Party of Functional Groups
Partai Golongan Karya
AbbreviationPartai Golkar
General ChairmanAirlangga Hartarto[1]
Secretary-GeneralLodewijk Freidrich Paulus[2]
Founded20 October 1964; 59 years ago (20 October 1964)
NewspaperSuara Karya (1971–2016)
Youth wingAMPG (Golkar Party Young Force)
Women's wingKPPG (Golkar Party Women's Corps)
Labour wing
Membership (2023)839,187[3]
National conservatism[4]
Economic liberalism[6]
Indonesian nationalism[6]
Catch-all party[9]
During the New Order:
Big tent[10]
Right-wing authoritarianism[11][12]
Political positionCentre-right[13][14][15] to right-wing[a][11][12]
During the New Order:
National affiliationOnward Indonesia Coalition
Advanced Indonesia Coalition
SloganSuara Golkar, Suara Rakyat
(Golkar's Voice, People's Voice)
AnthemMars Partai Golkar
(Golkar Party March)
Ballot number4
DPR seats
85 / 575
DPRD I seats
309 / 2,232
DPRD II seats
2,412 / 17,340

The Party of Functional Groups (Indonesian: Partai Golongan Karya), often known by its abbreviation Golkar, is a political party in Indonesia. It was founded as the Joint Secretariat of Functional Groups (Indonesian: Sekretariat Bersama Golongan Karya, Sekber Golkar) in 1964, and participated for the first time in national elections in 1971 as Functional Groups. Golkar was not officially a political party until 1999, when it was required to become a party in order to contest elections.

Golkar was the ruling political group from 1971 to 1999, under presidents Suharto and B. J. Habibie. It subsequently joined the ruling coalitions under presidents Abdurrahman Wahid, Megawati Sukarnoputri, and Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono. When President Joko Widodo of the Indonesian Democratic Party of Struggle was elected in 2014, Golkar initially joined an opposition coalition led by former general Prabowo Subianto but in 2016 switched its allegiance to Widodo's government.[16] However, in the last 5 years, elite Golkar cadres have been caught in corruption cases, the KPK's determination of Azis Syamsuddin as a suspect adds to the long list of Golkar Party cadres involved in corruption cases, A number of other Golkar elites had already been arrested by the Corruption Eradication Commission and the Attorney General's Office because they were involved in corruption.[17]



In 1959, President Sukarno introduced his concept of Guided Democracy, in which so-called functional groups would play a role in government in place of political parties. The Indonesian National Armed Forces supported its creation because it believed these groups would balance the growing strength of the Communist Party of Indonesia (PKI). In 1960, Sukarno awarded sectoral groups such as teachers, the Armed Forces and the Indonesian National Police, workers and artists seats in the Mutual Cooperation – People's Representative Council. As some of the members of these functional groups were linked to political parties, this gave political influence to the National Armed Forces. The TNI then established an anti-PKI trade union, the Central Organization of Indonesian Workers, or Soksi (Sentral Organisasi Karyawan Swadiri Indonesia), and used this as the core of an Armed Forces-led Joint Secretariat of Functional Groups, or Sekber Golkar, which was officially established on 20 October 1964.[18] By 1968 there were almost 250 organisations under the Sekber umbrella. On 22 November 1969 they were organized into seven main organizations, or Kino (Kelompok Induk Organisasi), namely Soksi, Kosgoro (Union of Mutual Cooperation Multifunction Organizations), MKGR (Mutual Assistance Families Association), Gerakan Karya Rakyat (People's Working Movement), Ormas Hankam (Defense and Security Mass Organizations), Professi (professional organizations), and Gerakan Pembangunan (Development Movement).[19][20] The Joint Secretariat was one of those organisations moblized against the PKI in the aftermath of the failure of the 30 September Movement in 1965.

Suharto and Golkar

In March 1968, General Suharto was officially elected by the People's Consultative Assembly (MPR) as Indonesia's second president. Because of his military background, Suharto was not affiliated with any political parties. Suharto had never expressed much interest in party politics. However, if he were to be elected for a second term as president, he needed to align himself with a political party. Originally, Suharto had shown interest in aligning with the Indonesian National Party (PNI) – the party of his predecessor, Sukarno.[21] But in seeking to distance himself from the old regime, Suharto settled on Golkar.

