The seismic hazard map of Italy showing the probability of seismic activity for different places in Italy.
Map of earthquakes in Italy 1900-2017
Earthquakes M5.5+ (1900-2016) Mediterranean

This is a list of earthquakes in Italy that had epicentres in Italy, or significantly affected the country. On average every four years an earthquake with a magnitude equal to or greater than 5.5 occurs in Italy.[1]

Due to the particular geodynamic situation (convergence of the Eurasian Plate with the African Plate) the Italian territory is frequently subject to earthquakes, giving it the record in Europe for these phenomena.[2] Out of 1,300 destructive earthquakes that occurred in the 2nd millennium in the central Mediterranean Sea, 500 affected Italy.[3]

The analysis of the earthquakes indicates that they are mostly distributed along the areas affected by Alpine and Apennine tectonics, where they are caused by movements along faults.[4] The highest seismicity hazard in Italy has been concentrated in the central-southern part of the peninsula, along the Apennine ridge, in Calabria and Sicily and in some northern areas, like Friuli-Venezia Giulia, part of Veneto and western Liguria.

Geology

Italy lies on the southern extent of the Eurasian Plate, which is surrounded by the Aegean Sea Plate, the Adriatic Plate, and the Anatolian Plate. The Apennine Mountains contain numerous faults that run along the entire Italian peninsula and form the majority of the destructive boundary between the Eurasian and the Adriatic Plates, thus causing Italy to have high amounts of tectonic activity. In addition, Sicily and Calabria are located near the boundary where the African Plate is subducting below the Eurasian Plate, which was responsible for forming the stratovolcano known as Mount Etna.

