Timor Timur (Indonesian)
Timor Lorosa'e (Tetum)
|Motto: Houri Otas, Houri Wain, Oan Timor Asswa'in (Tetum)|
"From the past and from today, we are Timorese warriors"
|Status||Province of Indonesia (de facto)|
and largest city
|Recognised regional languages||Balinese, Fataluku, Javanese, Tetum, Sundanese, Uab Meto, other indigenous languages|
|Government||Overseas province within a unitary semi-presidential constitutional republic, under military occupation (de jure)
Province within a unitary presidential constitutional republic (under a dominant-party authoritarian military dictatorship until 1998) (de facto)
|President of Indonesia|
|B. J. Habibie|
• 1976–1978 (first)
|Arnaldo dos Reis Araújo [id]|
• 1992–1999 (last)
|José Abílio Osório Soares|
• 1976–1982 (first)
|Francisco Xavier Lopes da Cruz [id]|
• 1998–1999 (last)
|Musiran Darmosuwito [id]|
|Legislature||East Timor Regional People's Representative Council (DPRD Timor Timur)|
|Historical era||New Order|
|17 July 1976|
|12 November 1991|
|30 August 1999|
|25 October 1999|
|15,007 km2 (5,794 sq mi)|
• Water (%)
|Currency||Indonesian rupiah (Rp) (IDR)|
|Time zone||UTC+8 (Central Indonesia Time)|
|Calling code||+62 377 (Viqueque)|
+62 378 (Pante Makasar)
+62 379 (Suai)
+62 390 (Dili)
+62 394 (Maliana)
+62 396 (Lospalos)
+62 398 (Ermera)
+62 399 (Baucau)
|ISO 3166 code||ID-TT|
|Today part of||East Timor|
East Timor (Indonesian: Timor Timur) was a de facto province of Indonesia that existed between 1976 and 1999 during the Indonesian occupation of East Timor. Its territory corresponded to the previous Portuguese Timor and to the present-day independent country of Timor-Leste.
From 1702 to 1975, East Timor was an overseas territory of Portugal, called "Portuguese Timor". In 1974, Portugal initiated a gradual decolonisation process of its remaining overseas territories, including Portuguese Timor. During the process, a civil conflict between the different Timorese parties erupted. In 1975, Indonesia invaded East Timor and in 1976, it formally annexed the territory, declaring it as its 27th province and renaming it "Timor Timur". The United Nations, however, did not recognise the annexation, continuing to consider Portugal as the legitimate administering power of East Timor. Following the end of Indonesian occupation in 1999, as well as a United Nations administered transition period, East Timor became formally independent of Portugal in 2002 and adopted the official name of Timor-Leste.
Main article: Indonesian occupation of East Timor
From 1702 to 1975, East Timor was an overseas territory of Portugal, lately being officially the Portuguese overseas province of Timor, usually referred as "Portuguese Timor". Following the "Carnation Revolution" of 1974, the new Government of Portugal initiated a gradual decolonization process of its overseas territories, including Portuguese Timor. During the process, a civil conflict between the several Timorese political parties erupted, with the left-wing Revolutionary Front for an Independent East Timor (Fretilin) prevailing and being able to control the capital Dili, obliging the Portuguese governor and his staff to move his seat to the Atauro Island.
On the 28 November 1975, Fretilin unilaterally declared the independence of the then Portuguese Timor, calling it República Democrática de Timor-Leste (Portuguese for "Democratic Republic of East Timor"). Portugal did not however recognize that independence, with the Portuguese governor continuing to be present and formally administering the province from Atauro, although having a limited de facto authority over the remaining territory of East Timor.
Nine days later, Indonesia began the invasion of the majority of the territory of East Timor. Following the invasion, the Portuguese governor and his staff left Atauro aboard two Portuguese warships. As a statement of Portuguese sovereignty, Portugal maintained those warships patrolling the waters around East Timor until May 1976.
On 17 July 1976, Indonesia formally annexed East Timor as its 27th province and changed its official name to Timor Timur, the Indonesian translation of "East Timor". The use of the Portuguese language was then forbidden, as it was seen as a relic of colonisation.
The annexation was recognized by a few countries, the most relevant being the United States and Australia, but was not recognized by Portugal, the majority of other countries and the United Nations. The United Nations continued to recognise Portugal as the legitimate administering power of East Timor.
The Indonesians left in 1999 and East Timor came under the administration of the United Nations.
After the re-establishment of the independence of Timor-Leste in 2002, the East Timorese government requested that the name Timor-Leste be used in place of "East Timor". This is to avoid the Indonesian term and its reminder of the Indonesian occupation.
As with all provinces of Indonesia, executive authority was vested in a Governor (Gubernur) and Vice-Governor (Wakil Gubernur) elected by the Regional People's Representative Council (Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat Daerah, DPRD) every five years. Legislative authority was vested in the DPRD, both in province and regency level.
For a more comprehensive list, see List of colonial governors of Portuguese Timor.
List of Governors of East Timor Province (Indonesian: Gubernur Provinsi Timor Timur) from 1976 to 1999:
|No.||Portrait||Officeholders||Tenure||Notes||Head of state|
|130||Arnaldo dos Reis Araújo [id]
|3 August 1976||19 September 1978|
President of Indonesia
(27 March 1968 – 21 May 1998)
B. J. Habibie
President of Indonesia
(21 May 1998 – 20 October 1999)
|131||Guilherme Maria Gonçalves [id]
|19 September 1978||17 September 1981|
|132||Mário Viegas Carrascalão
|18 September 1981||18 September 1992|
|133||José Abílio Osório Soares
|18 September 1992||19 October 1999|
Composition of the Regional People's Representative Council between 1980 and 1999:
|Regional People's Representative Council of Timor Timur|
The province was divided into thirteen regencies (kabupaten) and one administrative city (kota administratif). These are listed below along with their districts (kecamatan), per December 1981: