Provinces of Indonesia
Provinsi di Indonesia
CategoryFirst-level administrative division of a decentralized unitary state
LocationRepublic of Indonesia
  • 18 August 1945
PopulationsSouth Papua (522,215) – West Java (49,405,800)
AreasJakarta 661 km2 (255 sq mi) – Central Kalimantan 153,444 km2 (59,245 sq mi)

Provinces are the first-level administrative divisions of Indonesia. It is formerly called the first-level provincial region (provinsi daerah tingkat I) before the Reform era. Provinces have a local government, consisting of a governor (Gubernur) and a regional legislative body (Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat Provinsi). The governor and members of local representative bodies are elected by popular vote for five-year terms, but governors can only serve for two terms. Provincial governments have the authority to regulate and manage their own government affairs, subject to the limits of the central government. The average land area of all 38 provinces in Indonesia is about 50,120.23 km2 (19,351.53 sq mi), and an average population of about 7,345,233 people.

Currently, Indonesia is divided into 38 provinces, nine of which have special autonomous status. The terminology for special status are "Istimewa" and "Khusus", which translates to 'special' or 'designated' in English. Provinces are further divided into regencies and cities (formerly called second-level region regencies and cities or kabupaten/kotamadya daerah tingkat II), which are in turn subdivided into districts (kecamatan).


Article 18 paragraph 1 of the 1945 Constitution states that "the Unitary State of the Republic of Indonesia is divided into provincial regions and those provincial regions are divided into regencies and city, whereby every one of those provinces, regencies, and municipalities has its regional government, which shall be regulated by laws."

According to the Law on Regional Government (UU 23/2014) the authority of the Provincial Government includes:

  1. Development planning and control;
  2. Planning, utilization, and community peace;
  3. Implementation of public order and public peace;
  4. Provision of public facilities and infrastructure;
  5. Handling the health sector;
  6. Education and allocation of potential human resources;
  7. Handling social problems across regencies/cities;
  8. Services in the field of manpower across regencies/cities;
  9. Facilitating the development of cooperatives, small and medium enterprises, including across districts/cities;
  10. Environmental control;
  11. Defense services, including across regencies/cities;
  12. Population and civil registration services;
  13. Government general administration services;
  14. Investment administration services, including across regencies/cities;
  15. The implementation of other basic services that cannot be carried out by regencies/cities; and
  16. Other mandatory affairs mandated by laws and regulations.

The authority of the provincial government are government affairs which are located across regencies/municipalities, government affairs whose users are across regencies/municipalities, government affairs whose benefits or negative impacts lie across regencies/municipalities, government affairs which use more resources. efficient if carried out by the province.

Each province has a local government, headed by a governor and a legislative body (DPRD). The governor and members of local representative bodies are elected by popular vote for five-year terms, but governors can only serve for two terms. The general election to elect members of the DPRDs is conducted simultaneously with the national general election. Previously, the general elections for Governor and Vice Governor were not held simultaneously. However, since 2015 regional head elections have been held simultaneously. Under the plan, simultaneous partial local elections will be held in February 2017, June 2018, December 2020, culminating in simultaneous elections for all local executive posts on November 2024 and then every five years.

Current provinces

Click on a province name to go to its main article

Special autonomy

The decentralization of some power and autonomy to provinces is called for by Article 18 of the Constitution of Indonesia, and this article was expanded through amendments in October 1999 in the period following the fall of Suharto.[8]: 35–37  Some provinces have been granted additional autonomy beyond this. The form this special autonomy takes is not standardized, with provinces gaining different formulations of specific autonomy based on particular political imperatives.[8]: 38–39 

Geographical units

Further information: Regions of Indonesia

The provinces are officially grouped into seven geographical units for statistical and national planning purposes, but without administrative function.[14]

Geographical unit Provinces Population
Largest city Highest point
Sumatra Aceh, the Bangka Belitung Islands, Bengkulu, Jambi, Lampung, North Sumatra, Riau, the Riau Islands, South Sumatra, and West Sumatra 59,977,300 Medan Mount Kerinci
3,805 m (12484 ft)
Java Banten, Central Java, East Java, the Special Capital Region of Jakarta, the Special Region of Yogyakarta, and West Java 154,282,100 Jakarta Mount Semeru
3,678 m (12067 ft)
Kalimantan Central Kalimantan, East Kalimantan, North Kalimantan, South Kalimantan, and West Kalimantan 17,052,200 Samarinda Mount Bukit Raya
2,278 m (7,474 ft)
Nusa Tenggara (Lesser Sunda Islands) Bali, West Nusa Tenggara, and East Nusa Tenggara 15,355,100 Denpasar Mount Rinjani
3,726 m (12,224 ft)
Sulawesi Central Sulawesi, Gorontalo, North Sulawesi, South Sulawesi, Southeast Sulawesi, and West Sulawesi 20,304,400 Makassar Latimojong
3,478 m (11,411 ft)
Maluku Islands Maluku and North Maluku 3,201,000 Ambon Mount Binaiya
3,027 m (9,931 ft)
Papua (Western New Guinea) Central Papua, Highland Papua, Papua, South Papua, Southwest Papua, and West Papua 5,601,900 Jayapura Puncak Jaya
4,884 m (16,024 ft)

