4]
 • Religion95.48% Islam (predominantly Sunni)
2.42% Christianity
- 1.51%Protestant
- 0.91% Catholicism
1.49% Hinduism (predominantly Balinese Hinduism)
0.32% Buddhism
0.01% Confucianism
0.01% Others
0.27% Unknown[5]
 • LanguagesIndonesian (official)
Lampung and Abung (regional)
Javanese, Komering, Sundanese, Balinese
Time zoneUTC+7 (Indonesia Western Time)
ISO 3166 codeID-LA
HDIIncrease 0.695 (Medium)
HDI rank24th in Indonesia (2019)
GRP NominalIncrease$25.51 billion[6]
GDP PPP (2019)Increase$83.37 billion[6]
GDP rank11th in Indonesia (2019)
Nominal per capitaUS$ 3,019 (2019)[6]
PPP per capitaUS$ 9,925 (2019)[6]
Per capita rank22nd in Indonesia (2019)
Websitelampungprov.go.id

Lampung (Lampung:

nirbing
), officially the Province of Lampung (Indonesian: Provinsi Lampung) is a province of Indonesia. It is located on the southern tip of the island of Sumatra. It has a short border with the province of Bengkulu to the northwest, and a longer border with the province of South Sumatra to the north. It is the original home of the Lampung people, who speak their own language, and possess their own written script. Its capital is Bandar Lampung.

The area that forms part of the Islamic Kingdom in Sumatra in the early 13th century AD to the 20th century[7]. Hindu and Buddhist archaeological remnants have been found in Palas, Talang Padang, Liwa, Indonesia and Mount Pesagi inactive. In the 13th century, Lampung was part of a Muslim country[7]. It became part of the Republic of Indonesia in 1945[7].

Most populations are involved in agriculture Rubber, Coffee, Soybeans, Sweet Potatoes, Corn, Peanuts, and palm oil are produced. Industries include wood carvings, food processing, fabric weaving, mattresses and baskets[7].

The province covers a land area of 35,376 sq.km and had a population of 7,608,405 at the 2010 census, 9,007,848 at the 2020 census,[8] and 9,081,792 according to the official estimates for mid 2021,[9]with three-quarters of that being descendants of Javanese, Madurese, and Balinese migrants. These migrants came from more densely populated islands, in search of available land, as well as being part of the national government's Indonesian transmigration program, of which Lampung was one of the earliest and most significant transmigration destinations.

On 10 May 2005, a 6.4 magnitude earthquake struck the province. In 1883, the volcano of Krakatoa, located on an island in the Sunda Strait, suffered one of the most violent volcanic eruptions in recorded history, with disastrous consequences for the area and elsewhere, including estimates of human fatalities in the tens of thousands, and worldwide temperature and other weather effects for years.

Historical population
YearPop.±%
1971 2,777,008—    
1980 4,624,785+66.5%
1990 6,017,573+30.1%
1995 6,657,759+10.6%
2000 6,741,439+1.3%
2010 7,608,405+12.9%
2015 8,109,601+6.6%
2020 9,007,848+11.1%
2021 9,081,792+0.8%
Source: Badan Pusat Statistik 2019

History

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In the 7th century, word spread throughout China of a region located in the far south (Namphang) known as "Tolang Pohwang", it is referred to Tulang Bawang Regency or regions alongside the Tulang Bawang River. It is possible that Lampung was part of the Srivijaya empire, with its regional capital in Jambi, which controlled most of Southeast Asia until the 11th century era. The Srivijayans came to Lampung in search of gold and amber, two of the province's natural resources.

This history is substantiated by both unearthed relics and the discovery of the Palas Pasemah inscriptions and the Batu Bedil inscriptions in the Tenggamus region that trace back to Srivijayan times and civilization.[citation needed] Other, smaller kingdoms like Tulang Bawang (name still extant as a regency in the province) and Skala Brak also existed during the 7th to 8th centuries CE. The former was centered around the Tulang Bawang River, hence the name.