Suharto then ordered his closest associate, Ali Murtopo, to transform Golkar and turn it into an electoral machine. Under Murtopo, and with Suharto's supervision, Golkar was turned from a federation of NGOs into a political party. Under Suharto, Golkar continued to portray itself as a non-ideological entity, without favoritism or political agendas. It promised to focus on "economic development" and "stability" rather than a specific ideological goal.[22] Golkar also began identifying itself with the government, encouraging civil servants to vote for it as a sign of loyalty to the government.

Murtopo claimed that workers were a functional group, which by rights ought to be subsumed under Golkar: "thus all unions were united into a single body answerable to the state. The population was no longer there to be mobilised by political parties, rather, the people were the 'floating mass', or the 'ignorant mass', who needed firm guidance so they would not be lured into politics. In order to "Golkar-ize" the nation, Murtopo sometimes used the military and gangs of young thugs to eliminate political competition.[23]

Golkar was declared on 4 February 1970, that it would participate in the 1971 legislative elections. Suharto's alignment with Golkar paid dividends when Golkar won 62% of the votes and an overwhelming majority in the People's Representative Council (DPR). The members of the DPR also doubled as members of the MPR and thus Suharto was easily re-elected to a second term as president in March 1973.

The 1971 legislative election was a success for Golkar and Suharto. Strengthened by his re-election, Suharto quickly began tightening his grip on Golkar. Control was increased in October 1973 with the implementation of a less democratic and more centralized system headed by a chairman. In October 1978, after his re-election to a 3rd term, Suharto further consolidated his control of Golkar by being elected chairman of the executive board (Ketua Dewan Pembina), a position whose authority supersedes even the party chairman. From this position, Suharto had the supreme power in Golkar while leaving the day-to-day running of Golkar to the chairman.

Aside from being dominated by Suharto, Golkar was also an organization dominated by the Armed Forces. Out of the four people that served as Golkar Chairman during the New Order, three had a military background as officers. It was only in the last years of Suharto's rule that Harmoko, a civilian, was elected as Golkar chairman.

During the New Order, Golkar often offered a position to Suharto's supporters, such as Abdullah Nur, Ustaz Mil, and Zakaria bin Muhammad Amin.[24] But due to Golkar is not an Islamic party, Zakaria rejected the position, even though her daughter, Zaharah, would later served at People Representative Council in Bengkalis representing Golkar.[25]

Electoral dominance in the New Order

Map of the largest vote share per province in Indonesia's elections from 1971 to 2019 showing the dominance of Golkar (in yellow).

Golkar continued to dominate Indonesian politics well beyond the 1971 legislative elections. In subsequent New Order legislative elections, Golkar won 62% (1977), 64% (1982), 73% (1987), 68% (1992), and 74% (1997). Golkar's dominance was so absolute that for most of the Suharto era, Indonesia was effectively a one-party state. Suharto was able to pass bills without any meaningful opposition, and was able to form a Cabinet which consisted only of Golkar appointees.

After 1973, Suharto banned all political parties except for the Indonesian Democratic Party (PDI) and the United Development Party (PPP). These two parties were nominally permitted to contest the reign of Golkar. In practice, however, Golkar permitted only a semblance of competition. Elections were "exercises in controlled aggression", and were ritualized performances of "choice", in which local authorities were to obey directives about Golkar's electoral results in their area. A system of rewards, punishments, and violence meted out by thugs helped to guarantee cooperation across the archipelago, and the perpetual reelection of Golkar.[26]

After the 1977 and 1997 legislative elections, there were claims of electoral fraud launched by the party, who together with Golkar were the only legal political parties after 1973. There were also claims of Golkar members intimidating the electorate to vote for Golkar.

Organisation and factions

During the New Order Golkar was formally divided into seven (eight since 1971) organizations, called Main Organization Groups (Kelompok Induk Organisasi), or KINO. These were:[19][20]

However, Golkar during this era was also de facto divided into three factions:

These three factions worked closely together to gain consensus and in the case of nominating a presidential candidate it was the heads of these three factions who went to inform the candidate (which until 1998 was Suharto) that he had just been nominated as Golkar's presidential candidate. The three factions did not always work together however. In 1988, the ABRI faction was unable to nominate Sudharmono as vice president. The factions disappeared along with the fall of the New Order.

