The foreign relations of the Italian Republic are the Italian government's external relations with the outside world. Located in Europe, Italy has been considered a major Western power since its unification in 1860.[1] Its main allies are the NATO countries and the EU states, two entities of which Italy is a founding member. Italy was admitted to the United Nations in 1955, and it is a member and a strong supporter of a wide number of international organisations, such as the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade and World Trade Organization (GATT and WTO), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), the Council of Europe, and the Central European Initiative.

Its turns in the rotating presidency of international organisations include the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the G7 and the EU Council. Italy is also a recurrent non-permanent member of the UN Security Council. Italy is an important actor in the Mediterranean region and has close relations with the Romance-speaking countries in Europe and Latin America. Although it is a secular state,[2] Rome hosts the Pope and the headquarters of the Catholic Church, which operates a large diplomatic system of its own. Italy is currently commanding various multinational forces and has significant troops deployed all over the world for peacekeeping missions, and for combating organized crime, illegal drug trade, human trafficking, piracy and terrorism.[3]

History

National unification

See also: Unification of Italy and Kingdom of Italy

Animated map of the Italian unification from 1829 to 1871

The Risorgimento was the era from 1829 to 1871 that saw the emergence of a national consciousness. The Northern Italy monarchy of the House of Savoy in the Kingdom of Sardinia, whose government was led by Camillo Benso, Count of Cavour, had ambitions of establishing a united Italian state. In the context of the 1848 liberal revolutions that swept through Europe, an unsuccessful first war of independence was declared on Austria. In 1855, the Kingdom of Sardinia became an ally of Britain and France in the Crimean War, giving Cavour's diplomacy legitimacy in the eyes of the great powers.[4][5] The Kingdom of Sardinia again attacked the Austrian Empire in the Second Italian War of Independence of 1859, with the aid of France, resulting in liberating Lombardy. On the basis of the Plombières Agreement, the Kingdom of Sardinia ceded Savoy and Nice to France, an event that caused the Niçard exodus, that was the emigration of a quarter of the Niçard Italians to Italy,[6] and the Niçard Vespers.

In 1860–1861, Giuseppe Garibaldi led the drive for unification in Naples and Sicily conquering the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies (the Expedition of the Thousand),[7] while the House of Savoy troops occupied the central territories of the Italian peninsula, except Rome and part of Papal States. This allowed the Sardinian government to declare a united Italian kingdom on 17 March 1861.[8] In 1866, Italy allied with Prussia during the Austro-Prussian War, waging the Third Italian War of Independence which allowed Italy to annex Venetia. Finally, in 1870, as France abandoned its garrisons in Rome during the disastrous Franco-Prussian War to keep the large Prussian Army at bay, the Italians rushed to fill the power gap by taking over the Papal States. Italian unification was completed and shortly afterwards Italy's capital was moved to Rome. Later Italy formed the Triple Alliance (1882) with Germany and Austria.

World War I

See also: Italian entry into World War I and Italian Empire

Territories promised to Italy by the Treaty of London (1915), i.e. Trentino-Alto Adige, Julian March and Dalmatia (tan), and the Snežnik Plateau area (green). Dalmatia, after the WWI, however, was not assigned to Italy but to Yugoslavia

Italy defeated the Ottoman Empire in 1911–1912.[9] By 1915, Italy had acquired in Africa a colony on the Red Sea coast (Eritrea), a large protectorate in Somalia and administrative authority in formerly Turkish Libya. Outside of Africa, Italy possessed a small concession in Tientsin in China (following the Boxer Rebellion) and the Dodecanese Islands off the coast of Turkey.

Austria took the offensive against the terms of the alliance and Italy decided to take part in World War I as a principal allied power with France and Great Britain. Two leaders, Prime Minister Antonio Salandra and Foreign Minister Sidney Sonnino made the decisions; their primary motivation was seizure of territory from Austria, as secretly promised by Britain and France in the Treaty of London of 1915. Also, Italy occupied southern Albania and established a protectorate over Albania, which remained in place until 1920.[10]

The Allies defeated the Austrian Empire in 1918 and Italy became one of the main winners of the war. At the Paris Peace Conference in 1919, Prime Minister Vittorio Emanuele Orlando focused almost exclusively on territorial gains, but he got far less than he wanted, and Italians were bitterly resentful when they were denied control of the city of Fiume. The conference, under the control of Britain, France and the United States refused to assign Dalmatia and Albania to Italy as had been promised in the Treaty of London. Britain, France and Japan divided the German overseas colonies into mandates of their own, excluding Italy. Italy also gained no territory from the breakup of the Ottoman Empire.

