Provinces of Indonesia
Indonesia, administrative divisions - en - monochrome.svg
CategoryProvince
LocationIndonesia
Created
  • 18 August 1945
Number38
PopulationsSmallest: 517,623 (South Papua)
Largest: 43,053,732 (West Java)
AreasSmallest: 664 km2 (256 sq mi) (Jakarta)
Largest: 153,564 km2 (59,291 sq mi) (Central Kalimantan)
Government
Subdivisions

Provinces of Indonesia are the 38 administrative divisions of Indonesia and the highest tier of the local government (formerly called first-level region provinces or provinsi daerah tingkat I). Provinces are further divided into regencies and cities (formerly called second-level region regencies and cities or kabupaten/kotamadya daerah tingkat II), which are in turn subdivided into districts (kecamatan).

Background

Article 18 paragraph 1 of The 1945 Constitution states that "The Unitary State of the Republic of Indonesia is divided into provincial regions and those provincial regions are divided into regencies and city, whereby every one of those provinces, regencies, and municipalities has its regional government, which shall be regulated by laws."

According to the Law on Regional Government (UU 23/2014) the authority of the Provincial Government includes:

  1. Development planning and control;
  2. Planning, utilization, and community peace;
  3. Implementation of public order and public peace;
  4. Provision of public facilities and infrastructure;
  5. Handling the health sector;
  6. Education and allocation of potential human resources;
  7. Handling social problems across districts/cities;
  8. Services in the field of manpower across districts/cities;
  9. Facilitating the development of cooperatives, small and medium enterprises, including across districts/cities;
  10. Environmental control;
  11. Defense services, including across districts/cities;
  12. Population and civil registration services;
  13. Government general administration services;
  14. Investment administration services, including across districts/cities;
  15. The implementation of other basic services that cannot be carried out by districts/cities; and
  16. Other mandatory affairs mandated by laws and regulations.

The authority of the provincial government are government affairs which are located across regencies/municipalities, government affairs whose users are across regencies/municipalities, government affairs whose benefits or negative impacts lie across regencies/municipalities, government affairs which use more resources. efficient if carried out by the province.

Each province has a local government, headed by a governor and a legislative body (DPRD). The governor and members of local representative bodies are elected by popular vote for five-year terms, but governors can only serve for two terms. The general election to elect members of the DPRDs is conducted simultaneously with the national general election. Previously, the general elections for Governor and Vice Governor were not held simultaneously. However, since 2015 regional head elections have been held simultaneously. Under the plan, simultaneous partial local elections will be held in February 2017, June 2018, December 2020, culminating in simultaneous elections for all local executive posts on November 2024 and then every five years.

Current provinces

After the creation of Southwest Papua, Indonesia now has 38 provinces: 29 ordinary provinces and 9 provinces that have special status. The 1945 Constitution mentions that the state of Indonesia acknowledges and respects the special status of some of its regional governments. The special status is divided into two separate characteristics which in Indonesian are "Istimewa" and "Khusus". The main meaning for both is special in English, however Istimewa could also be translated to "privileged".

Seven provinces in Indonesia that have special characteristics are:

One province has "privileged" characteristics:

One province has both characteristics:

Click on a province name to go to its main article

Geographical units

Further information: Regions of Indonesia

The provinces are officially grouped into seven geographical units for statistical and national planning purposes, but without administrative function.[1]

Geographical unit Provinces Population
(mid-2021)[2]
Sumatra Aceh, the Bangka Belitung Islands, Bengkulu, Jambi, Lampung, North Sumatra, Riau, the Riau Islands, South Sumatra, and West Sumatra 59,185,800
Java Banten, Central Java, East Java, the Special Capital Region of Jakarta, the Special Region of Yogyakarta, and West Java 152,787,800
Kalimantan Central Kalimantan, East Kalimantan, North Kalimantan, South Kalimantan, and West Kalimantan 16,817,400
Lesser Sunda Islands Bali, East Nusa Tenggara, and West Nusa Tenggara 15,140,400
Sulawesi Central Sulawesi, Gorontalo, North Sulawesi, South Sulawesi, Southeast Sulawesi, and West Sulawesi 20,077,000
Maluku Islands Maluku and North Maluku 3,161,800
Western New Guinea Central Papua, Highland Papua, Papua, South Papua, Southwest Papua, and West Papua 5,512,300

