|Provinces of Iran|
استانهای ایران (in Persian)
|Populations||580,158 (Ilam Province) – 13,267,637 (Tehran)|
|Areas||5,833 km2 (2,252 sq mi) (Alborz) – 183,285 km2 (70,767 sq mi) (Kerman Province)|
Iran is subdivided into thirty-one provinces (Persian: استان Ostān), each governed from a local centre, usually the largest local city, which is called the capital (Persian: مرکز, markaz) of that province. The provincial authority is headed by a Governor-general (Persian: استاندار Ostāndār), who is appointed by the Minister of the Interior subject to approval of the cabinet.
Iran has held its modern territory since the Treaty of Paris in 1857. From 1906 until 1950, Iran was divided into twelve provinces: Ardalan, Azerbaijan, Baluchestan, Fars, Gilan, Araq-e Ajam, Khorasan, Khuzestan, Kerman, Larestan, Lorestan, and Mazandaran.
In 1950, Iran was reorganized to form ten numbered provinces with subordinate governorates: Gilan; Mazandaran; East Azerbaijan; West Azerbaijan; Kermanshah; Khuzestan; Fars; Kerman; Khorasan; Isfahan.
Iran has had an historical claim to Bahrain as its 14th province: Bahrain Province, until 1971 under British colonial occupation. Prior to 1957, Bahrain was placed under Fars Province. During Safavid Iran, Bahrain was subordinate to Bushehr governorship and Zubarah (located in modern-day country of Qatar) was its capital city. In 1737, under Afsharid dynasty Bahrain was made subject to Fars governorship. This claim was reasserted by the new theocratic Iranian leadership after 1979 with the famous 1981 coup attempt that occurred.
From 1960 to 1981, the governorates were raised to provincial status one by one. Since then several new provinces have been created, most recently in 2010 when the new Alborz Province was split from Tehran province, and before that in 2004 when the province of Khorasan was divided into three provinces.
According to Donyaye Eqtesad, between 2017 and 2019, some 11 of the 20 poorest Iranian cities were in the province of Sistan and Baluchestan. Three other markedly poor cities were located in Kerman province. 
|Province||Capital||Population, 2016||Population 2011||Annual Population Growth Rate (2006-2016)||Population of the capital city||Capital's share of provincial population||Land Area (km2)||Population Density (people per km2)||Shahrestans (counties)||Life expectancy, male||Life expectancy, female||Notes||Map|
|Alborz||Karaj||2,712,400||2412513||3.21%||1592492||58.71%||5833||465.01||4||74.4||78||Until 23 June 2010, Alborz was part of Tehran province.|
|Ardabil||Ardabil||1,270,420||1248488||0.50%||529374||41.67%||17800||71.37||9||71.3||75.6||Until 1993, Ardabil was part of East Azerbaijan province.|
|Azerbaijan, West||Urmia||3,265,219||3080576||1.53%||793000||24.29%||37437||87.22||14||71.6||76.3||During the Pahlavi Dynasty Urmia was known as Rezaiyeh.|
|Bushehr||Bushehr||1,163,400||1032949||3.43%||223504||19.21%||22743||51.15||9||71||73.5||Originally part of Fars province. Until 1977, the province was known as Khalij-e Fars (Persian Gulf).|
|Chahar Mahaal and Bakhtiari||Shahrekord||947,763||895263||1.23%||190441||20.09%||16332||58.03||6||70.2||75||Until 1973 was part of Isfahan province.|
|Golestan||Gorgan||1,868,819||1777014||1.73%||350676||18.77%||20195||92.53||11||70.8||74.2||On the 31 May 1997, the shahrestans of Aliabad, Gonbad-e-kavus, Gorgan, Kordkuy, Minudasht, and Torkaman were separated from Mazandaran province to form Golestan province. Gorgan was called Esteraba or Astarabad until 1937.|
|Hamadan||Hamadan||1,738,234||1738214||0.50%||554405||31.53%||19368||90.78||8||71.2||75.6||Originally part of Kermanshah province.|