Former provinces

Evolution of Indonesia's provinces from 1945 until North Kalimantan's establishment in 2012
Three-province Sumatra (1948–56) (L) and two-province Sulawesi (1960–64) with present-day regency borders

Upon the independence of Indonesia, eight provinces were established. West Java, Central Java, East Java, and Maluku still exist as of today despite later divisions, while Sumatra, Kalimantan, Sulawesi, and Nusa Tenggara, formerly Lesser Sunda (Sunda Kecil) were fully liquidated by dividing them into new provinces. The province of Central Sumatra existed from 1948 to 1957, while East Timor was annexed as a province from 1976 until its power transfer to UNTAET in 1999 prior to its independence as a country in 2002.

Province Capital Period Successor(s)
Special Region of Surakarta
(Daerah Istimewa Surakarta)[16]
Surakarta 1945–1946 Central Java
Sumatra[17] Bukittinggi / Medan 1945–1948 Central Sumatra
North Sumatra
South Sumatra
Kalimantan[18] Banjarmasin 1945–1956 East Kalimantan
South Kalimantan
West Kalimantan
Nusa Tenggara[19] Singaraja 1945–1958 Bali
East Nusa Tenggara
West Nusa Tenggara
Sulawesi[20] Makassar / Manado 1945–1960 North-Central Sulawesi
South-Southeast Sulawesi
Central Sumatra
(Sumatera Tengah)[17][21]
Bukittinggi 1948–1957 Jambi
West Sumatra
North-Central Sulawesi
(Sulawesi Utara-Tengah)[22]
Manado 1960–1964 North Sulawesi
Central Sulawesi
South-Southeast Sulawesi
(Sulawesi Selatan-Tenggara)[22]
Makassar 1960–1964 South Sulawesi
Southeast Sulawesi
East Timor
(Timor Timur)[23]
Dili 1976–1999 Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste

New provinces made from currently-existing provinces

Pre-1999 Maluku (L) and Irian Jaya (now Papua, R) with present-day regency borders
Provinces in Western New Guinea, after the split of Papua Province into four provinces in June 2022[24] and after the split of West Papua Province into two provinces in December 2022[25]
New province
(current name)
Year New province
(then name)
Province of origin
Special Region of Yogyakarta 1950 Yogyakarta Central Java
Aceh 1956 Aceh North Sumatra
Central Kalimantan 1958 Central Kalimantan South Kalimantan
Jakarta Special Capital Region 1959 Greater Jakarta West Java
Lampung 1964 Lampung South Sumatra
Bengkulu 1967 Bengkulu South Sumatra
North Maluku 1999 North Maluku Maluku
Banten 2000 Banten West Java
Bangka Belitung Islands 2000 Bangka Belitung Islands South Sumatra
Gorontalo 2000 Gorontalo North Sulawesi
Riau Islands 2002 Riau Islands Riau
West Papua 2003 West Irian Jaya Irian Jaya
West Sulawesi 2004 West Sulawesi South Sulawesi
North Kalimantan 2012 North Kalimantan East Kalimantan
Central Papua 2022 Central Papua Papua
Highland Papua 2022 Highland Papua Papua
South Papua 2022 South Papua Papua
Southwest Papua 2022 Southwest Papua West Papua

Renamed provinces

Year Old name
Old name
New name
New name
Current name
1954 Sunda Kecil Lesser Sunda Nusa Tenggara Nusa Tenggara non-existent
1959 Aceh Aceh Daerah Istimewa Aceh Aceh Special Region Aceh
1961 Jakarta Raya Greater Jakarta Daerah Khusus Ibukota Jakarta Raya Greater Jakarta Special Capital Region Jakarta Special Capital Region
1973 Irian Barat West Irian Irian Jaya Irian Jaya Papua
1990 Daerah Khusus Ibukota Jakarta Raya Greater Jakarta Special Capital Region Daerah Khusus Ibukota Jakarta Jakarta Special Capital Region Special Region of Jakarta
2001 Daerah Istimewa Aceh Aceh Special Region Nanggroë Aceh Darussalam State of Aceh, the Abode of Peace Aceh
2002 Irian Jaya Irian Jaya Papua Papua Papua
2007 Irian Jaya Barat West Irian Jaya Papua Barat West Papua West Papua
2009 Nanggroë Aceh Darussalam State of Aceh, the Abode of Peace Aceh Aceh Aceh

Former provincial capitals

See also


  1. ^ Jakarta is a city with province-level Capital Special Region comprising five Kota Administrasis (administrative cities/municipalities) and one Kabupaten Administrasi (administrative regency). It has no de jure capital, but many governmental buildings are located at Central Jakarta.