Table of provinces

Provinces of Indonesia[3][4]
Arms Province Indonesian
name
Indonesian
acronym
ISO[5] Capital Population
(mid-2021
estimate)[6]
Area (km2) Density
(/km2)
(2010)
Geographical unit No. of cities &
regencies
No. of
cities
No. of
regencies
Coat of arms of Aceh.svg
Aceh Aceh Aceh ID - AC 5,333,700 57,956 77 Sumatra 23 5 18
Coat of arms of Bali.svg
Bali Bali Bali ID - BA 4,362,700 5,780 621 Lesser Sunda Islands 9 1 8
Coat of arms of Bangka Belitung Islands.svg
Bangka Belitung Islands Kepulauan Bangka Belitung Babel ID - BB 1,473,200 16,424 64 Sumatra 7 1 6
Coat of arms of Banten.svg
Banten Banten Banten ID - BT 12,061,500 9,662 909 Java 8 4 4
Coat of arms of Bengkulu.svg
Bengkulu Bengkulu Bengkulu ID - BE 2,032,900 19,919 84 Sumatra 10 1 9
Coat of arms of Central Java.svg
Central Java Jawa Tengah Jateng ID - JT 36,742,500 40,800 894 Java 35 6 29
Coat of arms of Central Kalimantan.svg
Central Kalimantan Kalimantan Tengah Kalteng ID - KT 2,702,200 153,564 14 Kalimantan 14 1 13
Central Papua Papua Tengah Pateng 1,409,000 66,129 27 Western New Guinea 8 0 8
Coat of arms of Central Sulawesi.svg
Central Sulawesi Sulawesi Tengah Sulteng ID - ST 3,021,900 61,841 41 Sulawesi 13 1 12
Coat of arms of East Java.svg
East Java Jawa Timur Jatim ID - JI 40,878,800 47,799 828 Java 38 9 29
Coat of arms of East Kalimantan.svg
East Kalimantan[7] Kalimantan Timur Kaltim ID - KI 3,808,200 127,267 22 Kalimantan 10 3 7
Coat of Arms of East Nusa Tenggara NEW.png
East Nusa Tenggara Nusa Tenggara Timur NTT ID - NT 5,387,700 48,718 92 Lesser Sunda Islands 22 1 21
Coat of arms of Gorontalo.svg
Gorontalo Gorontalo Gorontalo ID - GO 1,181,000 11,257 94 Sulawesi 6 1 5
Coat of arms of Highland Papua Province.png
Highland Papua Papua Pegunungan 1,408,600 108,476 20 Western New Guinea 8 0 8
Coat of arms of Jakarta.svg
Capital Special Region of Jakarta Daerah Khusus Ibukota Jakarta DKI Jakarta ID - JK 10,609,700 664 12,786 Java 6 5 1
Coat of arms of Jambi.svg
Jambi Jambi Jambi ID - JA 3,585,100 50,058 57 Sumatra 11 2 9
Coat of arms of Lampung.svg
Lampung Lampung Lampung ID - LA 9,081,800 34,623 226 Sumatra 15 2 13
Coat of arms of Maluku.svg
Maluku Maluku Maluku ID - MA 1,862,600 46,914 32 Maluku Islands 11 2 9
Coat of arms of North Kalimantan (2021 version).svg
North Kalimantan Kalimantan Utara Kaltara ID - KU 713,600 72,275 10 Kalimantan 5 1 4
Coat of arms of North Maluku.svg
North Maluku Maluku Utara Malut ID - MU 1,299,200 31,982 31 Maluku Islands 10 2 8
Coat of arms of North Sulawesi.svg
North Sulawesi Sulawesi Utara Sulut ID - SA 2,638,600 13,851 162 Sulawesi 15 4 11
Coat of arms of North Sumatra.svg
North Sumatra Sumatra Utara Sumut ID - SU 14,936,200 72,981 188 Sumatra 33 8 25
Coat of arms of Papua 2.svg
Papua Papua [b] Papua ID - PA 1,020,200 81,049 14 Western New Guinea 9 1 8
Coat of arms of Riau.svg
Riau Riau Riau ID - RI 6,493,600 87,023 52 Sumatra 12 2 10
Coat of arms of Riau Islands.svg
Riau Islands Kepulauan Riau Kepri ID - KR 2,118,200 8,201 208 Sumatra 7 2 5
Coat of arms of Southeast Sulawesi.svg
Southeast Sulawesi Sulawesi Tenggara Sultra ID - SG 2,659,200 38,067 51 Sulawesi 17 2 15
Coat of arms of South Kalimantan.svg
South Kalimantan Kalimantan Selatan Kalsel ID - KS 4,122,600 38,744 96 Kalimantan 13 2 11
South Papua Papua Selatan Pasel 517,600 131,493 4.1 Western New Guinea 4 0 4
Coat of arms of South Sulawesi.svg
South Sulawesi Sulawesi Selatan Sulsel ID - SN 9,139,500 46,717 151 Sulawesi 24 3 21
Coat of arms of South Sumatra.svg
South Sumatra Sumatra Selatan Sumsel ID - SS 8,550,900 91,592 86 Sumatra 17 4 13
Southwest Papua Papua Barat Daya PBD 591,069 38,821 15 Western New Guinea 6 1 5
Coat of arms of West Java.svg
West Java Jawa Barat Jabar ID - JB 48,782,400 35,377 1,176 Java 27 9 18
Coat of arms of West Kalimantan.svg
West Kalimantan Kalimantan Barat Kalbar ID - KB 5,470,800 147,307 30 Kalimantan 14 2 12
Coat of arms of West Nusa Tenggara.svg
West Nusa Tenggara Nusa Tenggara Barat NTB ID - NB 5,390,000 18,572 234 Lesser Sunda Islands 10 2 8
Coat of arms of West Papua.svg
West Papua Papua Barat Pabar ID - PB[8] 1,156,800 97,024 8 Western New Guinea 7 0 7
Coat of arms of West Sulawesi.svg
West Sulawesi Sulawesi Barat Sulbar ID - SR 1,436,800 16,787 73 Sulawesi 6 0 6
Coat of arms of West Sumatra.svg
West Sumatra Sumatra Barat Sumbar ID - SB 5,580,200 42,012 110 Sumatra 19 7 12
Coat of arms of Yogyakarta.svg
Special Region of Yogyakarta Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta DIY ID - YO 3,712,900 3,133 1,138 Java 5 1 4

