Batu
City of Batu
Kota Batu
Other transcription(s)
 • Javaneseꦏꦸꦛꦧꦠꦸ
Brakseng-Plantation on hillside of Arjuno and background's far view of Mount Kawi and Butak
Selecta Recreational Park
Dino Park Mall of Jawa Timur Park 3
Animal Museum of Jawa Timur Park 2
Flag of Batu
Coat of arms of Batu
Motto(s): 
ꦲꦏꦂꦪꦒꦸꦤꦩꦩꦪꦸꦧꦮꦤ (Javanese)
Hakaryo Guno Mamayu Bawono
(Work to Advancing the World)
Location within East Java
Location within East Java
Batu is located in Java
Batu
Batu
Location in Java and Indonesia
Batu is located in Indonesia
Batu
Batu
Batu (Indonesia)
Coordinates: 7°52′19″S 112°31′30″E / 7.872°S 112.525°E / -7.872; 112.525
Country Indonesia
RegionJava
Province East Java
Established (2001-06-21) June 21, 2001 (age 22)
Government
 • MayorAries Agung Paweai
 • Vice MayorVacant
Area
 • Total194.17 km2 (74.97 sq mi)
Elevation892 m (2,927 ft)
Highest elevation
1,800 m (5,900 ft)
Lowest elevation
700 m (2,300 ft)
Population
 (mid 2023 estimate)
 • Total221,714
 • Density1,100/km2 (3,000/sq mi)
 [2]
Time zoneUTC+7 (Indonesia Western Time)
Area code(+62) 341
Websitebatukota.go.id

Batu, officially the City of Batu (Indonesian: Kota Batu, Javanese: ꦏꦸꦛꦧꦠꦸ), is a city in the East Java Province of Indonesia. It is about 20 km to the northwest of Malang. Formerly, it was a part of Malang Regency; but on 21 June 2001, Batu became an independent city (by Act No. 11 of 2001), with its own mayor and council.[3]

With a population of 213,046 people at the 2020 Census,[4] which rose to 221,714 as officially estimated as of mid-2023 (comprising 111,390 males and 110,324 females),[2] Batu lies on the southern slopes of Mount Arjuno-Welirang. Its population largely consists of Javanese. The town used to be a recreation place for the Dutch colonial officers in the Dutch colonial area (before 1945). Batu means "rock" in Indonesian.

History

Since the 10th century, the area of Batu and its surroundings has been known as a resting place for the royal family, because the region is a mountainous area with comfortable air, also supported by the beauty of natural scenery as a characteristic of mountainous regions.[5]

During the reign of the Mataram Kingdom under King Sindok, a royal official named Mpu Supo was ordered by the King to build a royal family resting place in the mountains with nearby water springs. With a hard effort, finally Mpu Supo discovered an area that is now better known as the tourist area of Songgoriti. With the approval of King Sindok, Mpu Supo began to build the Songgoriti area as a royal family retreat and built a temple named Supo Temple.[5]

Some local community leaders said that the title Batu comes from the name of a cleric follower of Prince Diponegoro named Abu Ghonaim referred to as the Kyai Gubug Angin which later the local community was familiar with calling Mbah Wastu. From Javanese cultural habits that often shorten and shorten the designation of someone's name which is considered too long, also to make it shorter and faster when calling someone, finally Mbah Wastu is called Mbah Tu to be Mbatu or Batu as a term used for a mild climate city in East Java.[5]

The history of Abu Ghonaim's existence as a forerunner and person known as a community leader who started the "babad alas" which was used as an inspiration from the designation of the Batu region. Abu Ghonaim was from the Central Java region. Abu Ghonaim as a loyal follower of Prince Diponegoro, intentionally left his native area of Central Java and moved to the hillside of Mount Panderman to avoid the pursuit and arrest of the Dutch soldiers (Kompeni). Abu Ghonaim or Mbah Wastu started his new life together with the surrounding community. Finally, many residents and surrounding communities and other communities came around the residence of Mbah Wastu. Initially, they lived in a group (community) in the Bumiaji, Sisir and Temas.[5]

View of Batu from Gunung Banyak


Geography

The city of Batu lies on the slopes of several mountains. The most prominent are Mount Anjasmoro (2,277 m), Mount Arjuno (3,339 m), Mount Welirang (3,156 m), Mount Banyak (1,306 m), Mount Kawi (2,551 m), Mount Panderman (2,045 m), Mount Semeru (3.676 m), and Mount Wukir (335 m).[6]

In the 19th century, the Dutch East Indies government developed Batu as a mountain resort. Villas and resort facilities were built in Batu during the period. Most of the topography of Batu City is dominated by highland and hilly terrain with valleys running down mountain slopes. In northern Batu, there is a dense forest, Raden Soerjo Forest Park, which is a protected forest area.[6]

Most soils in Batu city are andosols, sequentially present with cambisol, latosol and alluvial. These form mechanical soils which contain substantial amounts of minerals coming from volcanic eruptions. These soils tend to be very fertile.[6]

Batu is a near-exact antipode (or polar opposite) to the city of San Fernando de Apure, Venezuela.[6]

Climate

The climate in Batu city at lower elevation (700-900 meters) features tropical monsoon climate (Am), and at higher elevation (900-1800 meters), the city's climate is classified by Köppen as subtropical highland climate (Cwb). The driest month is August with a total precipitation of 35 millimetres (1.4 in), while the wettest month is January with a total precipitation of 406 millimetres (16.0 in). The temperature is moderated by the altitude, as the city is located at an average of 953 metres (3,127 ft) above sea level. The hottest month is October with an average of 22.2 °C (72.0 °F), while the coolest month is August with an average of 11.4 °C (52.5 °F).

