World population growth from 10,000 BCE to 2021.[1]

High, medium, and low projections of the future human world population[2]

In demographics, the term world population is often used to refer to the total number of humans currently living, and was estimated to have exceeded 7.9 billion as of November 2021.[3] It took over two million years of human prehistory and history for the human population to reach one billion and only 207 years more to grow to 7 billion.[4]

The human population has experienced continuous growth following the Great Famine of 1315–1317 and the end of the Black Death in 1350, when it was near 370,000,000.[5] The highest global population growth rates, with increases of over 1.8% per year, occurred between 1955 and 1975 – peaking at 2.1% between 1965 and 1970.[6] The growth rate declined to 1.1% between 2015 and 2020 and is projected to decline further in the course of the 21st century.[7][8] The global population is still increasing, but there is significant uncertainty about its long-term trajectory due to changing rates of fertility and mortality.[9] The UN Department of Economics and Social Affairs projects between 9 and 10 billion people by 2050, and gives an 80% confidence interval of 10–12 billion by the end of the 21st century,[2] with a growth rate by then of zero.[8] Other demographers predict that the human population will begin to decline in the second half of the 21st century.[10]

The total number of births globally is currently (2015–20) 140 million/year, is projected to peak during the period 2040-45 at 141 million/year and thereafter decline slowly to 126 million/year by 2100.[11] The total number of deaths is currently 57 million/year and is projected to grow steadily to 121 million/year by 2100.[12]

The median age of human beings as of 2020 is 31 years.[13]

## Population by region

World population (millions, UN estimates)[14]
# Most populous countries 2000 2015 2030[A]
1 China[B] 1,270 1,376 1,416
2 India 1,053 1,311 1,528
3 United States 283 322 356
4 Indonesia 212 258 295
5 Pakistan 136 208 245
6 Brazil 176 206 228
7 Nigeria 123 182 263
9 Russia 146 146 149
10 Mexico 103 127 148
World total 6,127 7,349 8,501
Notes:
1. ^ 2030 = Medium variant.
2. ^ China excludes Hong Kong and Macau.

Six of the Earth's seven continents are permanently inhabited on a large scale. Asia is the most populous continent, with its 4.64 billion inhabitants accounting for 60% of the world population. The world's two most populated countries, China and India, together constitute about 36% of the world's population. Africa is the second most populated continent, with around 1.34 billion people, or 17% of the world's population. Europe's 747 million people make up 10% of the world's population as of 2020, while the Latin American and Caribbean regions are home to around 653 million (8%). Northern America, primarily consisting of the United States and Canada, has a population of around 368 million (5%), and Oceania, the least populated region, has about 42 million inhabitants (0.5%).[15] Antarctica only has a very small, fluctuating population of about 1200 people based mainly in polar science stations.[16]

Population by region (2020 estimates)
Region Density
(inhabitants/km2)
Population
(millions)
Most populous country Most populous city (metropolitan area)
Asia 104.1 4,641 1,411,778,000 –  China[note 1] 13,515,000 – Tokyo Metropolis
(37,400,000 – Greater Tokyo Area)
Africa 44.4 1,340 0,211,401,000 –  Nigeria 09,500,000 – Cairo
(20,076,000 – Greater Cairo)
Europe 73.4 747 0,146,171,000 –  Russia, approx. 110 million in Europe 13,200,000 – Moscow
(20,004,000 – Moscow metropolitan area)
Latin America 24.1 653 0,214,103,000 –  Brazil 12,252,000 – São Paulo City
(21,650,000 – São Paulo Metro Area)
Northern America[note 2] 14.9 368 0,332,909,000 –  United States 08,804,000 – New York City
(23,582,649 – New York metropolitan area[17])
Oceania 5 42 0,025,917,000 –  Australia 05,367,000 – Sydney
Antarctica ~0 0.004[16] N/A[note 3] 00,001,258 – McMurdo Station

## History

Visual comparison of the world population in past and present
 Further information: Estimates of historical world population and Human history

Estimates of world population by their nature are an aspect of modernity, possible only since the Age of Discovery. Early estimates for the population of the world[18] date to the 17th century: William Petty in 1682 estimated world population at 320 million (modern estimates ranging close to twice this number); by the late 18th century, estimates ranged close to one billion (consistent with modern estimates).[19] More refined estimates, broken down by continents, were published in the first half of the 19th century, at 600 million to 1 billion in the early 1800s and at 800 million to 1 billion in the 1840s.[20]

It is difficult for estimates to be better than rough approximations, as even modern population estimates are fraught with uncertainties on the order of 3% to 5%.[21]

### Ancient and post-classical history

 Main articles: Classical demography and Medieval demography

Estimates of the population of the world at the time agriculture emerged in around 10,000 BC have ranged between 1 million and 15 million.[22][23] Even earlier, genetic evidence suggests humans may have gone through a population bottleneck of between 1,000 and 10,000 people about 70,000 BC, according to the Toba catastrophe theory. By contrast, it is estimated that around 50–60 million people lived in the combined eastern and western Roman Empire in the 4th century AD.[24]

The Plague of Justinian, which first emerged during the reign of the Roman emperor Justinian, caused Europe's population to drop by around 50% between the 6th and 8th centuries AD.[25] The population of Europe was more than 70 million in 1340.[26] From 1340 to 1400, the world's population fell from an estimated 443 million to 350-375 million,[27] with the Indian subcontinent suffering the greatest loss and Europe suffering the Black Death pandemic;[28] it took 200 years for European population figures to recover.[29] The population of China decreased from 123 million in 1200 to 65 million in 1393,[30] presumably from a combination of Mongol invasions, famine, and plague.[31]

Starting in AD 2, the Han dynasty of ancient China kept consistent family registers in order to properly assess the poll taxes and labor service duties of each household.[32] In that year, the population of Western Han was recorded as 57,671,400 individuals in 12,366,470 households, decreasing to 47,566,772 individuals in 9,348,227 households by AD 146, towards the End of the Han dynasty.[32] From 200 to 400, the world population fell from an estimated 257 million to 206 million, with China suffering the greatest loss.[28] At the founding of the Ming dynasty in 1368, China's population was reported to be close to 60 million; toward the end of the dynasty in 1644, it may have approached 150 million.[33] England's population reached an estimated 5.6 million in 1650, up from an estimated 2.6 million in 1500.[34] New crops that were brought to Asia and Europe from the Americas by Portuguese and Spanish colonists in the 16th century are believed to have contributed to population growth.[35][36][37] Since their introduction to Africa by Portuguese traders in the 16th century,[38] maize and cassava have similarly replaced traditional African crops as the most important staple food crops grown on the continent.[39]

The pre-Columbian population of the Americas is uncertain; historian David Henige called it "the most unanswerable question in the world."[40] By the end of the 20th century, scholarly consensus favored an estimate of roughly 55 million people, but numbers from various sources have ranged from 10 million to 100 million.[41] Encounters between European explorers and populations in the rest of the world often introduced local epidemics of extraordinary virulence.[42] According to the most extreme scholarly claims, as many as 90% of the Native American population of the New World died of Old World diseases such as smallpox, measles, and influenza.[43] Over the centuries, the Europeans had developed high degrees of immunity to these diseases, while the indigenous peoples had no such immunity.[44]

### Modern history

Map showing urban areas with at least one million inhabitants in 2006. Only 3% of the world's population lived in urban areas in 1800; this proportion had risen to 47% by 2000, and reached 50.5% by 2010.[45] By 2050, the proportion may reach 70%.[46]

During the European Agricultural and Industrial Revolutions, the life expectancy of children increased dramatically.[47] The percentage of the children born in London who died before the age of five decreased from 74.5% in 1730–1749 to 31.8% in 1810–1829.[48][49] Between 1700 and 1900, Europe's population increased from about 100 million to over 400 million.[50] Altogether, the areas populated by people of European descent comprised 36% of the world's population in 1900.[51]

Population growth in the Western world became more rapid after the introduction of vaccination and other improvements in medicine and sanitation.[52] Improved material conditions led to the population of Britain increasing from 10 million to 40 million in the 19th century.[53] The population of the United Kingdom reached 60 million in 2006.[54] The United States saw its population grow from around 5.3 million in 1800 to 106 million in 1920, exceeding 307 million in 2010.[55]