The entry of the Banten Sultanate in Lampung in the 16th century marked the beginning of the spread of Islam in the region. Lampung is known for pepper which at that time was in high demand. At that time, the Dutch began pressing for control of the region.[10] In the 1930s Lampung still accounted for 30% of the world's pepper production.[11]

The control of pepper production exercised by the Banten Sultanate made Lampung one of the most prosperous harbors in the archipelago. Similarly, pepper plants also attracted migrants from Europe as employees of trading companies. It was in 1610 that the Dutch East India Company established a trading post in Banten and later in the 17th century began the forceful pepper cultivation in Lampung to increase its already existing production.[12] The area was part of the Banten Sultanate until it was annexed by the Dutch in 1752, when it became known as the Residentie Lampoengse Districten.[13] It became part of the Dutch East Indies.

Under Dutch rule, transmigration programs were implemented. This program involved the migration of people from Java to Lampung. It was quite well-received and many residents of Java moved to the transmigration sites located in the eastern region of Lampung.[citation needed] The program was expanded after Indonesian independence in the 1960s. The Javanese brought cultural devices to Lampung, such as the gamelan and wayang. Balinese[when?] also came to Lampung to follow the transmigration program. The presence of migrants from other regions in Lampung has made this region culturally diverse. Ethnic diversity has become a tourist attraction in itself, with the added potential of nature and cultural tourism. Numerous art studios in the area act as a preserver of indigenous art and culture.

Geography

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Anak Krakatau

Lampung Province has an area of 35,376.50 km2 (13,658.94 sq mi) and is located between the latitudes of 105°45'-103°48 'E and 3°45'-6°45'S. The province borders the Sunda Strait to the southeast and the Java Sea to the east. There are islands within Lampung Province, such: as Daro, Legundi, Tegal, Sebuku, Ketagian, Sebesi, Poahawang, Krakatoa, Putus, and Tabuan. These islands are located mostly in the Bay of Lampung. Pisang Island lies at the entrance to the Regency of West Lampung.

Lampung's natural terrain varies depending on the region. Along the coast in the west and the south is an area of rolling hills connected to the Bukit Barisan mountain range, running throughout Sumatra from north to south. In the center of the province is mostly lowland. Close to the coast in the east, along with the shores of the Java Sea, further north, is the great waters.[clarification needed]

The mountains situated in Lampung by height include:

The rivers that flow in Lampung by length and catchment area (CA) are:

Forests in the lowlands have been exhausted after being appropriated for agricultural development, which is needed for the migrants constantly entering this area. Timber forest products are exported abroad. Some forests remain in the area of Bukit Barisan Selatan.

Cities and towns in the province of Lampung with a height of 50 meters above sea level are: Tandjungkarang (96 m [315 ft]), Kedaton (100 m [330 ft]), Metro (53 m [174 ft]), Gisting (480 m [1,570 ft]), State Sakti (100 m [330 ft]), Pringsewu (50 m [160 ft]), Pekalongan (50 m [160 ft]), Batang (65 m [213 ft]), Punggur (50 m [160 ft]), Padang Queen (56 m [184 ft]), Wonosobo (50 m [160 ft]), Kedondong (80 m [260 ft]), Sidomulyo (75 m [246 ft]), Kasui (200 m [660 ft]), Sri Menanti (320 m [1,050 ft]) and Liwa (850 m [2,790 ft]).

Administrative divisions

Lampung Province was subdivided as at 2010 into twelve regencies (kabupaten) and two autonomous cities (kota), but a thirteenth regency – West Pesisir Regency – was formed on 25 October 2012 from the west coast part of the West Lampung Regency. These are all listed below with their areas and their populations at the 2010 and 2020 censuses, and at the mid 2021 official estimates.[14]