Climate data for Tulungrejo, Bumiaji, Batu (elevation 1,610 m or 5,280 ft)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) 21.4
(70.5)
21.6
(70.9)
21.6
(70.9)
21.5
(70.7)
21.5
(70.7)
21.2
(70.2)
20.7
(69.3)
21
(70)
21.8
(71.2)
22.2
(72.0)
21.8
(71.2)
21.5
(70.7)
21.5
(70.7)
Daily mean °C (°F) 17.6
(63.7)
17.7
(63.9)
17.8
(64.0)
17.8
(64.0)
17.3
(63.1)
16.9
(62.4)
16.1
(61.0)
16.2
(61.2)
16.9
(62.4)
17.6
(63.7)
17.9
(64.2)
17.6
(63.7)
17.3
(63.1)
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) 13.9
(57.0)
13.9
(57.0)
14.1
(57.4)
13.6
(56.5)
13.2
(55.8)
12.6
(54.7)
11.5
(52.7)
11.4
(52.5)
12
(54)
13.1
(55.6)
14
(57)
13.8
(56.8)
13.1
(55.6)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 406
(16.0)
353
(13.9)
395
(15.6)
242
(9.5)
176
(6.9)
81
(3.2)
52
(2.0)
35
(1.4)
46
(1.8)
130
(5.1)
282
(11.1)
385
(15.2)
2,583
(101.7)
Average relative humidity (%) 81.7 82.3 82.2 79.2 79.8 77.3 75.1 72.9 70.9 70.9 74.4 79.1 77.1
Source 1: Climate-Data.org (temp & precip)[7]
Source 2: Weatherbase (humidity)[8]

Administration

The city is divided into three districts (kecamatan), tabulated below with their areas and their populations at the 2010 Census[9] and 2020 Census,[4] together with the official estimates as at mid 2023.[2] The table also includes the locations of the district administrative centres, the numbers of administrative villages (urban kelurahan) in each district, and its postal codes.

Kode
Wilayah
Name of
District
(kecamatan)
Area
in
km2
Pop'n
Census
2010
Pop'n
Census
2020
Pop'n
Estimate
mid 2023
Admin
centre
No.
of
villages
Post
codes
35.79.01 Batu (district) 45.46 88,178 96,921 101,181 Sisir 8 65311 - 65318
35,79.03 Junrejo 25.65 46,382 55,105 56,774 Junrejo 7 65321 - 65327
35.79.02 Bumiaji 127.98 55,624 61,020 63,759 Punten 9 65331 - 65338
Totals 199.09 190,184 213,046 221,714 Pesanggrahan 24

The districts are further subdivided into 24 urban villages (kelurahan). The names of the urban villages are:

Economy

The economy of Batu City is highly dependent on tourism and agriculture. The location of Batu City in the mountainous region has ninspired rapid tourism development which sector has created most of the GDP growth in Batu. In agriculture, Batu is one of the largest apple-producing regions in Indonesia, which makes it dubbed "The City of Apples". Apple agriculture in Batu has four varieties, there are "Manalagi", "Rome Beauty", "Anna", and "Wangling". The city also produces a lot of vegetables, and garlic. Besides that, Batu is also an artist city where there are many painting and art galleries.[10]

Batu has several shopping centers ranging from modern shopping centers to traditional markets. Among the most famous modern shopping centers are Lippo Plaza Batu and Plaza Batu, while the famous traditional market in Batu is Pasar Batu. In addition, there is also a floating market in Batu called the Nusantara Floating Market which is the first floating market in East Java. The Nusantara Floating Market Complex is a unit of the Museum Angkut tourism complex in Batu.[10]

Tourism

Batu is well known for its tourism sites. Some are:

There is a historic colonial-style hotel, the Kartika Wijaya. It was founded in 1891 by the Sarkies Brothers, prominent Armenian immigrants best known for founding a chain of luxury hotels throughout Southeast Asia, especially the Dutch East Indies. Originally built as a vacation villa for the Sarkies family, it was later turned into a hotel.

Batu ranks second after Bali in terms of the number of tourists visiting, in 2023 Batu City will receive 10 million tourists and in 2024 it is estimated that there will be 12 million tourist visits estimated by Government.

References

  1. ^ "Website Batukota". website.batukota.go.id. Archived from the original on September 15, 2018. Retrieved 2018-12-18.
  2. ^ a b c Badan Pusat Statistik, Jakarta, 28 February 2024, Kota Batu Dalam Angka 2024 (Katalog-BPS 1102001.3579)
  3. ^ Indonesia Humanity Foundation, Batu, Indonesia
  4. ^ a b Badan Pusat Statistik, Jakarta, 2021.
  5. ^ a b c d Zaenuddin, H.M. (2013). Asal usul Kota-kota di Indonesia Tempo Doeloe [History of cities in old Indonesia] (in Indonesian) (1 ed.). Change. ISBN 978-602-11-3930-1.
  6. ^ a b c d "Geography of Batu, East Java". website.batukota.go.id (in Indonesian). Archived from the original on 2019-01-26. Retrieved 2019-01-26.
  7. ^ "Climate: Tulungrejo, Bumiaji, Batu City". Climate-Data.org. Retrieved 18 December 2018.
  8. ^ "BATU, INDONESIA". Weatherbase. Retrieved 19 May 2016.
  9. ^ Biro Pusat Statistik, Jakarta, 2011.
  10. ^ a b "Kota Kecil Prestasi Besar, 17 Tahun Kota Batu Diakui karena Inovasi Wisata". Malang Post Online - Tepercaya, Cepat dan Akurat. Retrieved 2019-01-26.