The first half of the 20th century in Imperial Russia and the Soviet Union was marked by a succession of major wars, famines and other disasters which caused large-scale population losses (approximately 60 million excess deaths).[56][57] After the collapse of the Soviet Union, Russia's population declined significantly – from 150 million in 1991 to 143 million in 2012[58] – but by 2013 this decline appeared to have halted.[59]

Many countries in the developing world have experienced extremely rapid population growth since the early 20th century, due to economic development and improvements in public health. China's population rose from approximately 430 million in 1850 to 580 million in 1953,[60] and now stands at over 1.3 billion. The population of the Indian subcontinent, which was about 125 million in 1750, increased to 389 million in 1941;[61] today, India, Pakistan and Bangladesh are collectively home to about 1.63 billion people.[62] Java had about 5 million inhabitants in 1815; its present-day successor, Indonesia, now has a population of over 140 million.[63] In just one hundred years, the population of Brazil decupled (x10), from about 17 million in 1900, or about 1% of the world population in that year, to about 176 million in 2000, or almost 3% of the global population in the very early 21st century. Mexico's population grew from 13.6 million in 1900 to about 112 million in 2010.[64][65] Between the 1920s and 2000s, Kenya's population grew from 2.9 million to 37 million.[66]

### Milestones by the billions

 Main article: World population milestones
World population milestones in billions [3](Worldometers estimates)
Population 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Year 1804 1927 1960 1974 1987 1999 2011 2023 2037 2057
Years elapsed 123 33 14 13 12 12 12 14 20

The UN estimated that the world population reached one billion for the first time in 1804. It was another 123 years before it reached two billion in 1927, but it took only 33 years to reach three billion in 1960.[67] Thereafter, it took 14 years for the global population to reach four billion in 1974, 13 years to reach five billion in 1987, 12 years to reach six billion in 1999 and, according to the United States Census Bureau, 13 years to reach seven billion in March 2012.[68] The United Nations, however, estimated that the world population reached seven billion in October 2011.[69][70][71]

According to current projections from the UN, the global population will reach eight billion by 2023, but because the growth rate is slowing, it will take 14 years to reach around nine billion by 2037 and 20 years to reach 10 billion by 2057.[72] Alternative scenarios for 2050 range from a low of 7.4 billion to a high of more than 10.6 billion.[73] Projected figures vary depending on underlying statistical assumptions and the variables used in projection calculations, especially the fertility and mortality variables. Long-range predictions to 2150 range from a population decline to 3.2 billion in the "low scenario", to "high scenarios" of 24.8 billion.[73] One extreme scenario predicted a massive increase to 256 billion by 2150, assuming the global fertility rate remained at its 1995 level of 3.04 children per woman; however, by 2010 the global fertility rate had declined to 2.52.[74][75]

There is no estimation for the exact day or month the world's population surpassed one or two billion. The points at which it reached three and four billion were not officially noted, but the International Database of the United States Census Bureau placed them in July 1959 and April 1974 respectively. The United Nations did determine, and commemorate, the "Day of 5 Billion" on 11 July 1987, and the "Day of 6 Billion" on 12 October 1999. The Population Division of the United Nations declared the "Day of 7 Billion" to be 31 October 2011.[76] The United Nations intends to mark the birth of the eight billionth person on 15 November 2022.[77]

## Global demographics

 Main article: Demographics of the world
 .mw-parser-output .legend{page-break-inside:avoid;break-inside:avoid-column}.mw-parser-output .legend-color{display:inline-block;min-width:1.25em;height:1.25em;line-height:1.25;margin:1px 0;text-align:center;border:1px solid black;background-color:transparent;color:black}.mw-parser-output .legend-text{}  >80   77.5–80   75–77.5   72.5–75   70–72.5 67.5–70   65–67.5   60–65   55–60   50–55
2015 map showing average life expectancy by country in years. In 2015, the World Health Organization estimated the average global life expectancy as 71.4 years.[78]

As of 2012, the global sex ratio is approximately 1.01 males to 1 female. The greater number of men is possibly due to the significant sex imbalances evident in the Indian and Chinese populations.[79][80] Approximately 26.3% of the global population is aged under 15, while 65.9% is aged 15–64 and 7.9% is aged 65 or over.[79] The median age of the world's population is estimated to be 31 years in 2020,[13] and is expected to rise to 37.9 years by 2050.[81]

According to the World Health Organization, the global average life expectancy is 73.3 years as of 2020, with women living an average of 75.9 years and men approximately 70.8 years.[82] In 2010, the global fertility rate was estimated at 2.44 children per woman.[83] In June 2012, British researchers calculated the total weight of Earth's human population as approximately 287 million tonnes (630 billion pounds), with the average person weighing around 62 kilograms (137 lb).[84]

