Pekanbaru
City of Pekanbaru
Kota Pekanbaru
Other transcription(s)
 • Jawiڤكنبارو
From top left to right: Pekanbaru Skyline, Anjung Seni Idrus Tintin, Riau Main Stadium, Soeman HS Library, University of Riau
Flag of Pekanbaru
Coat of arms of Pekanbaru
Nickname(s): 
"PKU", "Pekan", "Pokan", "Pekanbaru", “Pekanbaghu”, "Kota Pekanbaru", "Kota Bertuah",
Location of Pekanbaru in Indonesia
Location of Pekanbaru in Indonesia
Coordinates: 0°30′33″N 101°26′43″E / 0.50917°N 101.44528°E / 0.50917; 101.44528
Country Indonesia
RegionSumatra
Province Riau
Founded22 June 1784
Government
 • MayorMuflihun
Area
 • Total632.26 km2 (244.12 sq mi)
Elevation
12 m (39 ft)
Population
 (mid 2022 estimate)
 • Total1,007,540
 • Density1,600/km2 (4,100/sq mi)
 [1]
Demographics
 • Ethnic groups[2]Minang 37.96%
Malay 26.10%
Javanese 15.70%
Batak 11.04%
Chinese 2.50%
 • Religion[3]Islam 84.88%
Protestant Christianity 9.60%
Buddhism 3.47%
Catholic Christianity 1.26%
Hinduism 0.03%
Confucianism 0.03%
Others 0.01%
 • HDI (2022)[4]Increase 0.821 (Very High)
Time zoneUTC+7 (WIB)
Postal code
28131
Area code+62 761
Vehicle registrationBM
Websitewww.pekanbaru.go.id

Pekanbaru is the capital city of the Indonesian province of Riau, and a major economic centre on the eastern side of Sumatra Island with its name derived from the Malay words for 'new market' ('pekan' is market and 'baru' is new). It has an area of 632.26 km2 (244.12 sq mi), with a population of 897,767 at the 2010 Census, and 983,356 at the 2020 Census;[5][6] the official estimate as at mid 2022 was 1,007,540 (comprising 506,231 males and 501,309 females).[1] It is located on the banks of the Siak River, which flows into the Strait of Malacca, Pekanbaru has direct access to the busy strait and has long been known as a trading port.

A settlement has existed on the site since the 17th century. In the late 19th century, the city was developed to serve the coffee and coal industries, and the Dutch built roads to help ship goods to Singapore and Malacca. This city has an airport called Sultan Syarif Kasim II International Airport, and a port called Sungai Duku that is located by the Siak River.

Etymology

The words "pekan" (market) and "baru" (new) in the Malay for "new market" are the source of the names Pekanbaru and Pekan Baru. It was formerly known as "Senapelan," and Batin was the tribe chief at the time. In time, this area transforms into Dusun Payung Sekaki, which is situated near the mouth of the Siak River, as it continues to grow into a new residential area.

According to the records kept by Imam Suhil Siak, Sultan Muhammad Ali Abdul Jalil Muazamsyah under the rule of Sultan Yahya officially established Senapelan on the 21st of Rajab, Tuesday, in the year 1204 H, corresponding to the 23rd of June 1784 AD, which was later set as the day of Pekanbaru City. Senapelan was later more commonly known as Pekanbaru.

History

On 14 December 1745, the Siak region was ceded by the Sultan of Johor Sulaiman Badrul Alam Shah from the Johor Sultanate to the Dutch East India Company (VOC) under the terms of a treaty in return for Dutch help against the enemies of Johor.[7] Siak was put under Dutch administration. The Sultan moved residence to a palace in Senapelan built in 1760.

The origin of Pekanbaru was inseparable from the existence of the Siak River as a distributing route for commodities from the Minangkabau Highlands to the Strait of Malacca. During the 18th century, the Senapelan region on the banks of the Siak River became a market for the Minangkabau merchants.[8] Over time, the area evolved into a crowded residential area. On June 23, 1784, based on the consultative meeting of the Council of Ministers from Sultanate of Siak Sri Indrapura, consisting of four tribal leaders (datuk) of Minangkabau tribes (Pesisir, Lima Puluah, Tanah Datar and Kampar), the area was named Pekanbaru. This date was later celebrated as the anniversary of this city.[9][10]

Sultan Syarif Kasim II of Siak and his wife, 1910–1920. The last Sultan of Siak who ceded his kingdom to the Republic of Indonesia

At Senapelan Sultan Abdul Jalil Shah Alamudin unsuccessfully tried to organize a major regional fair but in the early 1780s his son Sultan Muhammad Ali managed to establish the grand fair.