Italy did not receive other territories promised by the Treaty of London, so this outcome was denounced as a Mutilated victory. The rhetoric of Mutilated victory was adopted by Benito Mussolini and led to the rise of Italian fascism, becoming a key point in the propaganda of Fascist Italy. Historians regard Mutilated victory as a "political myth", used by fascists to fuel Italian imperialism and obscure the successes of liberal Italy in the aftermath of World War I.[11] Italy also gained a permanent seat in the League of Nations's executive council.

Fascism and World War II

See also: Fascist Italy (1922–1943) and Italian Civil War

Italian ethnic regions claimed in the 1930s by Italian irredentists: * Green: Nice, Ticino and Dalmatia * Red: Malta * Violet: Corsica * Savoy and Corfu were later claimed

The Fascist government that came to power with Benito Mussolini in 1922 sought to increase the size of the Italian empire and to satisfy the claims of Italian irredentists. Italian Fascism is based upon Italian nationalism and imperialism, and in particular seeks to complete what it considers as the incomplete project of the unification of Italy by incorporating Italia Irredenta (unredeemed Italy) into the state of Italy.[12][13] To the east of Italy, the Fascists claimed that Dalmatia was a land of Italian culture whose Italians, including those of Italianized South Slavic descent, had been driven out of Dalmatia and into exile in Italy, and supported the return of Italians of Dalmatian heritage.[14] Mussolini identified Dalmatia as having strong Italian cultural roots for centuries, similarly to Istria, via the Roman Empire and the Republic of Venice.[15] To the south of Italy, the Fascists claimed Malta, which belonged to the United Kingdom, and Corfu, which instead belonged to Greece; to the north claimed Italian Switzerland, while to the west claimed Corsica, Nice, and Savoy, which belonged to France.[16][17] The Fascist regime produced literature on Corsica that presented evidence of the island's italianità.[18] The Fascist regime produced literature on Nice that justified that Nice was an Italian land based on historic, ethnic, and linguistic grounds.[18]

Areas controlled by the Italian Empire during its existence
  Kingdom of Italy
  Colonies of Italy
  Protectorates and areas occupied during World War II

Mussolini promised to bring Italy back as a great power in Europe, building a "New Roman Empire"[19] and holding power over the Mediterranean Sea. In propaganda, Fascists used the ancient Roman motto "Mare Nostrum" (Latin for "Our Sea") to describe the Mediterranean. For this reason the Fascist regime engaged in interventionist foreign policy. In 1923, the Greek island of Corfu was briefly occupied by Italy, after the assassination of General Tellini in Greek territory. In 1925, Italy forced Albania to become a de facto protectorate. In 1935, Mussolini invaded Ethiopia and founded Italian East Africa, resulting in an international alienation and leading to Italy's withdrawal from the League of Nations; Italy allied with Nazi Germany and the Empire of Japan and strongly supported Francisco Franco in the Spanish Civil War. In 1939, Italy formally annexed Albania. Italy entered World War II on 10 June 1940. The Italians initially advanced in British Somaliland, Egypt, the Balkans (establishing the Governorate of Dalmatia and Montenegro, the Province of Ljubljana, and the puppet states Independent State of Croatia and Hellenic State), and eastern fronts. They were, however, subsequently defeated on the Eastern Front as well as in the East African campaign and the North African campaign, losing as a result their territories in Africa and in the Balkans.

An Allied invasion of Sicily began in July 1943, leading to the collapse of the Fascist regime and the fall of Mussolini on 25 July. In the north, the Germans set up the Italian Social Republic (RSI), a Nazi puppet state with Mussolini installed as leader after he was rescued by German paratroopers. Some Italian troops in the south were organised into the Italian Co-belligerent Army, which fought alongside the Allies for the rest of the war, while other Italian troops, loyal to Mussolini and his RSI, continued to fight alongside the Germans in the National Republican Army. Also, the post-armistice period saw the rise of a large anti-fascist resistance movement, the Resistenza.[20] As result, the country descended into civil war;[21][22] the Italian resistance fought a guerrilla war against the Nazi German occupiers and Italian Fascist forces,[20] while clashes between the Fascist RSI Army and the Royalist Italian Co-Belligerent Army were rare.[23] In late April 1945, with total defeat looming, Mussolini attempted to escape north,[24] but was captured and summarily executed near Lake Como by Italian partisans. His body was then taken to Milan, where it was hung upside down at a service station for public viewing and to provide confirmation of his demise.[25] Hostilities ended on 29 April 1945, when the German forces in Italy surrendered.