|Hormozgān||Bandar Abbas||1,776,415||1578183||3.01%||526648||29.65%||70669||25.14||11||69.9||73.7||Originally part of Kerman province. Until 1977, the province was known as Banader va Jazayer-e Bahr-e Oman (Ports and Islands of the Sea of Oman).|
|Ilam||Ilam||580,158||557599||0.35%||194030||33.44%||20133||28.82||7||70.5||72||Originally part of Kermanshah province.|
|Isfahan||Isfahan||5,120,850||4879312||1.64%||2132000||41.63%||107029||47.85||21||73||77||In 1986, some parts of Markazi province were transferred to Isfahan, Semnan, and Zanjan provinces.|
|Kermanshah||Kermanshah||1,952,434||1945227||0.60%||1026000||52.55%||24998||78.10||13||70.4||75.3||Between 1950 and 1979, both Kermanshah province and city were known as Kermanshahan and between 1979 and 1995 were known as Bakhtaran.|
|Khorasan, North||Bojnourd||863,092||867727||0.90%||228931||26.52%||28434||30.35||6||69.8||72.6||On 29 September 2004, Khorasan was divided into three provinces. North Khorasan; Razavi Khorasan; South Khorasan.|
|Khorasan, Razavi||Mashhad||6,434,501||5994402||1.67%||3208000||49.86%||118884||54.12||29||72.1||76.2||On 29 September 2004, Khorasan was divided into three provinces. North Khorasan; Razavi Khorasan; South Khorasan.|
|Khorasan, South||Birjand||768,898||662534||2.80%||203636||26.48%||151913||5.06||8||70.8||73.9||On 29 September 2004, Khorasan was divided into three provinces. North Khorasan; Razavi Khorasan; South Khorasan.|
|Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad||Yasuj||713,052||658629||1.47%||134532||18.87%||15504||45.99||5||71.2||73.1||Originally part of Khuzestan province. Until 1990, the province was known as Bovir Ahmadi and Kohkiluyeh.|
|Kurdistan||Sanandaj||1,603,011||1493645||1.32%||412767||25.75%||29137||55.02||9||70.6||74.1||Originally part of Gilan province.|
|Lorestan||Khorramabad||1,760,649||1754243||0.42%||373416||21.21%||28294||62.23||9||71.1||74.5||Originally part of Khuzestan province.|
|Markazi||Arak||1,429,475||1413959||0.77%||520944||36.44%||29130||49.07||10||72.9||76.7||Originally part of Mazandaran province. In 1986, some parts of Markazi province were transferred to Isfahan, Semnan, and Zanjan provinces.|
|Qazvin||Qazvin||1,273,761||1201565||1.29%||402748||31.62%||15549||81.92||5||71.8||75.3||On 31 December 1996, the shahrestans of Qazvin and Takestan were separated from Zanjan province to form the province of Qazvin.|
|Qom||Qom||1,292,283||1151672||2.47%||1288000||99.67%||11526||112.12||1||71.5||75.6||Until 1995, Qom was a shahrestan of Tehran province.|
|Semnan||Semnan||702,360||631218||2.30%||134532||19.15%||97491||7.20||4||73.2||76.1||Originally part of Mazandaran province. In 1986, some parts of Markazi province were transferred to Isfahan, Semnan, and Zanjan provinces.|
|Sistan and Baluchestan||Zahedan||2,775,014||2534327||1.81%||610000||21.98%||180726||15.35||8||65.7||69.2||Until 1986, the province was known as Baluchestan and Sistan.|
|Tehran||Tehran||13,267,637||12183391||1.82%||9135000||68.85%||18814||705.20||13||74.3||77.8||Until 1986, Tehran was part of Markazi province.|
|Yazd||Yazd||1,138,533||1074428||1.88%||529673||46.52%||76469||14.89||10||73.2||76.7||Originally part of Isfahan province. In 1986, part of Kerman province was transferred to Yazd province. In 2002, Tabas shahrestan (area: 55,344 km2) was transferred from Khorasan province to Yazd.|
|Zanjan||Zanjan||1,057,461||1015734||1.22%||430871||40.75%||21773||48.57||7||73.2||75.8||Originally part of Gilan province. In 1986, some parts of Markazi province were transferred to Isfahan, Semnan, and Zanjan provinces.|
|Iran (Total)||Tehran||79,926,270||75129615||1.55%||31654423||40%||1,628,554 km2 (628,788 sq mi)||49.078||342||72.5||75.9|