After Suharto: Reformasi and beyond

Main article: Post-Suharto era

With the Fall of Suharto in May 1998, Golkar quickly sought to adapt and reform itself. In July 1998, a Special National Congress was held to elect the next chairman of Golkar. The congress was dogged by protests by both pro-Suharto and anti-Suharto groups. Suharto himself did not come to the congress. In the contest that followed, Akbar Tanjung emerged as the new chairman of Golkar after beating Army General Edi Sudrajat. It was the first time that a Golkar chairman was elected democratically rather than appointed by the chairman of the executive board. Under Akbar, the executive board was abolished and replaced by an advisory board which had considerably less authority.

In 1999, Golkar lost its first democratic legislative election to Megawati Sukarnoputri's PDI-P. Golkar won 20% of the votes and was the runner-up in the legislative elections. Despite losing these elections Golkar was still able to secure the Tanjung's election as Head of the DPR. October 1999 would see the MPR assemble for its General Session during which a president and a vice president would be elected. It was widely expected that Golkar would support Jusuf Habibie in his bid for a second term as president. Before Habibie could be nominated, however, he was required to deliver an accountability speech: a report delivered by the President to the MPR at the end of his term. The MPR would not ratify the accountability speech and it was revealed that some Golkar members had voted against ratifying the speech.

Although PDI-P had won the legislative elections, Golkar joined forces with the Central Axis, a political coalition put together by MPR Chairman Amien Rais, to nominate and successfully secure the election of Abdurrahman Wahid as president. Golkar, however, was unable to stop the election of Megawati as vice president.

Golkar was rewarded for its support of Wahid by having its members appointed to ministerial positions in Wahid's Cabinet. Much like those who had supported Wahid, Golkar would grow disillusioned with Wahid. In April 2000, Jusuf Kalla, a Golkar member who held position as Minister of Industries and Trade was sacked from his position. When Golkar inquired as to why this was done, Wahid alleged it was because of corruption. In July 2001, Golkar, along with its Central Axis allies, held an MPR Special Session to replace President Wahid with Megawati.

By 2004, the reformist sentiments that had led PDI-P to victory in the 1999 legislative elections had died down. Many Indonesians were disappointed with what Reformasi had achieved thus far and were also disillusioned with Megawati's presidency, enabling Golkar to emerge victorious in the 2004 legislative elections with 21% of the votes.

Unlike the other political parties who had one person as their presidential candidate from the start, Golkar had five. In April 2004, Golkar held a national convention to decide who would become Golkar's candidate for president. These five were Akbar Tanjung, General Wiranto, Lieutenant-General Prabowo, Aburizal Bakrie, and Surya Paloh. Akbar won the first round of elections but Wiranto emerged as the winner in the second round. Wiranto chose Solahuddin Wahid as his running mate.

The 2004 Presidential Election was held on 5 July. The first round was won by Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono and Yusuf Kalla who faced Megawati and Hasyim Muzadi in the September 2004 run-off. Wiranto/Wahid came second and there were allegations of disunity within the party with Akbar not fully supporting Wiranto after losing the nomination.

In August 2004 Golkar formed, with PDI-P, PPP, Reform Star Party (PBR) and Prosperous Peace Party (PDS), a national coalition to back Megawati. Further infighting would hamper Golkar in its bid to back Megawati. Fahmi Idris led a group of Golkar members in defecting and threw their support behind Yudhoyono and Kalla. At the Presidential Run-Off in September 2004, Yudhoyono emerged victorious over Megawati to become Indonesia's 6th president. Yusuf Kalla, who had gone his own way back in April 2004, became vice president.

2004 National Congress

Although he had overwhelmingly won the presidency, Yudhoyono was still weak in the DPR. His own Democratic Party had only won 7% in the legislative elections and even combined with other parties who had aligned themselves with the new government, they still had to contend with the legislative muscle of Golkar and PDI-P who now intended to play the role of opposition.

With a National Congress to be held in December 2004, Yudhoyono and Kalla had originally backed Head of DPR Agung Laksono to become Golkar chairman. When Agung was perceived to be too weak to run against Akbar, Yudhoyono and Kalla threw their weight behind Surya Paloh. Finally, when Paloh was perceived to be too weak to run against Akbar, Yudhoyono gave the green light for Kalla to run for the Golkar Chairmanship.

This was a widely controversial move. Up to that point, Yudhoyono had not let members of his administration hold a concurrent position in political parties to prevent the possible abuse of power. There were also complaints by Wiranto who claimed that some months earlier, Yudhoyono had promised to support him if he ran for the Golkar chairmanship.