List of major earthquakes

Date Region Mag. MMI Deaths Injuries Notes Ref
2023-09-18 Tuscany 5.1 Mw VI 1 1 Severe damage [5][6]
2023-03-09 Umbria 4.3 Mw
4.6 Mw
IV 13 Severe damage [7][8]
2022-11-09 Pesaro-Urbino 5.6 Mw VI 11 Moderate damage [9][10]
2020-02-24 Calabria 4.8 Mw VI 1 Moderate damage [11][12]
2018-12-26 Sicily 5.0 Mw VII 30 Several buildings damaged [13][14]
2018-08-16 Molise 5.3 Mw VI 2 Moderate damage [15][16]
2017-08-21 Campania 4.2 Mw VI 2 42
2017-01-18 Abruzzo, Lazio 5.7 Mw VIII 34 29 Sequence
2016-10-30 Umbria 6.6 Mw XI 3 (indirect) Dozens Sequence / extensive damage
2016-08-24 Lazio, Umbria, Marche 6.2 Mw XI 299 >400
2013-06-21 Tuscany 5.2 Mw V 4 [17][18]
2013-02-16 Lazio 4.8 Mw V 1 (indirect) [19][20]
2012-05-29 Emilia-Romagna 5.8 Mw VII 20 350
2012-05-20 Emilia-Romagna 6.1 Mw VII 5 (+2 indirect) 50
2010-08-16 Sicily 4.5 Mw 7 Landslides [21][22]
2009-04-06 L'Aquila 6.3 Mw X 309 1,500+ Severe damage
2004-11-24 Lombardy, Salò 5.1 Mw VII–VIII * 9 Many buildings damaged [23]
2003-09-14 Emilia-Romagna 5.3 Mw VII Some 10 buildings damaged [24]
2003-04-11 Piedmont, Alessandria 5.0 Mb VI * 2 [25]
2002-11-01 Molise 5.8 Mw 3 Doublet / additional damage [26]
2002-10-31 Molise 5.9 30 Doublet
2002-09-06 Sicily 6.0 Mw 2 20 Heart attacks / damage [27]
2001-07-17 Trentino-Alto Adige 4.7 Mw VI * 3 3 Landslides [28]
1998-09-09 Basilicata, Calabria 5.6 Mw VI–VII * 2 12 Buildings damaged [29]
1997-09-26 Umbria, Marche 6.1 9 Doublet
1997-09-26 Umbria, Foligno 5.7 2 Doublet
1991-05-26 Basilicata, Potenza 5.1 Mb VIII A few Minor damage [30]
1990-12-13 Sicily, Augusta 5.6 Mw VII 19 200 Severe damage [31]
1990-05-05 Basilicata, Campania 5.8 Mw VII 2 16 [32]
1987-05-02 Emilia-Romagna 4.8 Mb VII 1 Several Slight damage [33]
1985-03-14 Molise 4.3 Mw V 1 Slight damage [34]
1984-05-07 Abruzzo, Lazio 5.9 Mw VIII 3 100 Extensive damage [35]
1984-04-29 Umbria, Gubbio 5.7 Mw VIII 36 Extensive damage [36]
1983-11-09 Emilia-Romagna 5.1 Mw VIII 100 Some damage [37]
1980-11-23 Campania, Basilicata 6.9 Mw X 2,483–4,900 7,700–8,934 Extreme damage
1979-09-19 Umbria, Norcia 5.8 Ms 5 5,000 Severe damage NGDC
1978-04-15 Gulf of Patti, Sicily 5.7 Ms 5 Moderate damage NGDC
1978-03-11 Sicily 5.0 Ms 2 2 Moderate damage NGDC
1976-09-15 Friuli 5.9/6.0 8 (+3 indirect) Aftershock
1976-09-11 Friuli 5.8/5.6 2 (indirect) Aftershock
1976-05-06 Friuli 6.5 Mw X 900–978 1,700–2,400 Extreme damage
1972-06-14 Ancona 4.9 IX Extensive damage / swarm [38]
1971-07-15 Emilia-Romagna 5.2 Mb VIII * 2 Limited damage NGDC
1971-02-06 Lazio 4.6 Mb VIII 24 150 Extreme damage NGDC
1969-08-11 Perugia 4.7 Ms VII 4 Limited damage NGDC
1968-01-15 Western Sicily 5.5 Mw X 231–400 632–1,000 Sequence
1962-08-21 Irpinia, Campania 6.1 IX * 16 Moderate damage
1943-10-03 Offida, Marche 5.5 Mw IX 15 Very heavy damage [39]
1936-10-18 Cansiglio 5.9 ML IX 19
1933-09-26 Abruzzo 5.6 Mw IX 10 Some damage [40][41]
1930-10-30 Senigallia, Marche 5.9 18
1930-07-23 Irpinia 6.6 Ms X 1,404 4,624–7,000
1920-09-07 Garfagnana 6.4 171 [42]
1917-04-26 Northern Umbria 5.8 20
1915-01-13 Avezzano 6.7 Mw XI 29,978–32,610 Extreme damage
1914-05-08 Sicily 4.9 Ms X 120 Severe damage NGDC
1908-12-28 Strait of Messina 7.1 Mw XI 75,000–200,000 Extreme damage / tsunami
1907-10-23 Calabria 5.9 Ms VIII–X 158–167 Moderate damage NGDC
1905-09-08 Calabria 7.2 Mw XI 557–2,500 Tsunami
1901-10-30 Salò 5.5 Mw VII–VIII Collapsed buildings [43]
1894-11-16 Strait of Messina, Sicily, Calabria 6.0 IX 100 Severe damage [44]
1887-02-23 Liguria 6.2–6.5 >2,000 Significant damage / tsunami [45][46]
1883-07-28 Ischia 4.3–5.2 Mw XI 2,313 Near total destruction on in Ischia
1873-06-29 Veneto 6.3 Me IX–X 80
1857-12-16 Basilicata 7.0 Mw XI 10,000 Extreme damage
1851-08-14 Basilicata 700–2,000+ Many buildings damaged [47][48]
1836-04-25 Calabria 6.1 X 239 Severe damage [49]
1831-05-26 Taggia, Sanremo 5.5 VIII-IX Moderate damage [50]
1828-10-09 Ligurian Apennines, province of Alessandria 5.8 VII-VIII 19 Moderate damage [51]
1808-04-02 Piedmont 5.7 VIII 2 Moderate damage [52]