Dutch East Indies

Following the collapse of the Dutch East Indies Company (VOC), all company ownership of Pekanbaru was transferred to the Dutch crown. During the colonial Dutch East Indies era in the 19th and early 20th century the city remained important, especially as a major trading point: Siak river navigation conditions provide a stable relationship with shipping from the Malacca Strait. Additionally the city became a major center of the coffee industry and coal industry. The urban influence of the sultans gradually became increasingly nominal, especially after the capital of the Sultanate moved to Sri Indrapura in 1830. Actual management functions were carried out by representatives of the Dutch colonial administration, i.e., by the post of assistant-resident and controller.

Second World War

During the Second World War from February 1942 to August 1945 the city was occupied by the armed forces of Japan. In an effort to strengthen the military and logistical infrastructure in this part of Sumatra, the Japanese started the construction of a 220-kilometer-long railway, connecting Pekanbaru to the coast of Malacca Straits.

The Pekanbaru Railway was constructed under harsh conditions using forced labour. 6,500 Dutch, mostly Indo-Europeans, and British prisoners of war and over 100,000 Indonesian, mostly Javanese, forced workers called Romusha were put to work by the Japanese army. By the time the work was completed in August 1945 almost a third of the European POWs and over half of the Indonesian coolies had died.[11]

George Duffy, one of the 15 Americans there and survivor of the sinking of the MS American Leader, noted that malaria, dysentery, pellagra, and malnutrition/beri-beri were the principal maladies compounded by overwork and mistreatment. The average age at death of the 700 prisoners of war who perished on that railway was 37 years and 3 months.[12]

The railway was never fully utilised. Today it remains unused and in an advanced state of decay.[13]

Indonesian era

After Indonesian independence, Pekanbaru was organized as an administrative city in 1956, and was selected to be the capital of the newly formed Riau province in 1959.[14]

Politics

Since 1946, Pekanbaru has been governed by at least 15 mayors. The first mayor to rule this city was Datuk Wan Abdul Rahman who was elected on 17 May 1946. Currently, the Mayor of Pekanbaru is Muflihun

Reputation

Soeman HS Library, the largest provincial library in Sumatra Island

Pekanbaru is one of the cleanest big cities in Indonesia.[15] In 2011, Pekanbaru received the "Adipura" ('cleanest city') award in the category of large city for the seventh consecutive time.[16]

Demographics

Ethnicities

Pekanbaru is the third most populous city on Sumatra Island after Medan and Palembang, with a population of 983,356 according to the official Census for 2020;[6] the official estimate as at mid 2022 was 1,007,540.[1] The city is highly urbanised, drawing many of its people from the neighbouring province of West Sumatra. Since many centuries ago, Pekanbaru is one of the Minangkabau migration area. After World War II, the number of Minangkabau people migrating to Pekanbaru surged, nearly doubling between the years 1943 and 1961. Many Minang in Pekanbaru have lived there for generations and has since assimilated into the Malay community.[17] In addition to the Minangkabau, the Riau Malays natives are the second largest ethnic group in Pekanbaru, making up 26% of the population. The Javanese, Batak, and Tionghoa are the other main ethnic groups inhabiting Pekanbaru.

Religions

The pluralism surrounding the city can be reflected by the variety of religions and freedom of belief among the people in Pekanbaru. Islam is the majority religion in this city, followed by Christianity (Protestantism and Catholic) as well as Buddhism and small percentage of Hinduism and Confucianism. Each religion in this city is represented by the presence of the religion's respective worship places, such as An-Nur Great Mosque and Pekanbaru Central Mosque (Masjid Raya Pekanbaru) for the Muslim community, St. Maria A Fatima Church and St. Paulus Church for the Catholic community, Huria Kristen Batak Protestan Church for the Protestant community as well as Vihara Dhamma Metta Arama, Vihara Dharma Loka and Vihara Vimala Virya for the Buddhist community and Kwan Tee Kong Bio (Vihara Satya Dharma) and Vihara Sasana Loka for Confucianist community and Pura Agung Jagatnatha for the Hindu community in Pekanbaru.