Republican era

See also: History of the Italian Republic

Alcide De Gasperi, first republican Prime Minister of Italy and one of the Founding Fathers of the European Union

Italy became a republic after the 1946 Italian institutional referendum[26] held on 2 June 1946, a day celebrated since as Festa della Repubblica. This was the first time that Italian women voted at the national level, and the second time overall considering the local elections that were held a few months earlier in some cities.[27][28] Under the Treaty of Peace with Italy, 1947, Istria, Kvarner, most of the Julian March as well as the Dalmatian city of Zara was annexed by Yugoslavia causing the Istrian-Dalmatian exodus, which led to the emigration of between 230,000 and 350,000 of local ethnic Italians (Istrian Italians and Dalmatian Italians), the others being ethnic Slovenians, ethnic Croatians, and ethnic Istro-Romanians, choosing to maintain Italian citizenship.[29] Later, the Free Territory of Trieste was divided between the two states. Italy also lost all of its colonial possessions, formally ending the Italian Empire. In 1950, Italian Somaliland was made a United Nations Trust Territory under Italian administration until 1 July 1960. The Italian border that applies today has existed since 1975, when Trieste was formally re-annexed to Italy.

in 1949 Italy became a member of NATO. The Marshall Plan helped to revive the Italian economy which, until the late 1960s, enjoyed a period of sustained economic growth commonly called the "Economic Miracle". In the 1950s, Italy became one of the six founding countries of the European Communities, following the 1952 establishment of the European Coal and Steel Community, and subsequent 1958 creations of the European Economic Community and European Atomic Energy Community. In 1993, the former two of these were incorporated into the European Union.

Diplomatic relations

List of countries which Italy maintains diplomatic relations with:

# Country Date
1  Belgium 24 February 1851[30]
2  Dominican Republic 22 March 1854[31]
3  Argentina 5 May 1856[30]
4  Spain 5 May 1856[32]
5  Uruguay 5 May 1856[33]
6  Russia 25 September 1856[34]
7  Turkey 25 September 1856[33]
8  United Kingdom 13 April 1859[35]
9  Netherlands 15 September 1859[36]
10  Brazil 6 November 1859[37]
11  Sweden 23 December 1859[38]
12   Switzerland 12 February 1860[33]
13  Portugal 24 October 1860[34]
14  United States 11 April 1861[39]
15  Greece 16 June 1861[36]
16  France 10 August 1861[35]
17  Denmark 2 September 1861[40]
18  Bolivia 25 February 1864[37]
19  Chile 25 February 1864[37]
20  Costa Rica 25 February 1864[35]
21  Ecuador 25 February 1864[35]
22  El Salvador 25 February 1864[41]
23  Guatemala 25 February 1864[36]
24  Honduras 25 February 1864[36]
25  Nicaragua 25 February 1864[36]
26  Peru 25 February 1864[34]
27  Colombia 13 March 1864[37]
28  Venezuela 13 March 1864[33]
29  Mexico 28 December 1864[36]
30  Japan 25 August 1866[42]
31  Austria 27 January 1867[30]
32  Paraguay 21 July 1867[34]
33  Thailand 3 October 1868[43]
34  Germany 20 April 1871[44]
35  Monaco 25 April 1875[45]
36  Serbia 18 January 1879[46]
37  Bulgaria 25 July 1879[47]
38  Romania 26 December 1879[48]
39  Iran 18 February 1886[49]
40  Luxembourg 7 February 1891[50]
41  Ethiopia 24 June 1897[51]
42  Haiti 24 February 1898[52]
43  Cuba 4 February 1903[53]
44  Panama 15 January 1904[54]
45  Norway 22 March 1906[55]
46  Albania 21 February 1914[56]
47  Czech Republic 16 October 1918[57]
48  Poland 27 February 1919[58]
49  Finland 6 September 1919[59]
50  Hungary 21 November 1920[60]
51  Afghanistan 3 June 1921[61]
52  Egypt 30 April 1922[62]
53  Yemen 2 September 1926[63]
 Holy See 24 June 1929[64]
54  South Africa 31 October 1929[60]
55  Saudi Arabia 10 February 1932[65]
56  Ireland 27 September 1937[66]
57  Iceland 15 August 1945[67]
58  Philippines 3 November 1946[68]
59  Lebanon 20 November 1946[69]
60  Canada 13 August 1947[70]
61  Syria 27 September 1947[71]
62  India 25 March 1948[72]
63  Pakistan 7 April 1948[73]
64  Israel 13 July 1949[74]
65  Australia 24 November 1949[75]
66  Indonesia 29 December 1949[76]
67  Jordan 7 March 1950[77]
68  Sri Lanka 18 April 1950[78]
69  New Zealand 22 August 1950[79]
70  Myanmar 24 November 1950[80]
71  Cambodia 27 July 1951[81]
72  Liberia 5 October 1951[82]
73  Libya 21 February 1952[83]
 Sovereign Military Order of Malta 12 June 1956[84]
74  Tunisia 20 June 1956[85]
75  Morocco 1 October 1956[86]
76  Sudan 31 October 1956[87]
77  South Korea 24 November 1956[88]
78  Malaysia 31 August 1957[89]
79    Nepal 31 August 1959[90]
80  Somalia 1 July 1960[91]
81  Democratic Republic of the Congo 21 July 1960[92]
82  Senegal 1 March 1961[93]
83  Ivory Coast 18 June 1961[94]
84  Cyprus 12 September 1961[95]
85  Niger 23 September 1961[96]
86  Benin 30 November 1961[97]
87  Tanzania 9 December 1961[98]
88  Nigeria 1961[99]
89  Cameroon 28 February 1962[100]
90  Mali 27 April 1962[101]
91  Burkina Faso 16 June 1962[102]
92  Algeria 1 October 1962[103]
93  Sierra Leone 1962[104]
94  Gabon 6 February 1963[105]
95  Jamaica 14 February 1963[106]
96  Mauritania 25 February 1963[107]
97  Trinidad and Tobago 4 January 1964[108]
98  Kenya 15 January 1964[109]
99  Chad 13 February 1964[110]
100  Central African Republic June 1964[111]
101  Uganda 5 July 1964[112]
102  Malta 21 September 1964[113]
103  Kuwait 8 November 1964[114]
104  Republic of the Congo 20 April 1965[115]
105  Rwanda 5 May 1965[116]
106  Singapore 28 October 1965[117]
107  Gambia 30 October 1965[118]
108  Laos 7 December 1965[119]
109  Zambia 10 May 1966[120]
110  Malawi 20 September 1966[121]
111  Maldives 1966[122]
112  Guyana 12 April 1967[123]
113  Mauritius 8 April 1970[124]
114  Mongolia 29 June 1970[125]
115  China 6 November 1970[126]
116  Botswana 1970[127]
117  United Arab Emirates 1971[128]
118  Oman 26 January 1972[129]
119  Fiji 13 October 1972[130]
120  Bangladesh 18 January 1973[131]
121  Qatar 15 February 1973[132]
122  Vietnam 23 March 1973[133]
123  Bahrain 16 December 1973[134]
124  Mozambique 25 June 1975[135]
125  Angola 4 June 1976[136]
126  Seychelles 29 June 1976[137]
127  Comoros 1 November 1976[138]
128  Cape Verde 18 November 1976[139]
129  Barbados 23 August 1977[140]
130  Djibouti 24 November 1977[141]
131  Suriname 7 July 1978[142]
132  Bahamas 1978[143]
133  Tuvalu July 1979[144]
134  Saint Lucia 1979[145]
135  Zimbabwe 18 April 1980[146]
136  Grenada 22 October 1980[147]
137  Tonga 26 November 1981[148]
138  Belize 1 October 1982[149]
139  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 30 October 1982[150]
140  Guinea-Bissau 15 December 1982[151]
141  Antigua and Barbuda 20 August 1985[152]
142  Solomon Islands 1 March 1987[153]
143  Samoa 25 May 1987[154]
144  San Marino 1 August 1988[155]
145  São Tomé and Príncipe 24 December 1988[155]
146  Brunei 2 November 1989[156]
147  Namibia 20 April 1990[157]
148  Latvia 30 August 1991[158]
149  Lithuania 30 August 1991[159]
150  Estonia 31 August 1991[160]
151  Croatia 17 January 1992[161]
152  Slovenia 17 January 1992[162]
153  Moldova 21 February 1992[163]
154  Ukraine 29 January 1992[164]
155  Armenia 17 March 1992[165]
156  Kyrgyzstan 24 March 1992[166]
157  Uzbekistan 24 March 1992[167]
158  Belarus 13 April 1992[168]
159  Azerbaijan 8 May 1992[169]
160  Georgia 11 May 1992[170]
161  Tajikistan 19 May 1992[171]
162  Turkmenistan 9 June 1992[172]
163  Kazakhstan 21 August 1992[173]
164  Federated States of Micronesia 27 November 1992[174]
165  Slovakia 1 January 1993[175]
166  Dominica 5 January 1993[155]
167  Bosnia and Herzegovina 1 February 1993[176]
168  Eritrea 24 May 1993[177]
169  Marshall Islands 24 September 1993[142]
170  North Macedonia 16 December 1993[178]
171  Andorra 1 February 1995[179]
172  Kiribati 7 December 1995[155]
173  Liechtenstein 11 December 1995[155]
174  Saint Kitts and Nevis 7 January 1996[155]
175  Nauru 27 February 1997[180]
176  Papua New Guinea 22 January 1998[155]
177  Vanuatu 22 January 1998[155]
178  North Korea 4 January 2000[181]
179  Palau 22 March 2002[182]
 Cook Islands 9 October 2003[183]
180  East Timor 24 November 2003[184]
181  Montenegro 14 June 2006[185]
 Kosovo 15 May 2008[186]
182  South Sudan 23 May 2012[187]
 Niue 12 September 2015[188]
183  Burundi Unknown
184  Equatorial Guinea Unknown
185  Eswatini Unknown
186  Ghana Unknown
187  Guinea Unknown
188  Iraq Unknown
189  Lesotho Unknown
190  Madagascar Unknown
191  Togo Unknown