The IMF estimated nominal 2021 gross world product at US$94.94 trillion, giving an annual global per capita figure of around US$12,290.[85] Around 9.3% of the world population live in extreme poverty, subsisting on less than US$1.9 per day;[86] around 8.9% are undernourished.[87] 87% of the world's over-15s are considered literate.[88] As of April 2022, there were about 5 billion global Internet users, constituting 57% of the world population.[89] The Han Chinese are the world's largest single ethnic group, constituting over 19% of the global population in 2011.[90] The world's most-spoken languages are English (1.132B), Mandarin Chinese (1.117B), Hindi (615M), Spanish (534M) and French (280M). More than three billion people speak an Indo-European language, which is the largest language family by number of speakers. Standard Arabic is a language with no native speakers, but the total number of speakers is estimated at 274 million people.[91] The largest religious categories in the world as of 2020 are estimated as follows: Christianity (31.1%), Islam (24.9%), Unaffiliated (15.6%) and Hinduism (15.2%).[92] ## Largest populations by country  Further information: List of countries and dependencies by population ### 10 most populous countries Rank Country / Dependency Population Percentage of the world Date Source (official or from the United Nations) 1 China 1,412,600,000 17.7% 31 Dec 2021 National annual estimate[93] 2 India 1,373,761,000 17.2% 1 Mar 2022 Annual national estimate[94] 3 United States 332,967,888 4.18% 8 Aug 2022 National population clock[95] 4 Indonesia 272,248,500 3.42% 1 Jul 2021 National annual estimate[96] 5 Pakistan 229,488,994 2.88% 1 Jul 2022 UN projection[97] 6 Nigeria 216,746,934 2.72% 1 Jul 2022 UN projection[97] 7 Brazil 214,985,656 2.70% 8 Aug 2022 National population clock[98] 8 Bangladesh 168,220,000 2.11% 1 Jul 2020 Annual Population Estimate[99] 9 Russia 147,190,000 1.85% 1 Oct 2021 2021 preliminary census results[100] 10 Mexico 128,271,248 1.61% 31 Mar 2022 National quarterly estimate[101] Most populous countries, previous decade[needs update] A map of world population in 2019 Approximately 4.49 billion people live in these ten countries, representing around 56% of the world's population as of July 2022. ### Most densely populated countries  Further information: List of countries and dependencies by population density The tables below list the world's most densely populated countries, both in absolute terms and in comparison to their total populations. Population density (people per km2) map of the world in 1994. Purple and pink areas denote regions of highest population density. 10 most densely populated countries (with population above 5 million) Rank Country Population Area (km2) Density (pop/km2) 1 Singapore 5,704,000 710 8,033 2 Bangladesh 173,200,000 143,998 1,203 3 5,266,785 6,020 847 4 Lebanon 6,856,000 10,452 656 5 Taiwan 23,604,000 36,193 652 6 South Korea 51,781,000 99,538 520 7 Rwanda 12,374,000 26,338 470 8 Haiti 11,578,000 27,065 428 9 Netherlands 17,730,000 41,526 427 10 Israel 9,560,000 22,072 433 Countries ranking highly in both total population (more than 20 million people) and population density (more than 250 people per square kilometer): Rank Country Population Area (km2) Density (pop/km2) Population trend 1 India 1,381,030,000 3,287,240 420 Growing 2 Pakistan 229,530,000 803,940 286 Rapidly growing 3 Bangladesh 173,200,000 143,998 1,203 Rapidly growing 4 Japan 126,010,000 377,873 333 Declining[102] 5 Philippines 112,260,000 300,000 374 Growing 6 Vietnam 96,209,000 331,689 290 Growing 7 United Kingdom 66,436,000 243,610 273 Growing 8 South Korea 51,781,000 99,538 520 Steady 9 Taiwan 23,604,000 36,193 652 Steady 10 Sri Lanka 21,803,000 65,610 332 Growing ## Fluctuation  Main articles: Population growth, Projections of population growth, and Population dynamics Estimates of population evolution in different continents between 1950 and 2050, according to the United Nations. The vertical axis is logarithmic and is in millions of people. Population size fluctuates at differing rates in differing regions. Nonetheless, population growth has been the long-standing trend on all inhabited continents, as well as in most individual states. During the 20th century, the global population saw its greatest increase in known history, rising from about 1.6 billion in 1900 to over 6 billion in 2000[103] as the whole world entered the early phases of what has come to be called the “Demographic Transition”. Some of the key factors contributing to this increase included the lessening of the mortality rate in many countries by improved sanitation and medical advances, and a massive increase in agricultural productivity attributed to the Green Revolution.[104][105] By 2000, there were approximately ten times as many people on Earth as there had been in 1700. However, this rapid growth did not last. During the period 2000 – 2005, the United Nations estimates that the world's population was growing at an annual rate of 1.3% (equivalent to around 80 million people), down from a peak of 2.1% during the period 1965 – 1970.[7] Globally, although the population growth rate has been steadily declining from its peak in 1968,[106] growth still remains high in Sub-Saharan Africa.[107] Map of countries by fertility rate (2020), according to the Population Reference Bureau In fact, during the 2010s, Japan and some countries in Europe began to encounter negative population growth (i.e. a net decrease in population over time), due to sub-replacement fertility rates.[102] In 2019, the United Nations reported that the rate of population growth continues to decline due to the ongoing global demographic transition. If this trend continues, the rate of growth may diminish to zero by 2100, concurrent with a world population plateau of 10.9 billion.[7][72] However, this is only one of many estimates published by the UN; in 2009, UN population projections for 2050 ranged between around 8 billion and 10.5 billion.[108] An alternative scenario is given by the statistician Jorgen Randers, who argues that traditional projections insufficiently take into account the downward impact of global urbanization on fertility. Randers' "most likely scenario" reveals a peak in the world population in the early 2040s at about 8.1 billion people, followed by decline.[109] Adrian Raftery, a University of Washington professor of statistics and of sociology, states that "there’s a 70 percent probability the world population will not stabilize this century. Population, which had sort of fallen off the world’s agenda, remains a very important issue."[110] • Estimated world population figures, 10,000 BC–AD 2000 • Estimated world population figures, 10,000 BC–AD 2000 (in log y scale) • World population figures, 1950–2017 ### Annual population growth Global annual population growth[111] Year Population Yearly growth Density (pop/km2) Urban population % Number Number % 1951 2,584,034,261 1.88% 47,603,112 17 775,067,697 30% 1952 2,630,861,562 1.81% 46,827,301 18 799,282,533 30% 1953 2,677,608,960 1.78% 46,747,398 18 824,289,989 31% 1954 2,724,846,741 1.76% 47,237,781 18 850,179,106 31% 1955 2,773,019,936 1.77% 48,173,195 19 877,008,842 32% 1956 2,822,443,282 1.78% 49,423,346 19 904,685,164 32% 1957 2,873,306,090 1.80% 50,862,808 19 933,113,168 32% 1958 2,925,686,705 1.82% 52,380,615 20 962,537,113 33% 1959 2,979,576,185 1.84% 53,889,480 20 992,820,546 33% 1960 3,034,949,748 1.86% 55,373,563 20 1,023,845,517 34% 1961 3,091,843,507 1.87% 56,893,759 21 1,055,435,648 34% 1962 3,150,420,795 1.89% 58,577,288 21 1,088,376,703 35% 1963 3,211,001,009 1.92% 60,580,214 22 1,122,561,940 35% 1964 3,273,978,338 1.96% 62,977,329 22 1,157,813,355 35% 1965 3,339,583,597 2.00% 65,605,259 22 1,188,469,224 36% 1966 3,407,922,630 2.05% 68,339,033 23 1,219,993,032 36% 1967 3,478,769,962 2.08% 70,847,332 23 1,252,566,565 36% 1968 3,551,599,127 2.09% 72,829,165 24 1,285,933,432 36% 1969 3,625,680,627 2.09% 74,081,500 24 1,319,833,474 36% 1970 3,700,437,046 2.06% 74,756,419 25 1,354,215,496 37% 1971 3,775,759,617 2.04% 75,322,571 25 1,388,834,099 37% 1972 3,851,650,245 2.01% 75,890,628 26 1,424,734,781 37% 1973 3,927,780,238 1.98% 76,129,993 26 1,462,178,370 37% 1974 4,003,794,172 1.94% 76,013,934 27 