The Ponce City Hall, in the city of Ponce, Puerto Rico, is the seat of the government for both the city and the surrounding barrios making up the municipality.
The Ponce City Hall, in the city of Ponce, Puerto Rico, is the seat of the government for both the city and the surrounding barrios making up the municipality.
Map of all city municipalities in Slovenia

A municipality is usually a single administrative division having corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national and regional laws to which it is subordinate.

The term municipality may also mean the governing or ruling body of a given municipality.[1] A municipality is a general-purpose administrative subdivision, as opposed to a special-purpose district.

The term is derived from French municipalité and Latin municipalis.[2] The English word municipality derives from the Latin social contract municipium (derived from a word meaning "duty holders"), referring to the Latin communities that supplied Rome with troops in exchange for their own incorporation into the Roman state (granting Roman citizenship to the inhabitants) while permitting the communities to retain their own local governments (a limited autonomy).

A municipality can be any political jurisdiction from a sovereign state, such as the Principality of Monaco, to a small village, such as West Hampton Dunes, New York.

The territory over which a municipality has jurisdiction may encompass

Political powers

Powers of municipalities range from virtual autonomy to complete subordination to the state. Municipalities may have the right to tax individuals and corporations with income tax, property tax, and corporate income tax, but may also receive substantial funding from the state. In some European countries, such as Germany, municipalities have the constitutional right to supply public services through municipally-owned public utility companies.[4]

Terms in various countries

New York City as well as its composite five boroughs are all municipalities. .mw-parser-output .legend{page-break-inside:avoid;break-inside:avoid-column}.mw-parser-output .legend-color{display:inline-block;min-width:1.25em;height:1.25em;line-height:1.25;margin:1px 0;text-align:center;border:1px solid black;background-color:transparent;color:black}.mw-parser-output .legend-text{}  1. Manhattan   2. Brooklyn   3. Queens   4. The Bronx   5. Staten Island
New York City as well as its composite five boroughs are all municipalities.
  1. Manhattan
  2. Brooklyn
  3. Queens
  4. The Bronx
  5. Staten Island
A city or town municipalities (red-colored) with other non-town municipalities in Finland (2020)
A city or town municipalities (red-colored) with other non-town municipalities in Finland (2020)

Municipality

Terms cognate with "municipality", mostly referring to territory or political structure,[clarification needed] are Spanish municipio (Spain) and municipalidad (Chile), and Catalan municipi.

Communes

In many countries, terms cognate with "commune" are used, referring to the community living in the area and the common interest. These include terms:

The same terms may be used for church congregations or parishes, for example, in the German and Dutch Protestant churches.

Other terms

In Greece, the word Δήμος (demos) is used, also meaning 'community'; the word is known in English from the compound democracy (rule of the people).

In some countries, the Spanish term ayuntamiento, referring to a municipality's administration building, is extended via synecdoche to denote the municipality itself.[citation needed] In Moldova and Romania, both municipalities (municipiu; urban administrative units) and communes (comună; rural units) exist, and a commune may be part of a municipality.[citation needed]

In many countries, comparable entities may exist with various names.

English-speaking

Chinese-speaking

Municipalities by country

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Country Term Example Subdivision of Quantity Notes Further reading
Italy comune a province (provincia) which is part of a region (regione). 7,982 Solely used for subdivisions of larger comuni, especially in Rome; municipio indicates the city hall; in some case, they are joined in mountain communities (comunità montane)[14] List of municipalities of Italy
Philippines bayan, munisipyo or munisipalidad Naic a province (lalawigan or probinsya, except for Pateros) 1,488[15] A municipality is the official name for a town and is divided into barangays. Municipalities with a larger population and income may become a city through a city charter.[16] Municipalities of the Philippines
Puerto Rico municipio Arecibo none 78 municipality consists of an urban area (termed a city or town) plus all of its surrounding barrios comprising the municipality. It has a popularly elected administration and a municipal mayor. The seat of the municipal government is located in such urban area and serves the entire municipal jurisdiction.[17][18] Municipalities of Puerto Rico
Sweden kommun Stockholm Municipality

Gothenburg Municipality Malmö Municipality Ale Municipality

County Councils of Sweden (Swedish: landsting) self-governing local authority, covering 21 counties, each comprising one or more of the municipalities. 290 is self-governing according to the Swedish constitution and constitutes local government. Before 1971, a municipality could be called a town (stad), a köping or a rural municipality (landskommun); present municipalities which used to be towns are still commonly called towns. Sweden is also divided in 2 523 districts (Swedish: distrikt) since 1 January 2016.[19] Municipalities of Sweden

See also

References

  1. ^ "Municipality". Merriam-Webster.
  2. ^ "municipality definition". Yourdictionary.com.
  3. ^ "Santiago de Chile – Comunas". Mapas de Chile, Castor y Polux Ltda. Archived from the original on 20 September 2019. Retrieved 24 August 2011.
  4. ^ Andersen, Uwe. "Gemeinden/Kommunale Selbstverwaltung | bpb". bpb.de (in German). Retrieved 16 June 2020.
  5. ^ "Australian Standard Geographical Classification (ASGC)". Australian Bureau of Statistics. 28 September 2005.
  6. ^ "Municipal Government". The Canadian Encyclopedia > Government > Government, General > Municipal Government. Historica Foundation of Canada. 2009. Retrieved 17 July 2011.
  7. ^ a b "Interim List of Changes to Municipal Boundaries, Status, and Names – From January 2, 2010 to January 1, 2011" (PDF). Statistics Canada. April 2011. Retrieved 17 July 2011.
  8. ^ a b "List of Ontario Municipalities". Ontario Ministry of Municipal Affairs and Housing. 4 July 2011. Archived from the original on 28 February 2013. Retrieved 17 July 2011.
  9. ^ "Municipal Government Act" (PDF). Office of the Legislative Counsel, Nova Scotia House of Assembly. 7 January 2010. Retrieved 17 July 2011.
  10. ^ Wikisource:1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Municipality
  11. ^ "Legal Dictionary: Municipal Law". FindLaw.
  12. ^ "2009 Nevada Code". Justia.
  13. ^ "Kansas Statues". Lesterama.
  14. ^ The law provides for the possibility of overlapping of the office of President of the mountain community with that of mayor of one of the municipalities of the community: Buonomo, Giampiero (2001). "Compatibile il sindaco-dirigente della locale Comunità montana". Diritto&Giustizia Edizione Online. Archived from the original on 24 March 2016. Retrieved 18 March 2016.
  15. ^ "Philippine Standard Geographic Code – List of Municipalities". Philippine Statistics Authority. 31 March 2017. Archived from the original on 6 July 2016. Retrieved 12 May 2017.
  16. ^ "Republic Act 7160 – Local Government Act of 1991". Official Gazette (Philippines). 11 October 1991. Retrieved 2 October 2020.
  17. ^ Ayuda: Divulgación de Resultados de la Comisión Estatal de Elecciones – Municipio. Archived 21 October 2011 at the Wayback Machine Comision Estatal de Elecciones. Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico. San Juan, Puerto Rico. 2004. Retrieved 6 December 2011.
  18. ^ Autonomous Municipalities Law. (in Spanish) Archived 5 December 2010 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved 24 October 2011.
  19. ^ SFS 2015:493 Archived 30 September 2018 at the Wayback Machine, Svensk författningssamling: Förordning om distrikt.