Languages

Indonesian is the official language that is spoken by the citizens of Pekanbaru. For informal use, Pekanbaru people generally use Minangkabau language in their economic and daily activities, especially in the market area. In addition the Malay languages and Javanese are also widely spoken because of the large population of Malays and Javanese people in Pekanbaru. Hokkien is mainly spoken by Tionghoa as most of the Chinese Indonesian in Pekanbaru belong to the Hokkien people. In fact, many Chinese Indonesian in Pekanbaru come from other regions in Riau such as Selat Panjang, Bengkalis and Siak, along with the Chinese Indonesian who are originally from Pekanbaru itself. Moreover, many Chinese Indonesian especially from North Sumatra, particularly the Medan and West Sumatra regions have moved to Pekanbaru due to opportunities and rapid economical growth in the area since the 1990s and 2000s.

Ethnicities of Pekanbaru[2]
ethnic group percent
Minangkabau
37.96%
Malay
26.10%
Javanese
15.70%
Batak
11.04%
Chinese
2.50%

Administrative districts

The city is divided into fifteen administrative districts, formerly twelve[18] (Indonesian: kecamatan), tabulated below with their areas since the 2021 re-organisation, and their populations at the 2020 Census[6] and according to the official estimates for mid 2022.[1] The table also includes the locations of the district administrative centres, the number of administrative villages in each district (all classed as urban kelurahan), and its post codes.

Kode
Wilayah
Name of
District
(kecamatan)
Area
in
km2
Pop'n
census
2020
Pop'n
estimate
mid 2022
Admin
centre
No.
of
kelurahan
Post
codes
14.71.11 Payung Sekaki 35.55 (a) 90,327 Labuh Baru Barat 6 28292
14.71.13 Tuahmadani 29.84 (a) 145,323 Tuahmadani 5 28291, 28294, 28296, 28298, 28299
14.71.08 Binawidya 36.59 (a) 74,143 Simpang Baru 5 28290, 28292, 28293, 28295, 28297
14.71.07 Bukit Raya 22.05 93,478 90,327 Simpang Tiga 5 28281, 28284,
28288, 28289
14.71.09 Marpoyan Damai 29.74 127,600 128,389 Sidomulyo Timur 6 28125, 28282
14.71.10 Tenayan Raya 114.40 (b) 106,442 Sialang Sakti 8 28281, 28285, 28289
14.71.14 Kulim 56.87 (b) 55,217 Mentangor 5 28286, 28289
14.71.04 Limapuluh 4.04 38,613 38,739 Rintis 4 28141 - 28144
14.71.03 Sail 3.26 20,384 20,450 Cinta Raja 3 28131 - 28133
14.71.02 Pekanbaru Kota 2.26 22,604 22,678 Kota Tinggi 6 28111 - 28116
14.71.01 Sukajadi 3.76 42,852 42,992 Pulau Karam 7 28121 - 28124
28126 - 28128
14.71.05 Senapelan 6.65 35,357 35,472 Kampung Bandar 6 28151 - 28156
14.71.12 Rumbai 61.86 (c) 93,348 Meranti Pandak 6 28261,
26263 - 26266
14.71.06 Rumbai Barat 35.55 (c) 25,803 Maharani 6 28264, 28267
14.71.15 Rumbai Timur 35.55 (c) 34,127 Limbungan 5 28261, 28262, 28287
Totals 632.26 983,356 1,007,540 83

Notes: (a) The former districts of Tampan (59.81 km2) and Payung Sekaki (43.24 km2) have been re-organised into these three districts since 2020, when they had 203,238 and 96,296 inhabitants respectively.
(b) The former district of Tenayan Raya (171.27 km2, with 154,261 inhabitants in 2020, has been split into two new districts.
(c) The former districts of Rumbai (128.85 km2) and Rumbai Pesisir (157.33 km2) have been re-organised into these three districts since 2020, when they had 78,185 and 70,488 inhabitants respectively.

Climate

Pekanbaru has a tropical rainforest climate under the Köppen climate classification.[19] As with many cities with an equatorial climate, the temperature only varies a little throughout the year. The hottest month is May with average temperature 27.6 °C (81.7 °F), while the coolest month is January with average temperature 26.4 °C (79.5 °F). The precipitation accumulation also remains constant throughout the year with no real dry season. The month with most precipitation is November with precipitation total 312 millimetres (12.3 in), while the least precipitation is July with precipitation total 123 millimetres (4.8 in).