1,501,134,655 37% 1975 4,079,480,606 1.89% 75,686,434 27 1,538,624,994 38% 1976 4,154,666,864 1.84% 75,186,258 28 1,577,376,141 38% 1977 4,229,506,060 1.80% 74,839,196 28 1,616,419,308 38% 1978 4,304,533,501 1.77% 75,027,441 29 1,659,306,117 39% 1979 4,380,506,100 1.76% 75,972,599 29 1,706,021,638 39% 1980 4,458,003,514 1.77% 77,497,414 30 1,754,201,029 39% 1981 4,536,996,762 1.77% 78,993,248 30 1,804,215,203 40% 1982 4,617,386,542 1.77% 80,389,780 31 1,854,134,229 40% 1983 4,699,569,304 1.78% 82,182,762 32 1,903,822,436 41% 1984 4,784,011,621 1.80% 84,442,317 32 1,955,106,433 41% 1985 4,870,921,740 1.82% 86,910,119 33 2,007,939,063 41% 1986 4,960,567,912 1.84% 89,646,172 33 2,062,604,394 42% 1987 5,052,522,147 1.85% 91,954,235 34 2,118,882,551 42% 1988 5,145,426,008 1.84% 92,903,861 35 2,176,126,537 42% 1989 5,237,441,558 1.79% 92,015,550 35 2,233,140,502 43% 1990 5,327,231,061 1.71% 89,789,503 36 2,290,228,096 43% 1991 5,414,289,444 1.63% 87,058,383 36 2,347,462,336 43% 1992 5,498,919,809 1.56% 84,630,365 37 2,404,337,297 44% 1993 5,581,597,546 1.50% 82,677,737 37 2,461,223,528 44% 1994 5,663,150,427 1.46% 81,552,881 38 2,518,254,111 44% 1995 5,744,212,979 1.43% 81,062,552 39 2,575,505,235 45% 1996 5,824,891,951 1.40% 80,678,972 39 2,632,941,583 45% 1997 5,905,045,788 1.38% 80,153,837 40 2,690,813,541 46% 1998 5,984,793,942 1.35% 79,748,154 40 2,749,213,598 46% 1999 6,064,239,055 1.33% 79,445,113 41 2,808,231,655 46% 2000 6,143,494,000 1.31% 79,255,000 41 2,868,308,000 46% 2001 6,222,627,000 1.29% 79,133,000 42 2,933,079,000 47% 2002 6,301,773,000 1.27% 79,147,000 42 3,001,808,000 47% 2003 6,381,185,000 1.26% 79,412,000 43 3,071,744,000 48% 2004 6,461,159,000 1.25% 79,974,000 43 3,143,045,000 48% 2005 6,541,907,000 1.25% 80,748,000 44 3,215,906,000 49% 2006 6,623,518,000 1.25% 81,611,000 44 3,289,446,000 50% 2007 6,705,947,000 1.24% 82,429,000 45 3,363,610,000 50% 2008 6,789,089,000 1.24% 83,142,000 46 3,439,719,000 50% 2009 6,872,767,000 1.23% 83,678,000 47 3,516,830,000 51% 2010 6,956,824,000 1.22% 84,057,000 47 3,594,868,000 51% 2011 7,041,194,000 1.21% 84,371,000 47 3,671,424,000 52% 2012 7,125,828,000 1.20% 84,634,000 48 3,747,843,000 52% 2013 7,210,582,000 1.19% 84,754,000 48 3,824,990,000 53% 2014 7,295,291,000 1.17% 84,709,000 49 3,902,832,000 53% 2015 7,379,797,000 1.16% 84,506,000 50 3,981,498,000 54% 2016 7,464,022,000 1.14% 84,225,000 50 4,060,653,000 54% 2017 7,547,859,000 1.12% 83,837,000 51 4,140,189,000 55% 2018 7,631,091,000 1.10% 83,232,000 51 4,219,817,000 55% 2019 7,713,468,000 1.08% 82,377,000 52 4,299,439,000 56% 2020 7,795,000,000 1.05% 81,331,000 52 4,378,900,000 56% ### Population growth by region  Main article: Population growth  Further information: Total fertility rate and Birth rate The table below shows historical and predicted regional population figures in millions.[112][113][114] The availability of historical population figures varies by region. World historical and predicted populations (in millions)[115][116][117] Region 1500 1600 1700 1750 1800 1850 1900 1950 1999 2008 2010 2012 2050 2150 World 585 660 710 791 978 1,262 1,650 2,521 6,008 6,707 6,896 7,052 9,725 9,746 Africa 86 114 106 106 107 111 133 221 783 973 1,022 1,052 2,478 2,308 Asia 282 350 411 502 635 809 947 1,402 3,700 4,054 4,164 4,250 5,267 5,561 Europe 168 170 178 190 203 276 408 547 675 732 738 740 734 517 Latin America[Note 1] 40 20 10 16 24 38 74 167 508 577 590 603 784 912 Northern America[Note 1] 6 3 2 2 7 26 82 172 312 337 345 351 433 398 Oceania 3 3 3 2 2 2 6 13 30 34 37 38 57 51 World historical and predicted populations by percentage distribution[115][116] Region 1500 1600 1700 1750 1800 1850 1900 1950 1999 2008 2010 2012 2050 2150 Africa 14.7 17.3 14.9 13.4 10.9 8.8 8.1 8.8 13.0 14.5 14.8 15.2 25.5 23.7 Asia 48.2 53.0 57.9 63.5 64.9 64.1 57.4 55.6 61.6 60.4 60.4 60.3 54.2 57.1 Europe 28.7 25.8 25.1 20.6 20.8 21.9 24.7 21.7 11.2 10.9 10.7 10.5 7.6 5.3 Latin America[Note 1] 6.8 3.0 1.4 2.0 2.5 3.0 4.5 6.6 8.5 8.6 8.6 8.6 8.1 9.4 Northern America[Note 1] 1.0 0.5 0.3 0.3 0.7 2.1 5.0 6.8 5.2 5.0 5.0 5.0 4.5 4.1 Oceania 0.5 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.6 0.5 ### Past population  Main article: Estimates of historical world population The following table gives estimates, in millions, of population in the past. The data for 1750 to 1900 are from the UN report "The World at Six Billion"[118] whereas the data from 1950 to 2015 are from a UN data sheet.[14] Year World Africa Asia Europe Latin America & Carib.[Note 1] North America [Note 1] Oceania Notes 70,000 BC < 0.015 0 0 [119] 10,000 BC 4 [120] 8000 BC 5 6500 BC 5 5000 BC 5 4000 BC 7 3000 BC 14 2000 BC 27 1000 BC 50 7 33 9 [citation needed] 500 BC 100 14 66 16 AD 1 200 23 141 28 1000 400 70 269 50 8 1 2 1500 458 86 243 84 39 3 3 1600 580 114 339 111 10 3 3 1700 682 106 436 125 10 2 3 1750 791 106 502 163 16 2 2 1800 1,000 107 656 203 24 7 3 1850 1,262 111 809 276 38 26 2 1900 1,650 133 947 408 74 82 6 1950 2,525 229 1,394 549 169 172 12.7 [121] 1955 2,758 254 1,534 577 193 187 14.2 1960 3,018 285 1,687 606 221 204 15.8 1965 3,322 322 1,875 635 254 219 17.5 1970 3,682 366 2,120 657 288 231 19.7 1975 4,061 416 2,378 677 326 242 21.5 1980 4,440 478 2,626 694 365 254 23.0 1985 4,853 550 2,897 708 406 267 24.9 1990 5,310 632 3,202 721 447 281 27.0 1995 5,735 720 3,475 728 487 296 29.1 2000 6,127 814 3,714 726 527 314 31.1 2005 6,520 920 3,945 729 564 329 33.4 2010 6,930 1,044 4,170 735 600 344 36.4 2015 7,349 1,186 4,393 738 634 358 39.3 Using the above figures, the change in population from 2010 to 2015 was: • World: +420 million • Africa: +142 million • Asia: +223 million • Europe: +3 million • Latin America and Caribbean: +35 million • Northern America: +14 million • Oceania: +2.9 million 1. North America is here defined to include the northernmost countries and territories of North America: Canada, the United States, Greenland, Bermuda, and St. Pierre and Miquelon. Latin America & Carib. comprises Mexico, Central America, the Caribbean, and South America. ### Projections  Main article: Projections of population growth This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (April 2020) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) Long-term global population growth is difficult to predict. The United Nations and the US Census Bureau both give different estimates – according to the UN, the world population reached seven billion in late 2011,[112] while the USCB asserted that this occurred in March 2012.[122] Since 1951 the UN has issued multiple projections of future world population, based on different assumptions. From 2000 to 2005, the UN consistently revised these projections downward, until the 2006 revision, issued on 14 March 2007, revised the 2050 mid-range estimate upwards by 273 million.[citation needed] Complicating the UN’s and others’ attempts to project future populations is the fact that average global birth rates, as well as mortality rates, are declining rapidly, as the nations of the world progress through the stages of the Demographic Transition, but both vary greatly between developed countries (where birth rates and mortality rates are often low) and developing countries (where birth and mortality rates typically remain high). Different ethnicities also display varying birth rates.[citation needed] Both of these can change rapidly due to disease epidemics, wars and other mass catastrophes, or advances in medicine and public health. The UN’s first report in 1951 showed that during the period 1950-55 the crude birth rate was 36.9/1,000 population and the crude death rate was 19.1/1,000. By the period 2015-20 both numbers had dropped significantly to 18.5/1,000 for the crude birth rate and 7.5/1,000 for the crude death rate. UN projections for 2100 show a further decline in the crude birth rate to 11.6/1,000 and an increase in the crude death rate to 11.2/1,000.[123],[124] The total number of births globally is currently (2015–20) 140 million/year, is projected to peak during the period 2040-45 at 141 million/year and thereafter decline slowly to 126 million/year by 2100.[11] The total number of deaths is currently 57 million/year and is projected to grow steadily to 121 million/year by 2100.