  1. ^ "Data Wilayah – Kementerian Dalam Negeri – Republik Indonesia". Archived from the original on 2012-02-22. Retrieved 2011-02-16.
  2. ^ Buku Induk—Kode dan Data Wilayah Administrasi Pemerintahan per Provinsi, Kabupaten/Kota dan Kecamatan Seluruh Indonesia (PDF) (in Indonesian), Kementerian Dalam Negeri [Ministry of Home Affairs], archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-11-19
  3. ^ ISO 3166-2:ID (ISO 3166-2 codes for the provinces of Indonesia)
  4. ^ Badan Pusat Statistik/Statistics Indonesia, Jakarta, 2023.
  5. ^ Badan Pusat Statistik/Statistics Indonesia, Jakarta, 2023.
  6. ^ Figures adjusted to take account of the separation of Tarakan city and four regencies, as confirmed by Badan Pusat Statistik, to form the new province of North Kalimantan, listed separately in this table.
  7. ^ West Papua was created from the western portion of Papua province in February 2003, initially under the name of Irian Jaya Barat, and was renamed Papua Barat (West Papua) on 7 February 2007. The split remains controversial. In November 2004, the Constitutional Court of Indonesia ruled that the split violated Papua's autonomy laws. However, since the western province had already been created, it should remain separate from Papua. The ruling also aborted the creation of another proposed province, Central Irian Jaya, because the split was not yet completed. As of June 2008, an ISO 3166-2 code has not yet been published for West Papua. If one were to follow precedent, it would be ID-PB. Note: ISO 3166-2 Newsletter II-1 (corrected 2010-02-19) page 18-19 confirms this as ID-PB. See Archived 2011-01-01 at the Wayback Machine. The code ID-IJ now refers to the larger geographical region including Papua and West Papua.
  8. ^ a b c d e f Ahmad Ainun Najib; Indarja (April 2023). "Special Autonomy Dilemma in the 1945 Constitution of the Republic of Indonesia". Syiah Kuala Law Journal. 7 (1): 32–49. doi:10.24815/sklj.v7i1.28611.
  9. ^ a b "Naming process of new provinces in Papua Region, Indonesia" (PDF). United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names. 3 May 2023. p. 2. Retrieved 19 May 2024.
  10. ^ Budy P. Resosudarmo; Julius A. Mollet; Umbu R. Raya; Hans Kaiwai (2014). "Development in Papua after special autonomy". Regional Dynamics in a Decentralized Indonesia. ISEAS Publishing. p. 434. doi:10.1355/9789814519175-025.
  11. ^ Ronna Nirmala (15 July 2021). "Indonesia Passes New Papuan Autonomy Law; Separatists Reject it as Unsatisfactory". Retrieved 20 May 2024.
  12. ^ "Indonesia passes contentious law to create more provinces in Papua". CNN. 1 July 2022. Retrieved 19 May 2024.
  13. ^ "Southwest Papua officially becomes Indonesia's 38th province". Antara. 9 December 2022. Retrieved 19 May 2024.
  14. ^ ISO 3166-2:ID
  15. ^ Badan Pusat Statistik, Jakarta, 2023.
  16. ^ "Pangeran Surakarta Ajukan Piagam Soekarno Jadi Bukti Keistimewaan". Constitutional Court of Indonesia. Retrieved 2023-06-20.
  17. ^ a b Peraturan Pemerintah Nomor 21 Tahun 1950 [Government Regulation Number 21 of 1950] (PDF) (Government Regulation 21) (in Indonesian). 1950. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-12-11.
  18. ^ Undang-Undang Nomor 25 Tahun 1956 [Act Number 25 of 1956]. (Act 25) (in Indonesian). 1956.
  19. ^ Undang-Undang Nomor 64 Tahun 1958 [Act Number 64 of 1958]. (Act 64) (in Indonesian). 1958.
  20. ^ Peraturan Pemerintah Pengganti Undang-Undang Nomor 47 Tahun 1960 [Government Regulation in Lieu of Law Number 47 of 1960] (Government Regulation in Lieu of Law 47) (in Indonesian). 1970.
  21. ^ Undang-Undang Darurat Nomor 19 Tahun 1957 [Ordinance-as-Act Number 19 Year 1957] (Ordinance-as-Act 19) (in Indonesian). 1957.
  22. ^ a b Undang-Undang Nomor 13 Tahun 1964 [Act Number 13 of 1964]. (Act 13) (in Indonesian). 1964.
  23. ^ Undang-Undang Republik Indonesia Nomor 7 Tahun 1976 [Act of the Republic of Indonesia Number 7 of 1976] (PDF) (Act 7) (in Indonesian). 1976. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2018-11-14.
  24. ^ Meilani, Tri; Adji, Raka (13 July 2022). "The long-awaited birth of South Papua province". Retrieved 22 February 2023.
  25. ^ "Southwest Papua Province inaugurated, Indonesia now has 38 provinces". 10 December 2022. Retrieved 22 February 2023.