1805-07-26 Campania, Molise 6.6 Me X 5,573 Extreme damage
1802-05-12 Lombardy, Cremona 5.7 Mw VIII-IX 2 Collapsed churches, houses, and a municipal building [53][54][55]
1783-02-04 Calabria 7.0 50,000 [42]
1762-10-06 L'Aquila 5.3–6.0 Mw IX Damage [56]
1743-02-20 Salento 7.1 Mw IX 180–300
1732-11-29 Campania 6.6 Thousands [57]
1706-11-03 Abruzzo 6.6-6.84 Mw X 2,400 Extreme damage
1703-02-12 L'Aquila 6.7 XI 2,500–5,000
1703-01-16 Montereale 6.2 VIII
1703-01-14 Norcia 6.7 X 6,240–9,761
1694-09-08 Basilicata 6.9 >6,000
1693-01-11 Sicily, Malta 7.4 Mw XI 60,000
1688-06-05 Sannio 7.0 XI 3,311 Severe damage NGDC
1659-11-06 Calabria 2,035 Extreme damage NGDC
1654-07-23 Sorano, Marsica X 600 Severe damage NGDC
1639-10-07 Lazio 6.0 Mw IX–X 500
1638-06-09 Calabria IX 52 Moderate damage
1638-03-27 Calabria 7.0 Ms XI 9,581–30,000 Extreme damage / tsunami [58]
1627-07-30 Apulia 6.7 Mw X 5,000 Tsunami
1626-07-30 Naples 70,000
1626-04-05 Girifalco 6.1 Mw X Very heavy damage
1616-06-04 Cagliari No casualties or damage reported. Registeted on a plaque in the city's cathedral
1570-11-17 Ferrara 70–200
1561-08-19 Vallo di Diano 6.4 Mw X 500 [59]
1517-03-29 Irpinia 5.4 Mw >50 Moderate damage [60]
1511-03-26 Friuli X 15 Severe damage
1466-01-15 Irpinia 6.1 VIII-IX >100 [61]
1461-11-27 L'Aquila 6.3 IX >80 High intensity over Abruzzo region
1456-12-30 Benevento 6.6 Mw X–XI Sequence
1456-12-05 Molise 7.1–7.4 Mw X–XI 30,000–70,000 High intensity over large area. Largest earthquake on the Italian Peninsula. [62]
1453-09-28 Florence 5.3 VII-VIII Moderate damage [63]
1361-07-17 Ascoli Satriano 6.0 >1,000 Extreme damage [64]
1349-09-09 L'Aquila 6.7 X 2,000 Severe damage NGDC
1348-01-25 Friuli 6.9 X 10,000 Extreme damage
1343-11-25 Naples Tsunami
1328-12-04 Norcia 6.4 X 2,000-5,000 [65]
1315-12-03 L'Aquila 5.6 IX Moderate damage [66]
1298-12-01 Monti Reatini 6.3 X Numerous deaths and severe damage [67]
1293-09-04 Samnium, Naples 5.8 VIII-IX Moderate damage [68]
1222-12-25 Northern Italy X 12,000 Extreme damage
1169-02-04 Sicily X 15,000–25,000 Severe damage / tsunami
1117-01-03 Northern Italy VII Severe damage
1046-11-09 Valle dell'Adige IX-X Numerous deaths and severe damage [69]
801-04-29 Central Apennines 5.4 Me VII–VIII Severe damage [70]
951 Rossano IX Severe damage [71][72]
853 Messina IX-X Severe damage [73]
847 Samnium Severe damage [74]
801-04-29 Spoleto, Perugia Severe damage [75]
778 Treviso VIII-IX 48 Moderate damage [71][76]
725 Classe VIII Moderate damage [71][77]
584 Liguria Severe damage [78]
375 Benevento IX Severe damage [71]
369-07-21 Benevento Thousands Severe damage [71]
361 Sicily and Calabria X Drastic decrease in the population along the Strait of Messina Extreme damage / tsunami [71][79]
346 Samnium IX Severe damage [71][80]
101 San Valentino in Abruzzo Citeriore IX-X Severe damage [71][81]
99 Circello, Benevento IX-X Severe damage [71][82]
79-08-24 Vesuvian area VIII Thousands Earthquake caused by the catastrophic eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 79 AD [71]
62-02-05 Campania 5.2–6.1 IX–X Severe damage
56 BC-04 Potenza Picena VIII-IX Severe damage [71][83]
91 BC Modena, Reggio Emilia VIII Moderate damage [71]
100 BC Marche VIII-X Severe damage [71][84]
217 BC-06 Etruria X Severe damage [71]
Note: The NGDC has records for significant events that go back several thousand years BCE. Added for source diversity, the United States Geological Survey reports are sufficient from the early 1980s to the present. Occasionally, these sources omit the maximum felt intensity. Rovida et al. 2011 can help fill in some of the gaps. Intensity values derived from this source are indicated with an asterisk. The inclusion criteria for adding events are based on WikiProject Earthquakes' notability guideline that was developed for stand alone articles. The principles described also apply to lists. In summary, only damaging, injurious, or deadly events should be recorded.

Gallery

See also

References

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Notes

Further reading