On 19 December 2004, Kalla became the new Golkar chairman with over 50% of the votes. Akbar, who had expected to win a second term as Golkar chairman, was defeated with 30% of the votes. Agung and Surya, who Yudhoyono and Kalla had backed earlier, became the party vice chairman and the chairman of the advisory board, respectively.

Kalla's new appointment as chairman of Golkar significantly strengthened Yudhoyono's government in Parliament and left the PDI-P as the only major opposition party in the DPR.

2009 National Congress

At the 2009 Congress, held in Pekanbaru, Aburizal Bakrie was elected chairman, winning 269 out of 583 votes, and beating Surya Paloh into second place. Surya Paloh then went on to establish the National Democratic organization, which in turn established the National Democratic Party.[27][28]

Political identites


The 2008 Law on Political Parties states that political parties are allowed to include specific characteristics that reflect their political aspirations, as long as they do not contradict Pancasila and the 1945 Constitution.[29] In March 2023, chairman Airlangga Hartarto described Golkar as a "center" party.[30][31] Outsider views on the party's political orientation vary. Academics and domestic observers classified it as a nationalist party,[32] while their international counterparts described it as a secular-nationalist party.[33] Its political leaning has been described as centrist[34] or centre-right.

Party platforms

Under chairman Aburizal Bakrie, the party has produced a blueprint known as "Vision Indonesia 2045: A Prosperous Nation" with the aim of making Indonesia a developed nation by the centenary of the country's independence in 2045. The plan comprises three stages each lasting a decade. The key strategies in the vision comprise developing Indonesia from the villages, strengthening the role of the state, quality economic growth, equalizing incomes, ensuring even development in all areas, quality education and healthcare, strengthening communities, sustained economic development, upholding the law and human rights, industrial development based on technology, and revitalization of agriculture and trade.

The first decade would lay the foundations for a developed nation, the second would accelerate development and the final decade would see Indonesia become a developed nation. Each stage would have targets for indicators such as economic growth, GDP, and levels of unemployment and poverty.[35]

Indicator 2015–2025 2025–2035 2035–2045
Economic growth 8–9% 10–11% 6–7%
Per capita income US$10,000–12,000 US$21,000–23,000 US$41,000–43,000
Unemployment 4–6% 4% 4%
Poverty ratio 5–8% 2–3% 1–2%
Life expectancy 75 78 82
Gini ratio 0.35 0.31 0.28
Human Development Index 0.80 0.86 0.91


Leadership Dualism

At the end of 2014, there was dualism in management within Golkar, led by Aburizal Bakrie from the Bali National Conference and Agung Laksono from the Jakarta National Conference. In early March 2015, the Ministry of Law and Human Rights of the Republic of Indonesia issued a decree legalizing Golkar led by Agung Laksono. In April 2015, the Jakarta State Administrative Court (PTUN) issued an interim decision to postpone the implementation of a decree issued by the Minister of Law and Human Rights Yasonna Laoly which legalized the management of the Golongan Karya Party in the Agung Laksono camp. On July 10 2015, the four judges who heard the case, namely Arif Nurdu'a, Didik Andy Prastowo, Nurnaeni Manurung and Diah Yulidar decided to reject the lawsuit filed by the General Chair of the Golongan Karya Party resulting from the Bali National Conference, Aburizal Bakrie, regarding the dualism of party management. The decision was taken at a deliberation meeting of the Jakarta PTTUN panel of judges. With the reading of the PTUN decision, the management of the Golongan Karya Party which was later recognized by the court was the result of the Bali National Conference led by Agung Laksono as general chairman and Zainudin Amali as secretary general.[36][37] However, in October 2015, the Supreme Court granted the appeal filed by Golkar as a result of the Bali National Conference led by Aburizal Bakrie. This leadership dualism began to end when an agreement was reached for reconciliation led by the former General Chair of Golkar and Vice President Jusuf Kalla in early 2016. The two camps also agreed to hold an extraordinary national meeting (Munaslub) in mid-2016. This leadership dualism officially ended on May 17 2016 when Setya Novanto was elected as the new General Chair of the Golongan Karya Party[38] during the Golkar National Conference in Nusa Dua, Bali.