Name Area
(km2)
Pop'n
census
2010
Pop'n
census
2020
Pop'n
estimate
mid 2021
Capital HDI
2018
Estimates
Bandar Lampung City 118.50 881,801 1,166,070 1,184,950 Bandar Lampung 0.766 (High)
Metro City 68.74 145,471 168,680 169,780 Metro 0.762 (High)
Central Lampung Regency
(Lampung Tengah)
4,789.80 1,170,717 1,460,045 1,477,400 Gunung Sugih 0.697 (Medium)
East Lampung Regency
(Lampung Timur)
5,325.03 951,639 1,110,340 1,118,120 Sukadana 0.690 (Medium)
Mesuji Regency 2,183.98 187,407 227,518 229,770 Mesuji 0.628 (Medium)
North Lampung Regency
(Lampung Utara)
2,725.63 584,277 633,100 634,120 Kotabumi 0.671 (Medium)
Pesawaran Regency 2,243.51 398,848 477,470 481,710 Gedong Tataan 0.649 (Medium)
Pringsewu Regency 625.00 365,369 405,470 406,820 Pringsewu 0.694 (Medium)
South Lampung Regency
(Lampung Selatan)
2,109.74 912,490 1,064,301 1,071,730 Kalianda 0.678 (Medium)
Tanggamus Regency 3,356.61 536,613 640,280 645,810 Kota Agung 0.656 (Medium)
Tulang Bawang Regency 6,851.32 397,906 430,020 430,630 Menggala 0.677 (Medium)
Way Kanan Regency 3,921.63 406,123 473,580 476,980 Blambangan Umpu 0.666 (Medium)
West Lampung Regency
(Lampung Barat)
2,143.17 277,296 302,140 302,750 Liwa 0.667 (Medium)
West Pesisir Regency
(Pesisir Barat)
2,907.23 141,741 162,700 163,640 Krui 0.629 (Medium)
West Tulang Bawang Regency
(Tulang Bawang Barat)
1,201.00 250,707 286,160 287,710 Panaragan Jaya 0.653 (Medium)
Total Province 34,623.80 7,608,405 9,007,850 9,081,792 Bandar Lampung 0.690 (Medium)

Agriculture

Robusta coffee beans, a type of coffee bean produced in Lampung
Robusta coffee beans, a type of coffee bean produced in Lampung

Major crops in the region include robusta coffee beans, cocoa beans, coconuts and cloves. This has resulted in a thriving agricultural sector with companies like Nestlé procuring coffee beans from the region. This agriculture has included illegal growing in Bukit Barisan Selatan National Park.[15] In addition, nata de coco is also manufactured in the region by domestic companies like Wong Coco.

Textiles

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A couple from Lampung in traditional outfit during the colonial period.
A couple from Lampung in traditional outfit during the colonial period.

Until the 1920s, Lampung had a rich and varied weaving tradition. Lampung weaving used a supplementary weft technique which enabled colored silk or cotton threads to be superimposed on a plainer cotton background. The most prominent Lampung textile was the Palepai, ownership of which was restricted to the Lampung aristocracy of the Kalianda Bay area.[16]

There were two types of smaller clothes, known as tatibin and tampan, which could be owned and used by all levels of Lampungese society. Weaving technologies were spread throughout Lampung. High-quality weavings were produced by the Paminggir, Krui, Abung and Pesisir peoples. Production was particularly prolific among the people of the Kalianda Bay area in the south and the Krui aristocracy in the north.

Lampung textiles, Palepai, tatebin and tampan were called 'ship cloths' because ships are a common motif.[17] The ship motif represents the transition from one realm of life to the next, for instance from boyhood to manhood or from being single to married, and also represents the final transition to the afterlife.[16]

Traditionally, Lampung textiles were used as part of religious ceremonies such as weddings and circumcisions. For instance, Palepai cloths were used as long ceremonial wall-hangings behind the bridal party in aristocratic marriages. The smaller, more humble tampan cloth was exchanged between families at the time of weddings.