Former provinces

Three-province Sumatra (1948–56) (L) and two-province Sulawesi (1960–64) with present-day municipality borders

Upon the independence of Indonesia, eight provinces were established. West Java, Central Java, East Java, and Maluku still exist as of today despite later divisions, while Sumatra, Kalimantan, Sulawesi, and Nusa Tenggara, formerly Lesser Sunda (Sunda Kecil) were fully liquidated by dividing them into new provinces. The province of Central Sumatra existed from 1948 to 1957, while East Timor was annexed as a province from 1976 until its power transfer to UNTAET in 1999 prior to its independence as a country in 2002.

Province Capital Period Successor(s)
Sumatra[9] Bukittinggi / Medan 1945–1948 Central Sumatra
North Sumatra
South Sumatra
Kalimantan[10] Banjarmasin 1945–1956 East Kalimantan
South Kalimantan
West Kalimantan
Nusa Tenggara[11] Singaraja 1945–1958 Bali
East Nusa Tenggara
West Nusa Tenggara
Sulawesi[12] Makassar / Manado 1945–1960 North-Central Sulawesi
South-Southeast Sulawesi
Central Sumatra
(Sumatra Tengah)[9][13]
Bukittinggi 1948–1957 Jambi
Riau
West Sumatra
North-Central Sulawesi
(Sulawesi Utara-Tengah)[14]
Manado 1960–1964 North Sulawesi
Central Sulawesi
South-Southeast Sulawesi
(Sulawesi Selatan-Tenggara)[14]
Makassar 1960–1964 South Sulawesi
Southeast Sulawesi
East Timor
(Timor Timur)[15]
Dili 1976–1999 Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste

New provinces made from currently-existing provinces

New province
(current name)
Year New province
(then name)
Province of origin
West Irian 1949, 1956,[16] 1963, 1969 Papua Maluku
Special Region of Yogyakarta 1950 Yogyakarta Central Java
Aceh 1956 Aceh North Sumatra
Central Kalimantan 1958 Central Kalimantan South Kalimantan
Jakarta Special Capital Region 1959 Greater Jakarta West Java
Lampung 1964 Lampung South Sumatra
Bengkulu 1967 Bengkulu South Sumatra
North Maluku 1999 North Maluku Maluku
Banten 2000 Banten West Java
Bangka Belitung Islands 2000 Bangka Belitung Islands South Sumatra
Gorontalo 2000 Gorontalo North Sulawesi
Riau Islands 2002 Riau Islands Riau
West Papua 2003 West Irian Jaya Irian Jaya
West Sulawesi 2004 West Sulawesi South Sulawesi
North Kalimantan 2012 North Kalimantan East Kalimantan
Central Papua 2022 Central Papua Papua
Highland Papua 2022 Highland Papua Papua
South Papua 2022 South Papua Papua
Southwest Papua 2022 Southwest Papua West Papua