Election results

Legislative election results

Election Ballot number Total seats won Total votes Share of votes Outcome of election Party leader
1971 5
236 / 360
34,348,673 62.80%[39] Increase236 seats, Governing group Suprapto Sukowati
1977 2
232 / 360
39,750,096 62.11%[40] Decrease4 seats, Governing group Amir Murtono
1982 2
242 / 360
48,334,724 64.34%[40] Increase10 seats, Governing group Amir Murtono
1987 2
299 / 400
62,783,680 73.11%[40] Increase57 seats, Governing group Sudharmono
1992 2
282 / 400
66,599,331 68.10%[40] Decrease17 seats, Governing group Wahono
1997 2
325 / 400
84,187,907 74.51%[40] Increase43 seats, Governing group Harmoko
1999 33
120 / 500
23,741,749 22.46%[41] Decrease205 seats, Governing coalition Akbar Tandjung
2004 20
128 / 550
24,480,757 21.58%[42] Increase8 seats, Governing coalition Akbar Tandjung
2009 23
106 / 560
15,037,757 14.45%[42] Decrease22 seats, Governing coalition Jusuf Kalla
2014 5
91 / 560
18,432,312 14.75%[43] Decrease15 seats, Opposition (until 2016)
Governing coalition (since 2016)[44]
Aburizal Bakrie
2019 4
85 / 575
17,229,789 12,31%[45] Decrease6 seats, Governing coalition Airlangga Hartarto
2024 4 Airlangga Hartarto

Presidential election results

Election Ballot number Pres. candidate Running mate 1st round
(Total votes)
Share of votes Outcome 2nd round
(Total votes)
Share of votes Outcome
2004 1 Wiranto Salahuddin Wahid 26,286,788 22.15% Eliminated Runoff[46]
2009 3 Jusuf Kalla Wiranto 15,081,814 12.41% Lost
2014 1 Prabowo Subianto[47] Hatta Rajasa 62,576,444 46.85% Lost
2019 01 Joko Widodo Ma'ruf Amin 85,607,362 55.50% Elected
2024 02 Prabowo Subianto Gibran Rakabuming Raka