Production of fine cloth blossomed in the late nineteenth century as Lampung grew rich on pepper production, but the devastating eruption of Krakatoa in 1883 destroyed many weaving villages in the Kalianda area.[18][failed verification] By the 1920s the increasing importance of Islam and the collapse of the pepper trade brought production to a halt.[19] Today Lampung textiles are highly prized by collectors.[citation needed]

Tourism

Although tourism is not Lampung Province's main source of income, the administration has attempted to boost tourism through many ways, mainly from beaches, such as Flamboyant Tanjung Setia. This attraction seeks to draw tourists to Tanjung Setia Beach, which has a natural panoramic view and a spot for surfing. There is also Pahawang Island and Sari Ringgung beach, which is also a popular tourist destination in Lampung. Lampung also has a national park, the Way Kambas National Park, which attracts many domestic and international tourists.[20] In 2010, four-hundred thousand tourists visited Lampung Province, including ten thousand foreign tourists mainly from Australia and New Zealand.[21]

Way Kambas National Park is a national park and elephant sanctuary in the district of Labuhan Ratu, East Lampung. In addition to Way Kambas, another elephant school (Elephant Training Centre) can also be found in Minas, Riau. The number of Sumatran elephants (Elephas maximus sumatranus) living in the region has decreased. Way Kambas National Park was established in 1985 as the first elephant school in Indonesia and is expected to become a center for elephant conservation in taming, training, breeding and conservation. Until now, this PKG has trained about three hundred elephants that have been deployed to other parts of the country.[citation needed]

In recent years, the province has become largely popular for snorkeling and diving. Many domestic tourists, as well as international ones from various diving communities, visit the spots the province offers, such as: Pantai Ringgung, Pulau Tegal, Pulau Pahawang, Pulau Kelagian, Pulau Balak, Pulau Mahitam, and Tanjung Putus.

Demographics

Melinting, Traditional dance in Lampung
Melinting, Traditional dance in Lampung

Lampung's three major ethnic groups are the Javanese, Lampungese and Sundanese. The Lampungese are the native ethnic group of the province. Languages used in the province include Indonesian (official), Javanese, Sundanese, Balinese, Minangkabau and Lampung.

Religion

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A traditional mosque in Lampung
A traditional mosque in Lampung

Religion in Lampung[22]

  Islam (95.48%)
  Protestantism (1.51%)
  Hinduism (1.49%)
  Roman Catholic (0.91%)
  Buddhism (0.32%)
  Confucianism (0.01%)
  Others (0.01%)
  Unknown (0.27%)

Transport

Land

In the province of Lampung, the Bakauheni-Terbanggi Besar Toll Road spans from Bakauheni in South Lampung to Terbanggi Besar in Central Lampung along 140.9 kilometres (87.6 mi) was completed in March 2019.[23] The toll road has been under construction since April 2015.[24] As for the cost of development, is predicted to reach Rp 53 trillion, including land acquisition and construction of approximately Rp 30 trillion.[25] North of Terbanggi Besar to Kayu Agung (South-Sumatra), another toll road is under construction as part of the Trans-Sumatra toll road. This part will be finished in 2019.[26] Lampung has a bus terminal at Terminal Rajabasa which is one of the biggest and busiest in Sumatra and Lampung, as well as the Talbot terminal in Bandar Lampung. Rajabasa airport's terminal at close range, intermediate, and far (AKAP) which has bus routes to cities in Sumatra and Java.

In addition to these two terminals, there are bus terminals located throughout the capital district in Lampung.

Sea

In the province, there are several ports. The Port of Panjang is an import-export harbor and Port Srengsem which serves the traffic coal distribution from South Sumatra to Java. About 92 kilometres (57 mi) south of Bandar Lampung, lies the port city of Bakauheni, precisely at the southern tip of Sumatra. Located at the southern end of the Trans-Sumatran Highway, the Bakauheni port connects Sumatra to the Port of Merak in Java via sea transportation.

Air

Radin Inten II International Airport is the only airport in the province. It serves flights to Banten, Jakarta, Majalengka, Medan, Bandung, Palembang, Semarang, Surabaya, Surakarta, Yogyakarta and more.

Rail

Lampung Province has a railway line between Bandar Lampung - Palembang, which is part of a railway network in South Sumatra operated by Kereta Api Indonesia Divre IV Tanjung Karang, located in Bandar Lampung. Bandar Lampung - Palembang railway line holds forty stations along 387,872 km (241,012 mi) stretches between Tanjung Karang station in Bandar Lampung to Kertapati station in Palembang.

Sports

The 15,000-capacity Pahoman Stadium is the main stadium in Lampung. The association football stadium opened in 1977.[27]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "Kenali Motto Kabupaten/Kota di Provinsi Lampung".
  2. ^ Badan Pusat Statistik, Jakarta, 2022.
  3. ^ "Kewarganegaraan, Suku Bangsa, Agama, dan Bahasa Sehari-hari Penduduk Indonesia" (pdf). www.bps.go.id. pp. 36–41. Retrieved 22 September 2021.
  4. ^ Ananta, Aris (2015). Demography of Indonesia's Ethnicity. Evi Nurvidya Arifin, M. Sairi Hasbullah, Nur Budi Handayani, Agus Pramono. SG: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. ISBN 978-981-4519-88-5. OCLC 1011165696.
  5. ^ "Peringatan".
  6. ^ a b c d "Indonesia". Badan Pusat Statistik. Retrieved 20 May 2020.
  7. ^ a b c d https://www.britannica.com/place/Lampung
  8. ^ Badan Pusat Statistik, Jakarta, 2021.
  9. ^ Badan Pusat Statistik, Jakarta, 2022.
  10. ^ Changes of Regime And Social Dynamics in West Java: Society, State And the Outer World of Banten, 1750-1830
  11. ^ Safitri, Myrna Asnawati (2010). "9. Social forest in Langkawana: from license to supervision" (PDF). Forest tenure in Indonesia: the socio-legal challenges of securing communities' rights (PhD thesis). Leiden University.
  12. ^ Southeast Asia: A Historical Encyclopedia, from Angkor Wat to East Timor, Volume 1
  13. ^ "Lampung Arms". www.hubert-herald.nl. Retrieved 24 July 2016.
  14. ^ Badan Pusat Statistik, Jakarta, 2022.
  15. ^ Leow, Claire (19 January 2007). "Nestlé to scrutinize Indonesia coffee amid wildlife-endangerment fears". International Herald Tribune. Archived from the original on 22 January 2007.
  16. ^ a b "Ceremonial Hanging (palepai)". Pacific Islands art. Dallas Museum of Art. Archived from the original on 4 October 2006. Retrieved 26 September 2007.
  17. ^ Gittinger, Mattiebelle (1979). Splendid Symbols: Textiles and Tradition in Indonesia. Washington DC: The Textile Museum. p. 157. LCCN 79-50373. OCLC 5100926.
  18. ^ Gittinger, Mattiebelle S. (1979). "SOUTH SUMATRAN SHIP CLOTHS" (PDF). p. 15. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 February 2016.
  19. ^ Sudha Rajagopalan; Navigating Culture: Trade and Transformation in the Island State. The Permanent Exhibition on Indonesia. Museum Volkenkunde, Leiden.
  20. ^ "THE 15 BEST Things to Do in Lampung - 2021 (with Photos)". Tripadvisor. Retrieved 12 May 2021.
  21. ^ "Waspada Online – Pusat Berita dan Informasi Medan Sumut Aceh". Waspada.co.id. Retrieved 24 July 2016.
  22. ^ "Peringatan".
  23. ^ "Presiden Jokowi Resmikan Tol Bakauheni-Terbanggi Besar, Terpanjang di Indonesia" (in Indonesian). 8 March 2019.
  24. ^ "Presiden Jokowi Hari ini Akan Lakukan Groundbreaking Jalan Tol Bakauheni". Tribunnews.com.
  25. ^ Prabawati Sriningrum (9 January 2015). "Pemerintah Bangun Tol Bakauheni-Terbanggi Besar di 2015". Okezone (in Indonesian).
  26. ^ "Addendum for Terbanggi Besar Toll road signed". 11 January 2019.
  27. ^ "Pahoman Stadium - Soccerway". int.soccerway.com.

Further reading