[12] 2012 United Nations projections show a continued increase in population in the near future with a steady decline in population growth rate; the global population is expected to reach between 8.3 and 10.9 billion by 2050.[125][126] 2003 UN Population Division population projections for the year 2150 range between 3.2 and 24.8 billion.[74] One of many independent mathematical models supports the lower estimate,[127] while a 2014 estimate forecasts between 9.3 and 12.6 billion in 2100, and continued growth thereafter.[128][129] The 2019 Revision of the UN estimates gives the "medium variant" population as; nearly 8.6 billion in 2030, about 9.7 billion in 2050 and about 10.9 billion in 2100.[130] In December 2019, the German Foundation for World Population projected that the global population will reach 8 billion by 2023 as it increases by 156 every minute.[131] In a modelled future projection by the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation the global population was projected to peak in 2064 at 9.73 billion people and decline to 8.79 billion in 2100.[132] Some analysts have questioned the sustainability of further world population growth, highlighting the growing pressures on the environment,[133] global food supplies, and energy resources.[134][135][136] UN (medium variant – 2019 revision) and US Census Bureau (June 2015) estimates[137][138] Year UN est. (millions) Difference USCB est. (millions) Difference 2005 6,542 6,473 2010 6,957 415 6,866 393 2015 7,380 423 7,256 390 2020 7,795 415 7,643 380 2025 8,184 390 8,007 363 2030 8,549 364 8,341 334 2035 8,888 339 8,646 306 2040 9,199 311 8,926 280 2045 9,482 283 9,180 254 2050 9,735 253 9,408 228 UN 2019 estimates and medium variant projections (in millions)[137] Year World Asia Africa Europe Latin America/Caribbean Northern America Oceania 2000 6,144 3,741 (60.9%) 811 (13.2%) 726 (11.8%) 522 (8.5%) 312 (5.1%) 31 (0.5%) 2005 6,542 3,978 (60.8%) 916 (14.0%) 729 (11.2%) 558 (8.5%) 327 (5.0%) 34 (0.5%) 2010 6,957 4,210 (60.5%) 1,039 (14.9%) 736 (10.6%) 591 (8.5%) 343 (4.9%) 37 (0.5%) 2015 7,380 4,434 (60.1%) 1,182 (16.0%) 743 (10.1%) 624 (8.5%) 357 (4.8%) 40 (0.5%) 2020 7,795 4,641 (59.5%) 1,341 (17.2%) 748 (9.6%) 654 (8.4%) 369 (4.7%) 43 (0.6%) 2025 8,184 4,823 (58.9%) 1,509 (18.4%) 746 (9.1%) 682 (8.3%) 380 (4.6%) 45 (0.6%) 2030 8,549 4,974 (58.2%) 1,688 (19.8%) 741 (8.7%) 706 (8.3%) 391 (4.6%) 48 (0.6%) 2035 8,888 5,096 (57.3%) 1,878 (21.1%) 735 (8.3%) 726 (8.2%) 401 (4.5%) 50 (0.6%) 2040 9,199 5,189 (56.4%) 2,077 (22.6%) 728 (7.9%) 742 (8.1%) 410 (4.5%) 53 (0.6%) 2045 9,482 5,253 (55.4%) 2,282 (24.1%) 720 (7.6%) 754 (8.0%) 418 (4.4%) 55 (0.6%) 2050 9,735 5,290 (54.3%) 2,489 (25.6%) 711 (7.3%) 762 (7.8%) 425 (4.4%) 57 (0.6%) 2055 9,958 5,302 (53.2%) 2,698 (27.1%) 700 (7.0%) 767 (7.7%) 432 (4.3%) 60 (0.6%) 2060 10,152 5,289 (52.1%) 2,905 (28.6%) 689 (6.8%) 768 (7.6%) 439 (4.3%) 62 (0.6%) 2065 10,318 5,256 (51.0%) 3,109 (30.1%) 677 (6.6%) 765 (7.4%) 447 (4.3%) 64 (0.6%) 2070 10,459 5,207 (49.8%) 3,308 (31.6%) 667 (6.4%) 759 (7.3%) 454 (4.3%) 66 (0.6%) 2075 10,577 5,143 (48.6%) 3,499 (33.1%) 657 (6.2%) 750 (7.1%) 461 (4.4%) 67 (0.6%) 2080 10,674 5,068 (47.5%) 3,681 (34.5%) 650 (6.1%) 739 (6.9%) 468 (4.4%) 69 (0.7%) 2085 10,750 4,987 (46.4%) 3,851 (35.8%) 643 (6.0%) 726 (6.8%) 474 (4.4%) 71 (0.7%) 2090 10,810 4,901 (45.3%) 4,008 (37.1%) 638 (5.9%) 711 (6.6%) 479 (4.4%) 72 (0.7%) 2095 10,852 4,812 (44.3%) 4,152 (38.3%) 634 (5.8%) 696 (6.4%) 485 (4.5%) 74 (0.7%) 2100 10,875 4,719 (43.4%) 4,280 (39.4%) 630 (5.8%) 680 (6.3%) 491 (4.5%) 75 (0.7%) ## Mathematical approximations In 1975, Sebastian von Hoerner proposed a formula for population growth which represented hyperbolic growth with an infinite population in 2025.[139] The hyperbolic growth of the world population observed until the 1970s was later correlated to a non-linear second-order positive feedback between demographic growth and technological development. This feedback can be described as follows: technological advance → increase in the carrying capacity of land for people → demographic growth → more people → more potential inventors → acceleration of technological advance → accelerating growth of the carrying capacity → faster population growth → accelerating growth of the number of potential inventors → faster technological advance → hence, the faster growth of the Earth's carrying capacity for people, and so on.[140] The transition from hyperbolic growth to slower rates of growth is related to the demographic transition. According to the Russian demographer Sergey Kapitsa,[141] the world population grew between 67,000 BC and 1965 according to the following formula: ${\displaystyle N={\frac {C}{\tau ))\operatorname {arccot} {\frac {T_{0}-T}{\tau )),}$ where N is current population, T is the current year, C = (1.86 ± 0.01)·1011, T0 = 2007 ± 1, ${\displaystyle \tau }$ = 42 ± 1. ### Years for world population to double According to linear interpolation and extrapolation of UNDESA population estimates, the world population has doubled, or will double, in the years listed in the tables below (with two different starting points). During the 2nd millennium, each doubling took roughly half as long as the previous doubling, fitting the hyperbolic growth model mentioned above. However, after 2024, it is unlikely that there will be another doubling of the global population in the 21st century.[142] Historic chart showing the periods of time the world population has taken to double, from 1700 to 2000 Starting at 500 million Population (in billions) 0.5 1 2 4 8 Year 1500 1804 1927 1974 2024 Years elapsed 304 123 47 50 Starting at 375 million Population (in billions) 0.375 0.75 1.5 3 6 Year 1171 1715 1881 1960 1999 Years elapsed 544 166 79 39 ## Number of humans who have ever lived  Further information: Prehistoric demography Estimates of the total number of humans who have ever lived range is estimated to be of the order of 100 billion. Such estimates can only be rough approximations, as even modern population estimates are subject to uncertainty of around 3% to 5%.[21] Kapitsa (1996) cites estimates ranging between 80 and 150 billion.[143] The PRB puts the figure at 117 billion as of 2020, estimating that the current world population is 6.7% of all the humans who have ever lived.[144] Haub (1995) prepared another figure, updated in 2002 and 2011; the 2011 figure was approximately 107 billion.[145][146][147] Haub characterized this figure as an estimate that required "selecting population sizes for different points from antiquity to the present and applying assumed birth rates to each period".[146] Robust population data only exist for the last two or three centuries. Until the late 18th century, few governments had ever performed an accurate census. In many early attempts, such as in Ancient Egypt and the Persian Empire, the focus was on counting merely a subset of the population for purposes of taxation or military service.[148] Thus, there is a significant margin of error when estimating ancient global populations. Pre-modern infant mortality rates are another critical factor for such an estimate; these rates are very difficult to estimate for ancient times due to a lack of accurate records. Haub (1995) estimates that around 40% of those who have ever lived did not survive beyond their first birthday. Haub also stated that "life expectancy at birth probably averaged only about ten years for most of human history",[146] which is not to be mistaken for the life expectancy after reaching adulthood. The latter equally depended on period, location and social standing, but calculations identify averages from roughly 30 years upward. ## See also ## Explanatory notes 1. ^ Excluding its Special Administrative Regions (SARs) of Hong Kong and Macau. 2. ^ Excludes Mexico, Central America and the Caribbean, which are included here under Latin America. 3. ^ The Antarctic Treaty System limits the nature of national claims in Antarctica. Of the territorial claims in Antarctica, the Ross Dependency has the largest population. ## References 1. ^ "World population estimates and UN projection". Our World in Data. Retrieved 1 November 2021. 2. ^ a b "World Population Prospects - Population Division - United Nations". population.un.org. Retrieved 1 November 2021. 3. ^ a b "World population". worldometers. 10 November 2021. Retrieved 10 November 2021. 