Note: Bold text indicates Golkar Party member

See also


  1. ^ Golkar is generally a centre-right to right-wing secular party. The Golkar has also been described as liberal, but has far-right[11][12] factions described as elitist and New Order revivalist.
  1. ^ Ibrahim, Gibran Maulana (14 December 2017). "Jadi Ketum Golkar, Airlangga Serahkan Jabatan Menterinya ke Jokowi". detikcom. Retrieved 14 December 2017.
  2. ^ Ramadhani, Nurul Fitri (23 January 2018). "Golkar eyes big prize in 2019 poll". The Jakarta Post. Retrieved 25 January 2018.
  3. ^ "Info Pemilu - Partai GOLKAR". Komisi Pemilihan Umum RI. 6 January 2023. Retrieved 15 February 2023.
  4. ^ "Indonesia's election". The Economist. 24 March 2009.
  6. ^ a b c Bulkin, Nadia. "Indonesia's Political Parties". Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.
  7. ^ "Golkar Ajak Loyalis Soeharto Pulang ke Partai". 2021.
  8. ^ "Golkar Cari Suara Loyalis Soeharto?". 2021.
  9. ^ "Partai Catch-all dan Kartel". 2012.
  10. ^ Editorial of Suara Karya, 1 May 1971
  11. ^ a b c Derbyshire, J. Denis (1990). Political Systems Of The World. Allied Publishers. p. 116.
  12. ^ a b c Anjali; Thomas Bohlken (2016). Democratization from Above. Cambridge University Press. p. 221.
  13. ^ The Report: Indonesia 2008. Oxford Business Group. 2008. p. 13.
  14. ^ The Report: Indonesia 2008. Oxford Business. 13 February 2024. ISBN 978-1-902339-96-2.
  15. ^ Schlogl, Lukas (16 June 2022). Digital Activism and the Global Middle Class: Generation Hashtag. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-000-60302-6.
  16. ^ "Golkar declares support for Jokowi". The Jakarta Post. 28 July 2016 – via
  17. ^ "Berita Terbaru Partai Golkar (Korupsi) -".
  18. ^ "Sejarah Partai Golkar". Golkar official site.
  19. ^ a b Nishihara 1972, p. 17-19.
  20. ^ a b Ricklefs 2008, p. 243.
  21. ^ Elson 2001, p. 186.
  22. ^ Elson 2001, p. 187.
  23. ^ Vickers 2005, p. 162.
  24. ^ Saputra 2020, p. 156.
  25. ^ Saputra 2020, p. 146, 156.
  26. ^ Vickers 2005, p. 175.
  27. ^ "Aburizal Bakrie Elected New Golkar Party Chairman; Tommy Suharto Gets No Votes". Jakarta Globe.
  28. ^ "Surya Paloh told to choose between Golkar, National Democratic". Jakarta Post. 29 July 2011. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016.
  29. ^ Saifulloh 2016, pp. 178: "Akan tetapi, dalam Undang-Undang No.2 Tahun 2008 Tentang Partai Politik kembali dipertegas bahwa asas dan ciri partai politik merupakan penjabaran dari Pancasila dan UUD 1945." Translation: In Law No. 2 of 2008 on Political Parties, it is emphasized that the principles and characteristics of political parties derive from Pancasila and the 1945 Constitution.
  30. ^ Ameliya 2023: "Ketua Umum DPP Partai Golkar Airlangga Hartarto menyampaikan Partai Golkar bukan merupakan partai agama, melainkan partai tengah yang seimbang dalam melakukan kegiatan pemerintahan, kemasyarakatan, dan keagamaan." Translation: Golkar chairman, Airlangga Hartarto, stated that the Golkar Party is not a religious party but rather a centrist party that maintains a balance in carrying out governmental, societal, and religious activities.
  31. ^ The Jakarta Post 2023: "Golkar party chair Airlangga Hartarto said on Sunday that the party stood at the center of ideological spectrum and would promote neither a religious nor a nationalist agenda."
  32. ^ Lee & Paath 2019: "So-called nationalist parties such as the Indonesian Democratic Party of Struggle (PDI-P), Prabowo Subianto's political machine the Great Indonesia Movement Party (Gerindra), Golkar Party, National Democratic Party (NasDem) and the Democratic Party are still the dominant forces in Indonesian politics."
  33. ^ Bulkin 2013: "Golkar, a large secular-nationalist party, is the oldest operating party in Indonesia."
  34. ^ Mietzner 2013, p. 46: "Moreover, Indonesia has now three pivotal center parties — parties that are deeply rooted in the political center and against whose combined strength it would be difficult to govern. These are PDIP, Golkar, and Partai Demokrat (Democratic Party, PD)."
  35. ^ "Visi Negara Kesejahteraan 2045" (PDF) (in Indonesian). Golkar Party. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 April 2015.
  36. ^ Stefanie, Christie. "PTUN Sahkan Golkar Agung, Ical akan Ajukan Kasasi". nasional (in Indonesian). Retrieved 7 February 2024.
  37. ^ Nugroho, Bagus Prihantoro. "Vonis PTUN Jakarta Dianulir, Agung Laksono Ketum Golkar". detiknews (in Indonesian). Retrieved 7 February 2024.
  38. ^ "Profil Ketua Umum Partai Golkar dari Masa ke Masa Halaman all". (in Indonesian). 20 April 2022. Retrieved 7 February 2024.
  39. ^ "Pemilu 1971 – KPU" (in Indonesian). Komisi Pemilihan Umum Republik Indonesia. 21 February 2008. Retrieved 1 August 2018.
  40. ^ a b c d e "Pemilu 1977–1997 – KPU" (in Indonesian). Komisi Pemilihan Umum Republik Indonesia. 21 February 2008. Retrieved 1 August 2018.
  41. ^ "Pemilu 1999 – KPU" (in Indonesian). Komisi Pemilihan Umum Republik Indonesia. 21 February 2008. Retrieved 1 August 2018.
  42. ^ a b "Bab V – Hasil Pemilu – KPU" (PDF) (in Indonesian). Komisi Pemilihan Umum Republik Indonesia. Retrieved 1 August 2018.
  43. ^ "KPU sahkan hasil pemilu, PDIP nomor satu" (in Indonesian). BBC. 10 May 2014. Retrieved 1 August 2018.
  44. ^ "New Golkar Chairman Confirms Support for Jokowi in 2019 Presidential Election". Jakarta Globe.
  45. ^ Zunita Putri (21 May 2019). "KPU Tetapkan Hasil Pileg 2019: PDIP Juara, Disusul Gerindra-Golkar". (in Indonesian). Retrieved 31 May 2019.
  46. ^ "Koalisi Parpol Pendukung Mega-Hasyim Dideklarasikan". (in Indonesian). 19 August 2004. Retrieved 4 August 2018.
  47. ^ Wardah, Fathiyah (19 May 2014). "6 Parpol Dukung Pasangan Prabowo-Hatta dalam Pilpres". Voice of America Indonesia (in Indonesian). Retrieved 1 August 2018.