Muban (Thai: หมู่บ้าน; RTGS: mu ban, pronounced [mùː bâːn]) is the lowest administrative sub-division of Thailand. Usually translated as 'village' and sometimes as 'hamlet', they are a subdivision of a tambon (subdistrict). As of 2008[update], there were 74,944 administrative mubans in Thailand. As of the 1990 census, the average village consisted of 144 households or 746 persons.
Muban may function as one word, in the sense of a hamlet or village, and as such may be shortened to ban. Mu ban may also function as two words, i.e., หมู่ 'group' (of) บ้าน 'homes'.
Such village names are not part of a household address, unless Ban is retained as part of the toponym when such a settlement is upgraded—e.g., a household in Ban Dan would be addressed as Ban No.__ Mu No.__, Ban Dan Sub-district, Ban Dan District, Buriram; or #/# T[ambon] Ban Dan, A[mphoe] Ban Dan, Buriram 31000.
Each such mu or group is led by a headman, usually called village headman or village chief (Thai: ผู้ใหญ่บ้าน; RTGS: phu yai ban), who is elected by the population of the village and then appointed by the Ministry of the Interior. The headman has two assistants, one for governmental affairs and one for security affairs. There also may be a village committee with elected members from the village, serving as an advisory body of a village. Originally the village headman, once elected, was in office until reaching retirement age. They now only serve for a five-year term but can then apply for reelection. The same is true for the office of kamnan (กำนัน) or 'sub-district headman' at the next higher tambon (sub-district) level.
Communities (ชุมชน) or neighborhoods that are part of a town or city (thesaban mueang and thesaban nakhon) have no equivalent to village headmen, but may be organized into community associations having advisory committees.
Muban (or more fully muban chat san, หมู่บ้านจัดสรร), is also the Thai term for 'housing estate' or 'gated community'.