Bilateral relations by country

Africa

Country
Beginning of formal relations
Notes
 Algeria 1 October 1962 See Algeria–Italy relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 1 October 1962.[189]

 Angola 4 June 1976[190] See Angola–Italy relations
  • Angola has an embassy in Rome.
  • Italy has an embassy in Luanda.
 Burkina Faso 16 June 1962 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 16 June 1962 when Mr. Renzo Luigi Romanelli, the first Italian Ambassador to Upper Volta, has presented his letters of credence to President Maurice Yameogo.[102]
 Comoros 1 November 1976 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 1 November 1976[193]
 Democratic Republic of the Congo 21 July 1960 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 21 July 1960 when accredited first Ambassador of Italy to Congo (Leopoldville) Mr. Pietro Franca[92]
 Egypt 30 April 1922 See Egypt–Italy relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 30 April 1922 when has been appointed first Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of Italy to Egypt Mr Lazzaro Negrotto Cambiaso.[198]

Relations between both countries were established during the period of the Roman Empire. However, in World War II, relations were strained as Italy invaded Egypt. However, after the war, relations were re-established and are close. Egypt has representations in Rome and Milan, while Italy has representations in Cairo and Alexandria, also the two nations are members of the Union for the Mediterranean.

Relations deteriorated after the abduction and killing of Italian student Giulio Regeni. Egypt has been accused by Italian authorities and public opinion of lacking of transparence.

 Eritrea 24 May 1993 See Eritrea–Italy relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 24 May 1993.[177]

 Ethiopia 24 June 1897 See Ethiopia–Italy relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 24 June 1897.[51]

 Kenya 1963 See Italy–Kenya relations
  • Relations were formally established after Kenya gained its independence from British rule.
  • Italy has an embassy in Nairobi and 2 counsulates in Malindi and Mombasa.
  • Kenya has an embassy in Rome.
 Libya 21 February 1952 See Italy–Libya relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 21 February 1952 when has been accredited first Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of Italy to Libya Mr. Mario Conti.[199]