4. ^ "World Population to Hit Milestone With Birth of 7 Billionth Person". PBS NewsHour. 27 October 2011. Archived from the original on 24 September 2017. Retrieved 11 February 2018. 5. ^ Jean-Noël Biraben (1980), "An Essay Concerning Mankind's Evolution". Population, Selected Papers. Vol. 4. pp. 1–13. Original paper in French:(b) Jean-Noël Biraben (1979)."Essai sur l'évolution du nombre des hommes". Population. Vol. 34 (no. 1). pp. 13–25. 6. ^ "World Population Prospects". esa.un.org. Population Division – United Nations. Archived from the original on 19 September 2016. Retrieved 15 September 2016. 7. ^ a b c "World Population Prospects 2019, Population Growth Rate file, estimates tab". United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs. 2019. 8. ^ a b "World Population Prospects 2019, Population Growth Rate file, medium variant tab". United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs. 2019. 9. ^ Ortiz-Ospina, Esteban; Roser, Max (9 May 2013). "World Population Growth". Our World in Data. Archived from the original on 13 October 2016. Retrieved 13 October 2016. 10. ^ Cave, Damien; Bubola, Emma; Sang-Hun, Choe (22 May 2021). "Long Slide Looms for World Population, With Sweeping Ramifications". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 28 December 2021. Retrieved 23 May 2021. 11. ^ a b "World Population Prospects 2019, Births file". United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs. 2019. 12. ^ a b "World Population Prospects 2019, Deaths file". United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs. 2019. 13. ^ a b "World", The World Factbook, Central Intelligence Agency, 19 October 2021, retrieved 1 November 2021 14. ^ a b "World Population Prospects: The 2015 Revision". UN Population Division. Archived from the original on 22 December 2015. Retrieved 19 January 2016.. Linked to at Download Files, where it states that the figures are for 1 July of the given year. 15. ^ "Regions in the world by population (2020)". Retrieved 5 October 2020. 16. ^ a b "Antarctica". CIA World Factbook. 19 June 2014. Retrieved 18 March 2015. 17. ^ "USA: Combined Metropolitan Areas". CityPopulation.de. August 2021. Retrieved 19 November 2021. 18. ^ the compound "world population" becomes common from c. the 1930s, adapted from early 20th-century "world's population"; pre-20th century authors use "population of the world". 19. ^ "The population of the world, which Sir W. P. in 1682, stated at only 320 millions, has been estimated by some writers at about 730 millions, by others, at upwards of 900 millions; Mr. Wallace, of Edinburgh, conjectured it might amount to 1 billion, and this number has since generally been adopted who have noticed the subject;" The Monthly Magazine 4 (July–December 1797), p. 167. 20. ^ 600 million: Simon Gray, The Happiness of States (1818), p. 356 Archived 6 June 2019 at the Wayback Machine. 800 million: Gordon Hall, Samuel Newell, The Conversion of the World (1818), p. 10 Archived 6 June 2019 at the Wayback Machine. 800 to 1000 million: John Redman Coxe, Considerations Respecting the Recognition of Friends in Another World (1845), p. 21 (footnote with references). 21. ^ a b "[E]ven recent demographic data is accurate only from 3 to 5%, although in demography traditionally more digits are indicated than those having a meaning. This is partially due to the ethical difficulty in rounding off numbers that supposedly represent real people, officially counted during a census". Sergei P. Kapitza, "The phenomenological theory of world population growth", Physics-Uspekhi 39(1) 57–71 (1996). 22. ^ Luc-Normand Tellier (2009). Urban world history: an economic and geographical perspective. p. 26. ISBN 978-2-7605-1588-8. 23. ^ Ralph Thomlinson, 1975, Demographic Problems: Controversy over population control, 2nd Ed., Dickenson Publishing Company, Ecino, CA, ISBN 0-8221-0166-1. 24. ^ Dr. Kenneth W. Harl (1998). "Population estimates of the Roman Empire". Tulane.edu. Archived from the original on 7 May 2016. Retrieved 8 December 2012. 25. ^ "Plague, Plague Information, Black Death Facts, News, Photos". National Geographic. Archived from the original on 22 July 2013. Retrieved 3 November 2008. 26. ^ "History of Europe – Demographic and agricultural growth". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2012. Archived from the original on 20 December 2012. Retrieved 17 December 2012. 27. ^ "Historical Estimates of World Population". Census.gov. Archived from the original on 9 July 2012. Retrieved 12 November 2016. 28. ^ a b Biraben, Jean-Noël (1979). "Essai sur l'évolution du nombre des hommes". Population. 34 (1): 13–25. Retrieved 11 February 2022. 29. ^ Jay, Peter (17 July 2000). "A Distant Mirror". TIME Europe. 156 (3). Archived from the original on 25 July 2008. Retrieved 9 August 2014. 30. ^ Horst R. Thieme (2003). Mathematics in population biology. p. 285. ISBN 978-0-691-09291-1. 31. ^ Graziella Caselli; Gillaume Wunsch & Jacques Vallin (2005). Demography: Analysis and Synthesis, Four Volume Set: A Treatise in Population. p. 34. ISBN 978-0-12-765660-1. 32. ^ a b Nishijima, Sadao (1986), "The economic and social history of Former Han", in Twitchett, Denis; Loewe, Michael, Cambridge History of China: Volume I: the Ch'in and Han Empires, 221 B.C. – A.D. 220, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp 595-96. 33. ^ "Qing China's Internal Crisis: Land Shortage, Famine, Rural Poverty". Columbia University: Asia for Educators. 2009. Archived from the original on 8 July 2011. Retrieved 9 July 2013. 34. ^ "History of Europe – Demographics". Encyclopædia Britannica. Archived from the original on 23 July 2013. Retrieved 9 July 2013. 35. ^ "China's Population: Readings and Maps". Columbia University: East Asian Curriculum Project. Archived from the original on 19 July 2011. Retrieved 18 December 2012. 36. ^ "The Columbian Exchange". University of North Carolina. Archived from the original on 26 July 2011. Retrieved 18 December 2012. 37. ^ Collingham, Lizzie (2006). Vindaloo: the Portuguese and the chilli pepper. Curry: A Tale of Cooks and Conquerors. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 47–73. ISBN 978-0-19-988381-3. 38. ^ "Super-Sized Cassava Plants May Help Fight Hunger in Africa". Ohio State University. 24 May 2006. Archived from the original on 8 December 2013. Retrieved 9 July 2013. 39. ^ Brabazon, James (2000). Albert Schweitzer: a biography. Syracuse University Press. p. 242. ISBN 978-0-8156-0675-8. 40. ^ "U.S. News & World Report: How many people were here before Columbus? Pick a number". 18 August 1997. Archived from the original on 5 March 2008. Retrieved 9 August 2019. 41. ^ Snow, D. R (16 June 1995). "Microchronology and Demographic Evidence Relating to the Size of Pre-Columbian North American Indian Populations". Science. 268 (5217): 1601–1604. Bibcode:1995Sci...268.1601S. doi:10.1126/science.268.5217.1601. PMID 17754613. S2CID 8512954. 42. ^ Arthur C. Aufderheide; Conrado Rodríguez-Martín & Odin Langsjoen (1998). The Cambridge encyclopedia of human paleopathology. Cambridge University Press. p. 205. ISBN 978-0-521-55203-5. 43. ^ "The Story Of... Smallpox – and other Deadly Eurasian Germs". Public Broadcasting Service. 2005. Archived from the original on 29 January 2018. Retrieved 24 April 2013. 44. ^ Austin Alchon, Suzanne (2003). A pest in the land: new world epidemics in a global perspective. University of New Mexico Press. p. 31. ISBN 978-0-8263-2871-7. Archived from the original on 18 May 2016. Retrieved 15 November 2015. 45. ^ "World Demographics Profile 2012". Index Mundi. Archived from the original on 7 June 2012. Retrieved 22 May 2012. 46. ^ "By 2050, 70% of the world's population will be urban. Is that a good thing?". Fast Co. Design. 2012. Archived from the original on 12 May 2012. Retrieved 1 May 2012. 47. ^ Population crises and cycles in history – A review by Claire Russell and W.M.S. Russell, Vicnet.net.au, archived from the original on 5 April 2011, retrieved 26 March 2015 48. ^ Buer, Mabel C. (1926). Health, Wealth and Population in the Early Days of the Industrial Revolution. London: George Routledge & Sons. p. 30. ISBN 978-0-415-38218-2. 49. ^ "The Foundling Hospital". BBC History. 5 October 2012. Archived from the original on 17 June 2013. Retrieved 22 April 2013. 