Climate data for Pekanbaru (Sultan Syarif Kasim II International Airport, 1991–2020 normals)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) 31.6
(88.9)
32.4
(90.3)
33.1
(91.6)
33.2
(91.8)
33.6
(92.5)
33.3
(91.9)
33.1
(91.6)
32.8
(91.0)
32.7
(90.9)
32.8
(91.0)
32.4
(90.3)
31.8
(89.2)
32.7
(90.9)
Daily mean °C (°F) 26.6
(79.9)
27.0
(80.6)
27.3
(81.1)
27.6
(81.7)
27.9
(82.2)
27.7
(81.9)
27.4
(81.3)
27.2
(81.0)
27.1
(80.8)
27.1
(80.8)
26.9
(80.4)
26.6
(79.9)
27.2
(81.0)
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) 22.8
(73.0)
22.9
(73.2)
23.0
(73.4)
23.3
(73.9)
23.5
(74.3)
23.2
(73.8)
22.9
(73.2)
22.8
(73.0)
22.7
(72.9)
23.0
(73.4)
23.0
(73.4)
23.0
(73.4)
23.0
(73.4)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 206.4
(8.13)
148.4
(5.84)
277.2
(10.91)
290.0
(11.42)
210.0
(8.27)
167.8
(6.61)
159.9
(6.30)
166.1
(6.54)
216.2
(8.51)
255.5
(10.06)
322.8
(12.71)
284.5
(11.20)
2,704.8
(106.49)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 14.1 11.9 15.5 16.4 13.0 10.6 10.5 11.4 12.2 15.4 18.5 16.5 166
Mean monthly sunshine hours 97.3 109.7 128.1 137.4 156.7 146.0 154.0 142.8 112.7 121.9 120.8 105.1 1,532.5
Source: World Meteorological Organization[20]

Economy

After oil was discovered in the region in the 1930s, Pekanbaru's economy has depended heavily on oil revenues which caused the city to have the highest per capita income in Indonesia.[citation needed] Most of Indonesia's petroleum is produced in Riau, and much of Pekanbaru's economy is based on the petroleum industry. International oil companies, prominently Chevron from the US, as well as other Indonesian companies, have established their offices in the region. The city is connected by road to an oil refining and exporting port in Dumai. Many facilities and infrastructures such as an airport, stadiums, housing areas, schools, bridges that cross the Siak River in Pekanbaru, the roads in Rumbai and the roads to Dumai, were partially or fully financed by oil companies in the area.

Pekanbaru is really close with some of the home of mega-companies, such as PT Riau Andalan Pulp Paper, PT. Indah Kiat, PT. Chevron Pacific Indonesia, and PT Perkebunan Nusantara V and some wood-sawmill, CPOs, and rubber-processing companies, and Pekanbaru is often said to be one of the cities with the highest money and banking rotation in Indonesia.

As Pekanbaru is prominently known as a major gateway for tourists from Singapore and Malaysia, the city has become a favourite stop-over for travellers before they go further inland to other regions of Sumatra Island such as Padang and Jambi. The Pasar Pusat (Central Market) is a food-trip destination and considered a household-goods trove. Pasar Bawah and Pasar Tengah, located near to the port and Siak riverbank, are especially known for the marketplace for buying and selling of Chinese goods like ceramics and carpets.

Around 127,000 foreign tourists arrived in Pekanbaru through its airport during 2018.[21]

On the other hand, there are many developments of shopping malls such as Plaza Senapelan, Plaza Citra, Plaza Sukaramai, Mal Pekanbaru, Mal SKA, Sadira Plaza, Living World, Transmart Mini Studio, Mal Ciputra Seraya, Lotte Mart, Metropolitan Trade Center, The Central, Ramayana, Robinson, and Metro. Additionally, there are a lot of housing areas have been developed since the 2000s surrounding the city, particularly in Panam area whereby the housing project along the road has been tremendously established and now becoming one of the most populous area in Pekanbaru even though it is located far from downtown.

Favorably, there are several landmarks that have been built in this city. For example, The Great Mosque of An-nur, Mesjid Raya Pekanbaru, Pasar Bawah or Tourist Market, Riau Bank Tower, Riau Government Office Tower, Siak IV Bridge, Zapin Dance Monument and there are many more to come.

Transportation

There are several modes of transportation in Pekanbaru such as taxi, bus, oplet (share taxi), bajaj (auto rickshaw), ojek (motorcycle taxi) and Trans Metro Pekanbaru (bus rapid transit). However, due to the rapidly increasing number of motorised vehicles, the traffic congestion that occurs on some roads such as Jalan Sudirman, Jalan Riau and Jalan HR. Subrantas that mainly connect populous sub-districts in the city cannot be avoided any more particularly during weekends and holidays. These problems initiated the government of Pekanbaru to come up with plans to solve these matters, especially within 10 to 15 years ahead.