Renamed provinces

Year Old name
(Indonesian)
Old name
(English)
New name
(Indonesian)
New name
(English)
Current name
1954 Sunda Kecil Lesser Sunda Nusa Tenggara Nusa Tenggara non-existent
1959 Aceh Aceh Daerah Istimewa Aceh Aceh Special Region Aceh
1961 Jakarta Raya Greater Jakarta Daerah Khusus Ibukota Jakarta Raya Greater Jakarta Special Capital Region Jakarta Special Capital Region
1973 Irian Barat West Irian Irian Jaya Irian Jaya Papua
1990 Daerah Khusus Ibukota Jakarta Raya Greater Jakarta Special Capital Region Daerah Khusus Ibukota Jakarta Jakarta Special Capital Region Jakarta Special Capital Region
2001 Daerah Istimewa Aceh Aceh Special Region Nanggroë Aceh Darussalam State of Aceh, the Abode of Peace Aceh
2002 Irian Jaya Irian Jaya Papua Papua Papua
2007 Irian Jaya Barat West Irian Jaya Papua Barat West Papua West Papua
2009 Nanggroë Aceh Darussalam State of Aceh, the Abode of Peace Aceh Aceh Aceh
Pre-1999 Maluku (L) and Irian Jaya (now Papua, R) with present-day municipality borders
Provinces in Western New Guinea, after the split of Papua Province into four provinces in July 2022
Provinces in Western New Guinea, after the split of Papua Province into four provinces in July 2022

Former provincial capitals

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Jakarta is a province-level Capital Special Region comprising five Kota Administrasis (administrative cities/municipalities) and one Kabupaten Administrasi (administrative regency).
  2. ^ Since 25 July 2022 Papua Province has been reduced to just the northern part of Western New Guinea, plus three regencies in Cenderawasih Bay, with most of the previous parts of the province split off to form three new provinces. Figures have been adjusted to take account of this separation.

References

  1. ^ ISO 3166-2:ID
  2. ^ Badan Pusat Statistik, Jakarta, 2022.
  3. ^ "Data Wilayah – Kementerian Dalam Negeri – Republik Indonesia". Archived from the original on 2012-02-22. Retrieved 2011-02-16.
  4. ^ Buku Induk—Kode dan Data Wilayah Administrasi Pemerintahan per Provinsi, Kabupaten/Kota dan Kecamatan Seluruh Indonesia (PDF) (in Indonesian), Kementerian Dalam Negeri [Ministry of Home Affairs], archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-11-19
  5. ^ ISO 3166-2:ID (ISO 3166-2 codes for the provinces of Indonesia)
  6. ^ Badan Pusat Statistik/Statistics Indonesia, Jakarta, 2022.
  7. ^ Figures adjusted to take account of the separation of Tarakan city and four regencies, as confirmed by Badan Pusat Statistik, to form the new province of North Kalimantan, listed separately in this table.
  8. ^ West Papua was created from the western portion of Papua province in February 2003, initially under the name of Irian Jaya Barat, and was renamed Papua Barat (West Papua) on 7 February 2007. The split remains controversial. In November 2004, the Constitutional Court of Indonesia ruled that the split violated Papua's autonomy laws. However, since the western province had already been created, it should remain separate from Papua. The ruling also aborted the creation of another proposed province, Central Irian Jaya, because the split was not yet completed. As of June 2008, an ISO 3166-2 code has not yet been published for West Papua. If one were to follow precedent, it would be ID-PB. Note: ISO 3166-2 Newsletter II-1 (corrected 2010-02-19) page 18-19 confirms this as ID-PB. See http://www.iso.org/iso/iso_3166-2_newsletter_ii-1_corrected_2010-02-19.pdf . The code ID-IJ now refers to the larger geographical region including Papua and West Papua.
  9. ^ a b "Peraturan Pemerintah Nomor 21 Tahun 1950" [Government Regulation Number 21 of 1950] (PDF). hukum.unsrat.ac.id (in Indonesian). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-12-11. Retrieved 1 May 2020.
  10. ^ "Undang-Undang Nomor 25 Tahun 1956" [Act Number 25 of 1956]. hukumonline.com (in Indonesian). Retrieved 14 November 2018.
  11. ^ "Undang-Undang Nomor 64 Tahun 1958" [Act Number 64 of 1958]. hukumonline.com (in Indonesian). Republic of Indonesia. Retrieved 14 November 2018.
  12. ^ "Peraturan Pemerintah Pengganti Undang-Undang Nomor 47 Tahun 1960" [Government Regulation in Lieu of Law Number 47 of 1960]. hukumonline.com (in Indonesian). Retrieved 14 November 2018.
  13. ^ "Undang-Undang Darurat Nomor 19 Tahun 1957" [Emergency Act Number 19 Year 1957]. hukumonline.com (in Indonesian). Retrieved 14 November 2018.
  14. ^ a b "Undang-Undang Nomor 13 Tahun 1964" [Act Number 13 of 1964]. hukumonline.com (in Indonesian). Retrieved 29 January 2020.
  15. ^ "Undang-Undang Republik Indonesia Nomor 7 Tahun 1976" [Act of the Republic of Indonesia Number 7 of 1976] (PDF) (in Indonesian). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2018-11-14. Retrieved 2018-11-14.
  16. ^ "UU No. 15 Tahun 1956 tentang Pembentukan Daerah Otonom Propinsi Irian Barat [JDIH BPK RI]". peraturan.bpk.go.id. Retrieved 2022-10-15.