Regions of Italy
Regioni d'Italia (Italian)
CategoryRegionalised unitary state
LocationItalian Republic
Number20
Populations143,000 (Aosta Valley) – 10,342,000 (Lombardy)
Areas3,261 km2 (1,259 sq mi) (Aosta Valley) –
25,832 km2 (9,974 sq mi) (Sicily)
Government
Subdivisions

The regions of Italy (Italian: regioni d'Italia) are the first-level administrative divisions of the Italian Republic, constituting its second NUTS administrative level.[1] There are twenty regions, five of which are autonomous regions with special status. Under the Constitution of Italy, each region is an autonomous entity with defined powers. With the exception of the Aosta Valley (since 1945) and Friuli-Venezia Giulia (2018–2020), each region is divided into a number of provinces.

History

During the Kingdom of Italy, regions were mere statistical districts of the central state. Under the Republic, they were granted a measure of political autonomy by the 1948 Italian Constitution. The original draft list comprised the Salento region (which was eventually included in Apulia); Friuli and Venezia Giulia were separate regions, and Basilicata was named Lucania. Abruzzo and Molise were identified as separate regions in the first draft, but were later merged into Abruzzi e Molise in the final constitution of 1948, before being separated in 1963.

Implementation of regional autonomy was postponed until the first Regional elections of 1970. The ruling Christian Democracy party did not want the opposition Italian Communist Party to gain power in the regions where it was historically rooted (the red belt of Emilia-Romagna, Tuscany, Umbria and the Marches).

Regions acquired a significant level of autonomy following a constitutional reform in 2001 (brought about by a centre-left government and confirmed by popular referendum), which granted them residual policy competence. A further federalist reform was proposed by the regionalist party Lega Nord and in 2005, the centre-right government led by Silvio Berlusconi proposed a new reform that would have greatly increased the power of regions.[2]

The proposals, which had been particularly associated with Lega Nord, and seen by some as leading the way to a federal state, were rejected in the 2006 Italian constitutional referendum by 61.7% "no" to 38.3% "yes".[2] The results varied considerably among the regions, ranging from 55.3% in favour in Veneto to 82% against in Calabria.[2]

Political control

See also: Conference of Regions and Autonomous Provinces

Regions coloured by the winning coalition (as of March 2024)

Number of regions governed by each coalition since 1995:

  Centre-left
  Centre-right
  Others

Regions

Flag Region
Italian name (if different)
Status Population[3]
January 2023
Area Pop. density
(p/km2)
HDI[4] 2022 Capital President Number of comuni[5] Prov. or
metrop. cities
Number % km2 %
Abruzzo Ordinary 1,307,000 2.16% 10,832 km2 (4,182 sq mi) 3.59% 118 0.889 L'Aquila Marco Marsilio
Brothers of Italy
305 4
Aosta Valley
Valle d'Aosta
Autonomous 143,000 0.21% 3,261 km2 (1,259 sq mi) 1.08% 38 0.887 Aosta Renzo Testolin
Valdostan Union
74 1
Apulia
Puglia
Ordinary 3,945,000 6.63% 19,541 km2 (7,545 sq mi) 6.48% 200 0.854 Bari Michele Emiliano
Democratic Party
257 6
Basilicata Ordinary 559,000 0.92% 10,073 km2 (3,889 sq mi) 3.34% 54 0.862 Potenza Vito Bardi
Forza Italia
131 2
Calabria Ordinary 1,870,000 3.13% 15,222 km2 (5,877 sq mi) 5.04% 121 0.845 Catanzaro Roberto Occhiuto
Forza Italia
404 5
Campania Ordinary 5,615,000 9.48% 13,671 km2 (5,278 sq mi) 4.53% 409 0.854 Naples Vincenzo De Luca
Democratic Party
550 5
Emilia-Romagna Ordinary 4,452,000 7.51% 22,453 km2 (8,669 sq mi) 7.44% 197 0.921 Bologna Stefano Bonaccini
Democratic Party
330 9
Friuli-Venezia Giulia
Furlanija-Julijska Krajina/Friûl-Vignesie Julie
Autonomous 1,219,000 2.03% 7,924 km2 (3,059 sq mi) 2.63% 151 0.903 Trieste Massimiliano Fedriga
League
215 4
Lazio Ordinary 5,745,000 9.69% 17,232 km2 (6,653 sq mi) 5.71% 332 0.914 Rome Francesco Rocca
Independent
378 5
Liguria Ordinary 1,535,000 2.56% 5,416 km2 (2,091 sq mi) 1.79% 278 0.898 Genoa Giovanni Toti
Us Moderates
234 4
Lombardy
Lombardia
Ordinary 10,342,000 16.89% 23,864 km2 (9,214 sq mi) 7.91% 418 0.912 Milan Attilio Fontana
League
1,506 12
Marche Ordinary 1,524,000 2.53% 9,401 km2 (3,630 sq mi) 3.12% 158 0.901 Ancona Francesco Acquaroli
Brothers of Italy
225 5
Molise Ordinary 324,000 0.49% 4,461 km2 (1,722 sq mi) 1.48% 65 0.872 Campobasso Francesco Roberti
Forza Italia
136 2
Piedmont
Piemonte
Ordinary 4,302,000 7.21% 25,387 km2 (9,802 sq mi) 8.41% 168 0.898 Turin Alberto Cirio
Forza Italia
1,181 8
Sardinia
Sardegna
Autonomous 1,604,000 2.68% 24,100 km2 (9,300 sq mi) 7.99% 66 0.868 Cagliari Alessandra Todde
Five Star Movement
377 5
Sicily
Sicilia
Autonomous 4,825,000 8.14% 25,832 km2 (9,974 sq mi) 8.56% 186 0.845 Palermo Renato Schifani
Forza Italia
391 9
Trentino-South Tyrol
Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol
Autonomous 1,111,000 1.83% 13,606 km2 (5,253 sq mi) 4.51% 79 Trentino: 0.920 Trento Maurizio Fugatti
League
282 2
South Tyrol: 0.910
Tuscany
Toscana
Ordinary 3,698,000 6.23% 22,987 km2 (8,875 sq mi) 7.62% 160 0.907 Florence Eugenio Giani
Democratic Party
273 10
Umbria Ordinary 930,000 1.46% 8,464 km2 (3,268 sq mi) 2.81% 102 0.897 Perugia Donatella Tesei
League
92 2
Veneto Ordinary 4,883,000 8.23% 18,345 km2 (7,083 sq mi) 5.97% 265 0.900 Venice Luca Zaia
League
563 7
Italy
Italia
59,933,000 100.00% 302,068.26 km2 (116,629.21 sq mi) 100.00% 195 0.892 Rome Sergio Mattarella
Independent
7,904 107