Land

For land transport, Pekanbaru is connected to Padang, Medan, Jambi, Palembang, and other cities or regions in Riau Province and Sumatra Island by the existence of Bandar Raya Payung Sekaki Bus Terminal. The terminal was officially open for public in 2007, replacing Pekanbaru's former "Mayang Terurai Terminal Bus" due to heavy congestion. However, the Bandar Raya Payung Sekaki Bus Terminal is not fully utilised by several prominent bus companies such as Pelangi, Makmur, Riau Mandiri and Sidomulyo as well as other bus operators because its location which is deemed by some parties to be not as strategic as Mayang Terurai Bus Terminal. These matters surely make some bus companies have no choice but to drop off the passengers outside the designated zone. This informal drop-off zone is usually called by local people as terminal bayangan ("shadow terminals").

Rivers

Port of Sungai Duku is located by the Siak River, connecting Pekanbaru with some regions in Riau Province and Riau Islands such as Siak, Tanjung Buton, Selat Panjang, Bengkalis and Batam. In the past, there were ferry services travelling from this port directly to Malacca in Malaysia, but the service was discontinued as several ferry companies decided to move their operations to Tanjung Buton.

Air

Sultan Syarif Kasim II International Airport of Pekanbaru

Sultan Syarif Kasim II International Airport serves flights in Pekanbaru from/and to several cities in Indonesia such as Batam, Medan, Bandung, Jakarta, Yogyakarta, Surabaya, and others, and international flights to several countries such as Malaysia, Singapore, Saudi Arabia, and Sri Lanka. Several prominent domestic airlines serve the route from/and to Pekanbaru such as Citilink, Garuda Indonesia, Lion Air, Batik Air, Indonesia Air Asia, Susi Air, Super Air Jet and Wings Air. International flights are presently provided by AirAsia, Jetstar Asia Airways, Malindo Air, Scoot and Batik Air Malaysia

In 2012, the new terminal was opened, replacing the old terminal that had been used since the 1980s. The old terminal is planned to be demolished to build more spaces for the apron and more aircraft capacity. Even though the new terminal has been fully used, the aerobridges that were constructed have never been utilized as the apron expansion has not been completed yet after two years since the opening of the new terminal to the public in 2012. Thus, the airport company PT Angkasa Pura II is currently ferrying passengers to and from the terminal using shuttle buses until the aerobridge can be used. Pekanbaru's airport is also utilized separately as the airbase of the TNI-AU (Indonesian Air Force) and home base of the 12th Squadron, a shelter to some Hawk Mk.109s and Mk.209s. The airbase is named after the former head of Indonesian Air Force, Roesmin Nurjadin and formally called as Pangkalan Udara Roesmin Nurjadin or Roesmin Nurjadin Airbase.

Education

Pekanbaru has a formal and informal form of education. Pekanbaru currently implements a "zonation" system to assign new students in public schools.

Sports

Football is the most popular sport in Indonesia. In Pekanbaru, PSPS Pekanbaru is the local club that has been competing in Indonesian Super League since the 2000s. Kaharudin Nasution Sport Center Rumbai Stadium is the home stadium for PSPS Pekanbaru.

In 2012, 2013 AFC U-22 Asian Cup qualification, 2012 Pekan Olahraga Nasional (Indonesian National Games) and 2012 Pekan Paralympic Nasional was held in Riau Province. Since then, many sport facilities have been built in Pekanbaru because this city was the home for many sports venues used these multi-national events, such as the prominent Riau Main Stadium. Unfortunately, many sports facilities that have been developed before the 2012 Pekan Olahraga Nasional are not being managed and taken care of properly. An example would be the Riau Main Stadium, which was never used again after the event until today due to financial disputes between the local government and the contractors of the stadium.

Several golf courses can be found in Pekanbaru, such as Pekanbaru Golf Course Country Club at Kubang Kulim, Simpang Tiga Golf Course at AURI Complex, Rumbai Golf Course at IKSORA Rumbai Complex and Labersa Golf Course at Labersa Hotel and Convention Center.