50. ^ "Modernization – Population Change". Encyclopædia Britannica. Archived from the original on 6 April 2009. Retrieved 6 February 2013. 51. ^ Graziella Caselli; Gillaume Wunsch & Jacques Vallin (2005). Demography: Analysis and Synthesis, Four Volume Set: A Treatise in Population. p. 42. ISBN 978-0-12-765660-1. 52. ^ "Victorian Medicine – From Fluke to Theory". BBC History. 1 February 2002. Archived from the original on 5 March 2013. Retrieved 17 February 2013. 53. ^ "A portrait of Britain in 2031". The Independent. 24 October 2007. Archived from the original on 9 December 2017. Retrieved 17 February 2013. 54. ^ "UK population breaks through 60m". BBC News. 24 August 2006. Archived from the original on 8 February 2009. Retrieved 14 April 2012. 55. ^ "US population through history". About.com. Archived from the original on 13 January 2012. Retrieved 14 April 2012. 56. ^ Jay Winter, Emmanuel Sivan (2000). War and Remembrance in the Twentieth Century. Cambridge University Press. p. 64. ISBN 978-0521794367. Archived from the original on 4 September 2015. Retrieved 20 July 2015. 57. ^ Mark Harrison (2002). Accounting for War: Soviet Production, Employment, and the Defence Burden, 1940–1945. p. 167. ISBN 978-0-521-89424-1. 58. ^ "Vladimir Putin vows to reverse Russian population decline". The Daily Telegraph. 13 February 2012. Archived from the original on 24 April 2012. Retrieved 13 April 2012. 59. ^ "Russia's Population Decline Said To Have 'Stopped'". Radio Free Europe. 27 May 2013. Retrieved 15 June 2013. 60. ^ Schran, Peter (1978). "China's demographic evolution 1850–1953 reconsidered". The China Quarterly. 75 (75): 639–646. doi:10.1017/S0305741000042594. JSTOR 652987. 61. ^ "Reintegrating India with the World Economy" (PDF). Peterson Institute for International Economics. 2003. Archived (PDF) from the original on 4 March 2012. Retrieved 8 November 2012. 62. ^ "The World Factbook – Central Intelligence Agency". cia.gov. Archived from the original on 27 September 2011. Retrieved 8 January 2017. 63. ^ "Java (island, Indonesia)". Encyclopædia Britannica. Archived from the original on 9 July 2013. Retrieved 7 July 2013. 64. ^ Jorge Durand (March 2004). "From Traitors to Heroes: 100 Years of Mexican Migration Policies". University of Guadalajara. Archived from the original on 5 May 2011. Retrieved 16 July 2013. 65. ^ "Population and Housing Census: Mexico 2010" (PDF). University of Minnesota. 3 March 2011. Archived (PDF) from the original on 3 November 2013. Retrieved 16 July 2013. 66. ^ Heinsohn, Gunnar (7 January 2008). "Kenya's Violence: Exploding population". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 15 July 2014. Retrieved 7 July 2013. 67. ^ "The World at Six Billion: Introduction" (PDF). United Nations. 1999. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 February 2016. Retrieved 14 July 2013. 68. ^ "U.S. Census Bureau – World POPClock Projection". July 2013. Archived from the original on 18 November 2011. Retrieved 18 February 2018. The number on this page is automatically updated daily. 69. ^ "Population seven billion: UN sets out challenges". BBC News. 26 October 2011. Archived from the original on 26 October 2011. Retrieved 27 October 2011. 70. ^ Coleman, Jasmine (31 October 2011). "World's 'seven billionth baby' is born". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on 30 September 2013. Retrieved 31 October 2011. 71. ^ "7 billion people is a 'serious challenge". UPI. 31 October 2011. Archived from the original on 3 November 2011. Retrieved 9 November 2011. 72. ^ a b "World Population Prospects 2019, Total Population - Both Sexes file, Medium Variant tab". United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs. 2019. 73. ^ a b *"Ch. 5: Population Size and Composition" (PDF). World Population Prospects, the 2000 Revision. Vol. III. United Nations Population Division. p. 171. Retrieved 3 July 2010. 74. ^ a b "Key Findings" (PDF). Long-Range Population Projections. Proceedings of the United Nations Technical Working Group on Long-Range Population Projections. New York: United Nations: Department of Economic and Social Affairs. 2003. Retrieved 3 July 2010. 75. ^ "Total fertility estimates, 1950–2010". UN Population Division. April 2011. Archived from the original on 7 June 2012. Retrieved 14 June 2012. 76. ^ "World Population Prospects, the 2008 Revision – Frequently Asked Questions". Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat. 10 November 2010. Archived from the original on 24 February 2015. Retrieved 26 March 2015. 77. ^ "World population to reach 8 billion this year, as growth rate slows", UN News, 11 July 2022. 78. ^ "World Health Statistics 2016: Monitoring health for the SDGs Annex B: tables of health statistics by country, WHO region and globally" (PDF). World Health Organization. 2016. p. 110. Archived (PDF) from the original on 17 May 2018. Retrieved 3 August 2018. 79. ^ a b "World Demographics Profile 2011". Index Mundi. Archived from the original on 30 November 2011. Retrieved 18 November 2011. 80. ^ "Sex-ratio imbalance in Asia: Trends, consequences and policy responses" (PDF). UNFPA. 2007. Archived (PDF) from the original on 4 June 2012. Retrieved 20 May 2012. 81. ^ Janneh, Abdoulie (April 2012). "General debate on national experience in population matters: adolescents and youth" (PDF). United Nations Economic Commission for Africa. Archived (PDF) from the original on 10 November 2013. Retrieved 19 February 2014. 82. ^ "WHO, 2020 Life Expectancy". Apps.who.int. Retrieved 27 July 2022. 83. ^ "Children per woman". Our World in Data. Retrieved 1 November 2021. 84. ^ "Global weight gain more damaging than rising numbers". BBC. 18 June 2012. Archived from the original on 4 February 2013. Retrieved 12 February 2013. 85. ^ "World Economic Outlook (October 2021)". Imf.org. Retrieved 1 November 2021. 86. ^ "Poverty headcount ratio at$1.90 a day (2011 PPP) (% of population) | Data". data.worldbank.org. Retrieved 1 November 2021.
87. ^ Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, The State of Food Insecurity in the World Archived 11 June 2014 at the Wayback Machine. WorldHunger.org. 2012. Retrieved 26 April 2012.
88. ^ "Literacy Rate, Adult Total (% of people ages 15 and above)". The World Bank. September 2021.
89. ^ "Global digital population as of April 2022". Statista. April 2022.
90. ^ "World’s Most Typical Person: Han Chinese Man" Archived 6 June 2019 at the Wayback Machine. Wall Street Journal. 4 March 2011. Retrieved 18 November 2011.
91. ^ Ghosh, Iman (15 February 2020). "Ranked: The 100 Most Spoken Languages Around the World". Visual Capitalist. Retrieved 1 November 2021.
92. ^ "Religious Composition by Country, 2010-2050". Pew Research Center. 2 April 2015.
93. ^ "人口总量保持增长，增长速度持续放缓" [The total population keeps growing, and the growth rate continues to slow down]. National Bureau of Statistics of China (in Chinese). Retrieved 18 January 2022.
94. ^ "Report Population Projection 2019" (PDF). Nhm.gov.in. Retrieved 27 July 2022.
95. ^ "Population Clock". Census.gov. Archived from the original on 17 November 2015. Retrieved 18 April 2020.
96. ^ "Mid Year Population (Thousand People)". Badan Pusat Statistik - Indonesia. Retrieved 16 March 2022.
97. ^ a b United Nations. "World Population Prospects 2019".
98. ^ "IBGE | Projeção da população". Ibge.gov.br. Archived from the original on 4 February 2020. Retrieved 22 November 2019.
99. ^ "MONTHLY STATISTICAL BULLETIN-BANGLADESH" (PDF). 2022-05-12-10-42-55414488d843db66462b5410cb439c22.pdf. Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics. February 2022. Archived (PDF) from the original on 8 June 2022. Retrieved 8 June 2022.
100. ^ Times, The Moscow (30 May 2022). "Russia Reports 147M Population in 2021". The Moscow Times. Retrieved 2 June 2022.
101. ^ "Mexico Population | Moody's Analytics". Economy.com. Retrieved 2 June 2022.
102. ^ a b Demetriou, Danielle (17 April 2013). "Japan's population suffers biggest fall in history". The Daily Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on 21 May 2013. Retrieved 22 July 2013.
103. ^ "World Population Clock (under World Pop Milestone section)". Worldometer. 2022.
104. ^ "The limits of a Green Revolution?". BBC News. 29 March 2007. Archived from the original on 28 July 2011. Retrieved 1 August 2010.