Macroregions

Macroregions are the first-level NUTS of the European Union.(it)[6]

Map Macroregion
Italian name
Regions Major city Population
January 2022
Area (km2) Population
density

(km2)
MEPs
Number % km2 %
Centre
Centro
Lazio
Marche
Tuscany
Umbria
Rome 11,740,836 19.91% 58,085 km2 (22,427 sq mi) 19.23% 202 15
North-West
Nord-Ovest
Aosta Valley
Liguria
Lombardy
Piedmont
Milan 15,848,100 26.87% 57,928 km2 (22,366 sq mi) 19.18% 274 20
North-East
Nord-Est
Emilia-Romagna
Friuli-Venezia Giulia
Trentino-South Tyrol
Veneto
Bologna 11,561,676 19.60% 62,003 km2 (23,939 sq mi) 20.63% 186 15
South
Sud
Abruzzo
Apulia
Basilicata
Calabria
Campania
Molise
Naples 13,451,861 22.81% 73,800 km2 (28,500 sq mi) 24.43% 182 18
Islands
Isole or Insulare (adj)
Sardinia
Sicily
Palermo 6,380,649 10.82% 49,932 km2 (19,279 sq mi) 16.53% 128 8

Status

The 5 autonomous regions in red and the 15 ordinary regions in gray

Every region has a statute that serves as a regional constitution, determining the form of government and the fundamental principles of the organization and the functioning of the region, as prescribed by the Constitution of Italy (Article 123). Although all the regions except Tuscany define themselves in various ways as an "autonomous Region" in the first article of their Statutes,[7] fifteen regions have ordinary statutes and five have special statutes, granting them extended autonomy.

Regions with ordinary statute

These regions, whose statutes are approved by their regional councils, were created in 1970, even though the Italian Constitution dates back to 1948. Since the constitutional reform of 2001 they have had residual legislative powers: the regions have exclusive legislative power with respect to any matters not expressly reserved to state law (Article 117).[8] Yet their financial autonomy is quite modest: they keep just 20% of all levied taxes, mostly used to finance the region-based healthcare system.[9]

Autonomous regions with special statute

Article 116 of the Italian Constitution grants home rule to five regions, namely the Aosta Valley, Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Sardinia, Sicily, and Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol, allowing them some legislative, administrative and financial power to a varying extent, depending on their specific statute. These regions became autonomous in order to take into account cultural differences and protect linguistic minorities. Moreover, the government wanted to prevent them from potentially seceding or being taken away from Italy after the defeat in World War II.[10]

Institutions

Each region has an elected parliament, called Consiglio Regionale (regional council), or Assemblea Regionale (regional assembly) in Sicily, and a government called Giunta Regionale (regional committee), headed by a governor called Presidente della Giunta Regionale (president of the regional committee) or Presidente della Regione (regional president). The latter is directly elected by the citizens of each region, with the exceptions of Aosta Valley and Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol regions where the president is chosen by the regional council.

Under the 1995 electoral law, the winning coalition receives an absolute majority of seats on the council. The president chairs the giunta, and nominates or dismisses its members, called assessori. If the directly elected president resigns, new elections are called immediately.

In the Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol region, the regional council is made up of the joint session of the two provincial councils of Trentino and of South Tyrol. The regional president is one of the two provincial commissioners.