Further information: Hang Tuah Stadium (Pekanbaru)

Media

The TVRI Riau (state-owned) and Riau TV (private) are some of the popular local television stations in Pekanbaru. Several local newspapers operating in Pekanbaru, such as Riau Pos, Haluan Riau, Tribun Pekanbaru, Pekanbaru Pos, Metro Riau, Pekanbaru MX and Koran Riau.

Sister cities

This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources in this section. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (July 2015) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Sister town/cities Country
Malacca City Malaysia Malaysia
Zamboanga City Philippines Philippines
Davao City Philippines Philippines
Chongqing China China
Liuzhou China China
Quebec City Canada Canada
Suwon South Korea South Korea
Fukushima City Japan Japan
Daegu South Korea South Korea
San Jose, California United States United States
Utrecht Netherlands Netherlands
Atlanta United States United States
Da Nang Vietnam Vietnam
Batam Indonesia Indonesia
Bandung Indonesia Indonesia
Bandar Lampung Indonesia Indonesia
Jeddah Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia

References

  1. ^ a b c d Badan Pusat Statistik, Jakarta, 2023, Kota Pekanbaru Dalam Angka 2023 (Katalog-BPS 1102001.1471)
  2. ^ a b Indonesia's Population: Ethnicity and Religion in a Changing Political Landscape. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. 2003. ISBN 9812302123
  3. ^ Data Sensus Penduduk 2010 - Badan Pusat Statistik Republik Indonesia <http://sp2010.bps.go.id/index.php/site/tabel?tid=321&wid=1400000000&lang=id>
  4. ^ Indeks Pembangunan Manusia. Badan Pusat Statistik. 2022. <https://www.bps.go.id/publication/2023/05/16/ef80bec78ab91cb5b703b943/human-development-index-2022.html>
  5. ^ "BPS Kota Pekanbaru". Archived from the original on 19 January 2015.
  6. ^ a b c Badan Pusat Statistik, Jakarta, 2021.
  7. ^ Winstedt, R. O. (1933). Journal Of The Malayan Branch Of The Royal Asiatic Society Vol: XI. Singapore: The Malayan Branch Of The Royal Asiatic Society. p. 5.
  8. ^ Sejarah Daerah Riau, Proyek Penelitian dan Pencatatan Kebudayaan Daerah, Pusat Penelitian Sejarah dan Budaya, Departemen Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan, 1977
  9. ^ Samin, S.M. (2006). Dari kebatinan senapelan ke Bandaraya Pekanbaru: menelisik jejak sejarah Kota Pekanbaru, 1784-2005. Pemerintah Kota Pekanbaru bekerjasama dengan Masyarakat Sejarawan Indonesia (MSI) Cabang Riau dan Penerbit Alaf Riau.
  10. ^ "Sejarah Pekanbaru". Pemda kota Pekanbaru. Archived from the original on 14 April 2012. Retrieved 1 October 2010.
  11. ^ "Traces of War: Survivors of the Burma and Pakanbaroe Railroad", Radio Netherlands Archives, August 13, 2003
  12. ^ Duffy, George (5 January 2006). "The Death Railway, April 1945". MemoryArchive. Archived from the original on 18 June 2008. Retrieved 2 January 2015.
  13. ^ Hovinga, Henk (2010). The Sumatra Railroad: Final Destination Pakan Baroe 1943-45. Leiden: KITLV Press. ISBN 9789067183284.
  14. ^ "Sejarah Pekanbaru". pekanbaru.go.id (in Indonesian). Retrieved 30 October 2020.
  15. ^ (in Indonesian) Presiden Berikan Penghargaan Kalpataru dan Piala Adipura
  16. ^ Post, The Jakarta. "Pekanbaru to get 7th Adipura award". thejakartapost.com. Retrieved 7 April 2018.
  17. ^ Andaya, B.W; The Unity of Southeast Asia: Historical approaches and questions, in Journal of Southeast Asian Studies, Vol. 28, No. 1, 1997.
  18. ^ Badan Pusat Statistik Pekanbaru (2022). "Publikasi Data Statistik Pekanbaru".
  19. ^ "Climate Pekanbaru: Temperature, Climograph, Climate table for Pekanbaru - Climate-Data.org". en.climate-data.org. Retrieved 7 April 2018.
  20. ^ "World Meteorological Organization Climate Normals for 1991–2020". World Meteorological Organization. Retrieved 19 October 2023.
  21. ^ "Kunjungan Wisatawan Asing ke Riau Naik 30 Persen". Republika (in Indonesian). 20 January 2019. Retrieved 30 October 2020.