105. ^ "The Real Green Revolution". Energybulletin.net. Archived from the original on 22 April 2008. Retrieved 1 August 2010.
106. ^ Roser, Max (18 June 2019). "Two centuries of rapid global population growth will come to an end". Our World In Data.
107. ^ Ron Nielsen (2006). The Little Green Handbook. New York: Picador. ISBN 978-0-312-42581-4.
108. ^ "UN population estimates and projections, database query, August 2009". United Nations. 11 March 2009. Archived from the original on 19 August 2010. Retrieved 1 August 2010.
109. ^ Randers, Jorgen (2012). 2052: A Global Forecast for the Next Forty Years. Vermont: Chelsea Green Publishing. p. 62.
110. ^ World population to keep growing this century, hit 11 billion by 2100 Archived 4 December 2016 at the Wayback Machine. UWToday. 18 September 2014
111. ^ "World Population by Year". Worldometers.info. Retrieved 30 May 2020.
112. ^ a b "World Population Prospects: The 2008 Revision" (PDF). Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat. June 2009. Archived (PDF) from the original on 19 March 2013. Retrieved 20 June 2013.
113. ^ "The World at Six Billion". United Nations. 12 October 1999. Archived from the original on 9 July 2013. Retrieved 1 August 2010.
114. ^ "Population Growth over Human History". University of Michigan. 4 January 2006. Archived from the original on 24 July 2011. Retrieved 9 March 2013.
115. ^ a b Figures include the former Soviet countries in Europe. Caselli, Graziella; Gillaume Wunsch; Jacques Vallin (20 December 2005). Demography: Analysis and Synthesis, Four Volume Set: A Treatise in Population. Academic Press. p. 42. ISBN 978-0-12-765660-1.
116. ^ a b "UN report – 2004 data" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 February 2016. Retrieved 1 August 2010.
117. ^ "World Population Prospects The 2015 Revision". Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 March 2014.
118. ^ "The World at Six Billion". UN Population Division. Archived from the original on 5 March 2016., Table 2
119. ^ Fewer than 15,000 individuals, according to the Toba catastrophe theory, though this theory has been criticized by some scientists. See: "Toba super-volcano catastrophe idea "dismissed"". BBC News. 30 April 2013. Archived from the original on 7 January 2015. Retrieved 21 March 2015.
120. ^ An approximation based on figures from different sources as listed at the US Census Bureau's Historical Estimates of World Population Archived 2 May 2019 at the Wayback Machine; see also *Kremer, Michael (1993). "Population Growth and Technological Change: One Million B.C. to 1990". The Quarterly Journal of Economics. 108 (3): 681–716. doi:10.2307/2118405. JSTOR 2118405.
121. ^ An approximation based on figures from different sources as listed at the US Census Bureau's Total Midyear Population for the World: 1950-2050 Archived 21 May 2017 at the Wayback Machine
122. ^ "Notes on the World POPClock and World Vital Events". US Census Bureau. Archived from the original on 2 October 2013. Retrieved 12 February 2013.
123. ^ "World Population Prospects 2019, Crude Birth Rate file". United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs. 2019.
124. ^ "World Population Prospects 2019, Crude Death Rate file". United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs. 2019.
125. ^ "World Population Prospects, the 2012 Revision – "Low variant" and "High variant" values". UN. 2012. Archived from the original on 1 July 2014. Retrieved 15 June 2013.
126. ^ "World population projected to reach 9.6 billion by 2050 – UN report". UN News Centre. 14 June 2013. Archived from the original on 23 August 2013. Retrieved 16 June 2013.
127. ^ "A model predicts that the world's populations will stop growing in 2050". ScienceDaily.com. 4 April 2013. Archived from the original on 2 January 2020. Retrieved 3 June 2013.
128. ^ Carrington, Damien (18 September 2014). "World population to hit 12bn in 2100 – with 70% chance of continuous rise". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 20 September 2014. Retrieved 21 September 2014.
129. ^ Gerland, P.; Raftery, A. E.; Ev Ikova, H.; Li, N.; Gu, D.; Spoorenberg, T.; Alkema, L.; Fosdick, B. K.; Chunn, J.; Lalic, N.; Bay, G.; Buettner, T.; Heilig, G. K.; Wilmoth, J. (14 September 2014). "World population stabilization unlikely this century". Science. AAAS. 346 (6206): 234–7. Bibcode:2014Sci...346..234G. doi:10.1126/science.1257469. ISSN 1095-9203. PMC 4230924. PMID 25301627.
130. ^ "World Population Prospects 2019: Highlights" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 3 July 2019. Retrieved 8 July 2019.
131. ^ Silk, John (21 December 2019). "World's population to hit 7.75 billion in 2019". Deutsche Welle. Retrieved 17 July 2020.
132. ^ "World population in 2100 could be 2 billion below UN forecasts, study suggests". The Guardian. 15 July 2020. Retrieved 15 July 2020.
133. ^ Stokstad, Erik (5 May 2019). "Landmark analysis documents the alarming global decline of nature". Science. AAAS. Retrieved 19 July 2020. Driving these threats are the growing human population, which has doubled since 1970 to 7.6 billion, and consumption. (Per capita of use of materials is up 15% over the past 5 decades.)
134. ^ Peter P. Rogers; Kazi F. Jalal & John A. Boyd (2008). An Introduction To Sustainable Development. p. 53. ISBN 978-1849770477.
135. ^ "Overpopulation's Real Victim Will Be the Environment". TIME. 26 October 2011. Archived from the original on 18 February 2013. Retrieved 18 February 2013.
136. ^ Zehner, Ozzie (2012). Green Illusions. Lincoln and London: University of Nebraska Press. pp. 187–331. Archived from the original on 29 November 2019. Retrieved 10 April 2020.
137. ^ a b "World Population Prospects: The 2019 Revision" (XLS). Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat. June 2019. Retrieved 8 July 2019.
138. ^ "World Population – Total Midyear Population for the World: 1950–2050". Census.gov. July 2015. Archived from the original on 21 May 2017. Retrieved 7 March 2016.
139. ^ Sebastien von Hoerner (1975). "Population Explosion and Interstellar Expansion". Journal of the British Interplanetary Society. 28 (28): 691–712. Bibcode:1975JBIS...28..691V.
140. ^ Introduction to Social Macrodynamics. Archived 10 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine. Andrey Korotayev et al. For a rigorous mathematical analysis of this issue, see "A Compact Mathematical Model of the World System Economic and Demographic Growth, 1 CE – 1973 CE". Archived 17 February 2019 at the Wayback Machine.
141. ^ Kapitsa, Sergei P. (1996). "The phenomenological theory of world population growth". Physics-Uspekhi. 39 (1): 57–71. Bibcode:1996PhyU...39...57K. doi:10.1070/pu1996v039n01abeh000127. Archived from the original on 11 May 2009. Retrieved 26 July 2013.
142. ^ Lutz, Wolfgang; Sanderson, Warren; Scherbov, Sergei (19 June 1997). "Doubling of world population unlikely" (PDF). Nature. 387 (6635): 803–805. Bibcode:1997Natur.387..803L. doi:10.1038/42935. PMID 9194559. S2CID 4306159.
143. ^ Sergei P. Kapitza, "The phenomenological theory of world population growth", Physics-Uspekhi 39(1) 57–71 (1996), citing K. M. Weiss, Human Biology 56637 (1984) and N. Keyfitz, Applied Mathematical Demography (New York: Wiley, 1977).
144. ^ "How Many People Have Ever Lived on Earth?". PRB. Retrieved 1 November 2021.
145. ^ Curtin, Ciara (1 March 2007). "Fact or Fiction?: Living People Outnumber the Dead". Scientific American. Scientific American, Inc. (published September 2007). 297 (3): 126. Bibcode:2007SciAm.297c.126C. doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0907-126. PMID 17784634. Retrieved 4 August 2008. Note: text of paper publication slightly different from text of on-line publication.
146. ^ a b c Haub, Carl (November–December 2002). "How Many People Have Ever Lived on Earth?" (PDF). Population Today. Population Reference Bureau. 30 (8): 3–4. Archived (PDF) from the original on 12 August 2011. Retrieved 4 August 2008.
147. ^ Haub, Carl (October 2011). "How Many People Have Ever Lived on Earth?". Population Reference Bureau. Archived from the original on 24 April 2013. Retrieved 29 April 2013.
148. ^ Kuhrt, A. (1995). The Ancient Near East, c. 3000–330 BCE. Vol. 2. London: Routledge. p. 695.

Organizations

Statistics and maps

Population clocks