Representation in the Senate

Number of senators assigned to each Region before 2020

Article 57 of the Constitution of Italy originally established that the Senate of the Republic was to be elected on a regional basis by Italian citizens aged 25 or older (unlike the Chamber of the Deputies, which was elected on a national basis and by all Italian citizens aged 18 or older). No region could have less than 7 senators, except for the two smallest regions: Aosta Valley (1 senator) and Molise (2 senators). From 2006 to 2020, 6 out of 315 senators (and 12 out of 630 deputies) were elected by Italians residing abroad.

After two constitutional amendments were passed respectively in 2020 (by constitutional referendum) and 2021, however, there have been changes. The Senate is still elected on a regional basis, but the number of senators was reduced from 315 to 200, who are now elected by all citizens aged 18 or older, just like deputies (themselves being reduced from 630 to 400). Italians residing abroad now elect 4 senators (and 8 deputies).

The remaining 196 senators are assigned to each region proportionally according to their population. The amended Article 57 of the Constitution provides that no region can have fewer than 3 senators representing it, barring Aosta Valley and Molise, which retained 1 and 2 senators respectively.

Region Seats Region Seats Region Seats
 Abruzzo 4  Friuli-Venezia Giulia 4  Sardinia 5
 Aosta Valley 1  Lazio 18  Sicily 16
 Apulia 13  Liguria 5  Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol 6
 Basilicata 3  Lombardy 31  Tuscany 12
 Calabria 6  Marche 5  Umbria 3
 Campania 18  Molise 2  Veneto 16
 Emilia-Romagna 14  Piedmont 14 Overseas constituencies 4

Economy of regions and macroregions

GDP per capita 2018, EUR
Flag Name GDP 2018,
million EUR[11]
GDP per capita 2018,
EUR[11]
GDP 2011,
million PPS[11]
GDP per capita 2011,
PPS[11]
Abruzzo 33,900 25,800 29,438 21,900
Aosta Valley 4,900 38,900 4,236 33,000
Apulia 76,600 19,000 68,496 16,700
Basilicata 12,600 22,200 10,517 17,900
Calabria 33,300 17,000 32,357 16,100
Campania 108,000 18,600 91,658 15,700
Emilia-Romagna 161,000 36,200 139,597 31,400
Friuli-Venezia Giulia 38,000 31,200 35,855 29,000
Lazio 198,000 33,600 168,609 29,300
Liguria 49,900 32,100 43,069 26,700
Lombardy 388,800 38,600 330,042 33,200
Marche 43,200 28,300 40,014 25,500
Molise 6,500 20,900 6,278 19,700
Piedmont 137,000 31,500 123,336 27,600
Sardinia 34,900 21,200 32,377 19,300
Sicily 89,200 17,800 82,183 16,300
Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol 41,700 39,200 35,041 33,700
Tuscany 118,000 31,500 103,775 27,600
Umbria 22,500 25,400 21,078 23,200
Veneto 163,000 33,200 146,369 29,600
Code Name GDP 2011,
million EUR[11]
GDP per capita 2011,
EUR[11]
GDP 2011,
million PPS[11]
GDP per capita 2011,
PPS[11]
ITE Centre 340,669 28,400 333,475 27,800
ITD North-East 364,560 31,200 356,862 30,600
ITC North-West 511,484 31,700 500,683 31,000
ITG Islands 117,031 17,400 114,560 17,000
ITF South 243,895 17,200 238,744 16,800
- Extra-regio 2,771 2,712

See also

Other administrative divisions

References

  1. ^ "National structures". Eurostat. Archived from the original on 13 July 2014. Retrieved 6 December 2011.
  2. ^ a b c "Speciale Referendum 2006". la Repubblica. 26 June 2006. Retrieved 6 December 2011.
  3. ^ "Population Italian Regions". tuttitalia.it.
  4. ^ "Sub-national HDI – Area Database – Global Data Lab". hdi.globaldatalab.org.
  5. ^ "Italian Comuni". tuttitalia.it.
  6. ^ "ISTAT geo-demo".
  7. ^ Pinto, Luciano Torrente-Paolo Strazzullo-Roberto. "Statuti Regionali – Casa Editrice: Edizioni Simone". www.simone.it. Archived from the original on 19 February 2018. Retrieved 6 June 2011.
  8. ^ LL.M., Prof. Dr. Axel Tschentscher. "ICL – Italy – Constitution". servat.unibe.ch.
  9. ^ Report RAI – Le regioni a statuto speciale (Italian), retrieved 21 January 2009 [1] Archived 22 March 2009 at the Wayback Machine, [2] Archived 6 October 2008 at the Wayback Machine
  10. ^ Hiroko Kudo, "Autonomy and Managerial Innovation in Italian Regions after Constitutional Reform", Chuo University, Faculty of Law and Graduate School of Public Policy (2008): p. 1. Retrieved on 6 April 2012 from http://www.med-eu.org/proceedings/MED1/Kudo.pdf Archived 17 November 2015 at the Wayback Machine.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h "GDP per capita in the EU in 2011" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 March 2014.