The Internal Revenue Code is the primary statutory basis of federal tax law in the United States. The Code of Federal Regulations is the Treasury Department's regulatory interpretation of the federal tax laws passed by Congress, which carry the weight of law if the interpretation is reasonable. Tax treaties and case law in U.S. Tax Court and other federal courts constitute the remainder of tax law in the United States.
The Internal Revenue Code is the primary statutory basis of federal tax law in the United States. The Code of Federal Regulations is the Treasury Department's regulatory interpretation of the federal tax laws passed by Congress, which carry the weight of law if the interpretation is reasonable. Tax treaties and case law in U.S. Tax Court and other federal courts constitute the remainder of tax law in the United States.

Tax law or revenue law is an area of legal study in which public or sanctioned authorities, such as federal, state and municipal governments (as in the case of the US) use a body of rules and procedures (laws) to assess and collect taxes in a legal context. The rates and merits of the various taxes, imposed by the authorities, are attained via the political process inherent in these bodies of power, and not directly attributable to the actual domain of tax law itself.[1]

Tax law is part of public law. It covers the application of existing tax laws on individuals, entities and corporations, in areas where tax revenue is derived or levied, e.g. income tax, estate tax, business tax, employment/payroll tax, property tax, gift tax and exports/imports tax.[1][2] There have been some arguments that consumer law is a better way to engage in large-scale redistribution than tax law because it does not necessitate legislation and can be more efficient, given the complexities of tax law.[3]: 213 

Major issues

Primary taxation issues differ among various countries, although similarities might exist.

Developed Countries

Developing Countries

Education

Pertaining to the US

Pre-requisites

Law School

Post Law School

Pertaining to other countries

Post Law School

General Requirements
In Africa

Most African countries use the British legal education curriculum in their law educational system to train lawyers.[12]

Overall, legal education, across African countries, starts at the university level as an undergraduate course although a few universities have promulgated a law degree as a graduate program "akin to [that] … in the United States, Canada, and India."[12]

In most African countries, a law degree does not necessarily qualify one to practice as a lawyer. Further post-graduate practical training is required.[12]

Graduates earn an undergraduate law degree, viz. the Bachelor of Laws (LL.B.), via a four-year program (as in Malawi, Kenya, Zambia, and most of South African law universities). Subsequently, graduates with the Bachelor of Laws seek to earn the Master of Laws or greater in order to become practitioners of the law. Some law institutions offer tracks to a Master of Philosophy (M.Phil.), a Doctor of Philosophy degree (Ph.D.), or a Doctor of Laws degree (LL.D.) with emphasis on tax law.[12]

A list of tax faculty ranked by publication downloads is maintained by Paul Caron at TaxProf Blog.[13]

Taxation by jurisdiction

Africa
Americas
Asia
Europe
Oceania

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Houtte & McLure, Baron Jean M.J. van & Charles E. (13 June 2011). "Tax law". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 6 October 2020.
  2. ^ "Tax Law - Guide to Taxation Law". HG.org Legal Resources.
  3. ^ Van Loo, Rory (2019-11-01). "Broadening Consumer Law: Competition, Protection, and Distribution". Notre Dame Law Review. 95 (1): 211.
  4. ^ a b c d Krupkin & Gale, Aaron and William G. (29 September 2016). "Major tax issues in 2017". Brookings Institution.
  5. ^ a b Steverman, Ben (12 September 2017). "Why American Workers Pay Twice as Much in Taxes as Wealthy Investors". Bloomberg.
  6. ^ SLEMROD & YITZHAKI, JOEL & SHLOMO (2002). Handbook of Public Economics. Elsevier Science B. V. pp. 1425, Chapter 22.
  7. ^ Block & McBride, David & William (27 June 2012). "Why Capital Gains are taxed at a Lower Rate". The Tax Foundation.
  8. ^ "Ecotax championed, contested and still marginal in EU". France 24. 7 September 2019.
  9. ^ a b c d Tanzi & Zee, Vito & Howell. "Tax Policy for Developing Countries". International Monetary Fund.
  10. ^ a b Carnahan, Michael (28 January 2015). "Taxation Challenges in Developing Countries". Asia & the Pacific Policy Studies. 2: 169–182. doi:10.1002/app5.70. S2CID 154105543.
  11. ^ a b c d e "Tax Lawyer: Educational Requirements and Career Summary". Study.com. Retrieved 14 September 2019.
  12. ^ a b c d Manteaw, Samuel O. "Legal Education in Africa: What Type of Lawyer Does Africa Need". McGeorge Law Review. 39 (4): 919 to 928 – via Scholarly Commons (2016).
  13. ^ Caron, Paul (January 28, 2016). "SSRN Tax Professor Rankings". TaxProf Blog.