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|An aspect of fiscal policy|
Taxation in Italy is levied by the central and regional governments and is collected by the Italian Agency of Revenue (Agenzia delle Entrate). Total tax revenue in 2018 was 42,4% of GDP. Most important earnings are: income tax, social security, corporate tax and value added tax. All of those are collected at national level, but some of those differs across regions. Personal income taxation in Italy is progressive.
Employment income is subject to a progressive income tax, IRPEF (Imposta sul reddito delle persone fisiche) applying to all workers. By government is set tax rate according to income, but the regions can add an additional 0.7% to 3.33%. Each region not only has a regional income tax, a municipal income tax can be levied which ranges from 0.1% to 0.9%. Municipalities can also establish progressive tax rates applicable to the national income bracket.
In 2018, the personal income tax rates were as follows:
|Income range||Tax rate|
|€0 — €15,000||23%|
|€15,000 — €28,000||27%|
|€28,000 — €55,000||38%|
|€55,000 — €75,000||41%|
Individuals are considered resident for tax purposes if for the greater part of the tax year they satisfy any of the following conditions:
Due to the different types of income, exemption from IRPEF is determined at:
The area exempt from IRPEF increases further if there are dependent family members.
New residents of Italy are subject to a more favourable tax treatment on income taxes, providing they were not tax resident of Italy in the past 24 months. Any taxpayer is entitled a 70% exemption on the employment or self-employment income received for the first 5 years of tax residency to Italy; the exemption is increased to 90% if the taxpayer resides in a Southern region of Italy. The regime is extended of further 5 years if the taxpayer meets any of the following conditions:
Italian corporate entities are subject to Corporate Income Tax, IRES (Imposta sul reddito delle società) and to Regional Production Tax, IRAP (Imposta regionale sulle attività produttive). Italy has one of the highest corporate tax - currently at 24% - across EU28, average tax in EU is 21.3% (2018) and is still decreasing, however, Italy has after elections in March 2018 stop depreciation. 
Value added tax or shortcut VAT, (in Italian Imposta sul valore aggiunto, shortcut IVA) is a consumption tax charged at a standard rate of 22%, which came in on 1 July 2013 (previously 21%)
The first reduced VAT rate (10%) applies to water supplies, passenger transport, admission to cultural and sports events, hotels, restaurants, some foodstuff.
The second reduced VAT rate (5%) applies to some foodstuff, social services.
The super-reduced VAT rate (4%) applies to TV licenses, newspapers, periodicals, books, medical equipment for the disabled.
A zero rate (0%) applies to intra-community and international transport.
The filing deadline for VAT returns is 30 April of the next year.
Social security contributions apply to everyone in the workforce, divided into contributions by the employer and those by the employee; both sides are obliged to participate. Employers must register with the Italian Social Security Administration (Istituto Nazionale Previdenza Sociale or INPS). The total contribution rate fluctuates around 40% of the employee's wage, depending on their position in the company, on the number of employees in the company, and on the industrial sector of the company. Usually the contributions are apportioned as follows:
However, only 33% out of this 40% is used for INPS purposes; the rest is distributed into several other funds:
The social security contribution, for employees who registered with INPS after 1 January 1996 without a previous social security position in Italy, is calculated and paid up to a maximum amount of EUR 101,427 for the year 2018.
Social contributions due from executives:
For self-employed individuals who are not VAT number holders and are not covered by compulsory private pension fund is instituted law 335/95, according to this individuals must register with INPS in a "separate social security regime". This system is provided for three different rates.
All percentages equals to maximal limit of €101,427 established by law in 2017.
The Italian wealth tax on real estate properties (Imposta sul valore degli immobile situati all’estero or IVIE) owned outside of Italy by an individual who qualifies as a resident for Italian tax purposes has been introduced in Italy. The wealth tax due is proportionate to the percentage owned and the size of the property. The applicable tax rate is equal to 0.76%.No IVIE is due if the tax is lower than EUR 200; otherwise, the entire IVIE amount is due.
The Italian wealth tax on financial investments (Imposta sul valore delle Attivita` Finanziarie detenute all` Estero or IVAFE) owned outside of Italy by an individual who qualifies as a resident for Italian tax purposes has been introduced in Italy. The wealth tax due is proportionate to the percentage owned and the size of the property. The applicable tax rate is equal to 0.2% for FY 2018. Only for bank accounts, the above-mentioned tax is a flat amount equal to EUR 34.20 for each bank account. This flat amount is not due if the average saving amount is lower than EUR 5,000, taking into consideration all the bank accounts owned by the taxpayer.
A tax on inheritance and donations was reintroduced in October 2006 after a five year period during which this tax was abolished. The percentage and exemption limits applicable to transfers of money or assets depend on the beneficiary's relation with the deceased person or donor.
Specific provisions apply to a handicapped person.
The regional tax on productivity (IRAP) is applied at a flat rate up to 3.9%. This flat rate is applicable to the productive activity exercised. The taxable base is the difference between the compensation received and the direct business expenses, excluding any cost of personnel and interest.
The Italian Financial Bill for FY 2014 has introduced relevant changes to the municipal tax on real estate owned in Italy. Indeed, the tax law has introduced a 'unique municipal tax' (Imposta municipale unica or IUC).
IUC is composed of three different taxes:
Italy has the largest number of "major tax evaders" in Europe, counting, according to the estimated figures, tax evasion for over €180 billion. On the other hand, evasion is sometimes seen by evaders as the best way to ensure the right of defense from the alleged excessive tax claim of the State.