 Mauritania 25 February 1963 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 25 February 1963 when first Ambassador of Mauritania to Italy (resident in Paris) Mr. Bakar Ould Ahmedou presented his credentials to President Antonio Segni.[107]
 Morocco 1 October 1956 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 1 October 1956[86]
 Nigeria
  • Italy has an embassy in Nigeria and a consulate in Lagos.
  • Nigeria has an embassy in Rome.
 Rwanda 5 May 1965 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 5 May 1965 when Ambassador of Rwanda to Italy Mr. Emanuele Kaberuka presented his credentials to President Giuseppe Saragat.[116]
 Senegal 1 March 1961 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 1 March 1961.[93]
 Somalia 1 July 1960 See Italy–Somalia relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 1 July 1960.[91]

 South Africa 31 October 1929 See Italy–South Africa relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 31 October 1929 when has been appointed first Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of Italy to Union of South Africa Natale Labia.[60]

 South Sudan 23 May 2012 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 23 May 2012.[187]
 Sudan 31 October 1956 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 31 October 1956 when Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of Sudan to Italy Mr. Omer Abedel Hanid Adeel has presented his credentials to President Giovanni Gronchi.[87]
 Tanzania 9 December 1961 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 9 December 1961 when open Embassy of Italy in Dar es Salaam with accredited Chargé d'Affaires of Italy to Tanganyika Mr. Luciano Falco[98]
 Tunisia 20 June 1956 See Italy–Tunisia relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 20 June 1956.[85]

 Uganda 5 July 1964

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 5 July 1964[112]

 Zimbabwe 18 April 1980 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 18 April 1980.[208]

Americas

Country
Beginning of formal relations
Notes
 Argentina 5 May 1856 See Argentina–Italy relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 5 May 1856 when has been accredited first Chargé d'Affaires of Italy to Argentina Marcello Cerruti.[30]

 Belize 1 October 1982
  • Both countries have established diplomatic relations on 1 October 1982.[212]
  • Belize has a consulate-general in Milan.[213]
  • Italy is represented in Belize through its embassy in Mexico City and an honorary consulate.[214]
 Bolivia 25 February 1864 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 25 February 1864 when has been appointed first Minister Resident of Italy to Bolivia Antonio Maria Migliorati.[37]
 Brazil 6 November 1859 See Brazil–Italy relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 6 November 1859 when has been appointed first Chargé d'Affaires of Italy to Brazil Gabriele Galateri di Genola.[37]

 Canada 13 August 1947 See Canada–Italy relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 13 August 1947 when has been established Legation of Canada in Italy.[223]

 Chile 25 February 1864 See Chile–Italy relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 25 February 1864 when has been appointed first Minister Resident of Italy to Chile Antonio Maria Migliorati.[37]

 Colombia 13 March 1864 See Colombia–Italy relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 25 February 1864 when has been appointed first Minister Resident of Italy to Colombia Antonio Maria Migliorati.[37]

 Costa Rica 25 February 1864 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 25 February 1864 when has been appointed first Minister Resident of Italy to Ecuador Antonio Maria Migliorati.[35]
 Cuba 4 February 1903 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 4 February 1903.[53]
 Dominican Republic 24 February 1898 See Dominican Republic-Italy relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 24 February 1898 when has been accredited Minister Resident of Italy to Dominican Republic Chicco Enrico.[236]

 Ecuador 25 February 1864 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 25 February 1864 when has been appointed first Minister Resident of Italy to Ecuador Antonio Maria Migliorati.[35]
 El Salvador 25 February 1864 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 25 February 1864 when has been appointed first Minister Resident of Italy to El Salvador Antonio Maria Migliorati.[41]
 Grenada
  • Italy is accredited to Grenada from its embassy in Caracas, Venezuela.[237]
  • Grenada has an honorary consulate in Florence.[191]
 Guatemala 25 February 1864 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 25 February 1864 when has been appointed first Minister Resident of Italy to Guatemala Antonio Maria Migliorati.[36]
 Haiti 24 February 1898 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 24 February 1898 when has been accredited Minister Resident of Italy to Haiti Chicco Enrico.[238]
 Honduras 25 February 1864 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 25 February 1864 when has been appointed first Minister Resident of Italy to Honduras Antonio Maria Migliorati.[36]
 Jamaica 14 February 1963 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 14 February 1963.[106]
 Mexico 28 December 1864 See Italy–Mexico relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 28 December 1864 when has been appointed first Minister Resident of Italy to Mexico Vittorio Sallier de la Tour.[36]

 Nicaragua 25 February 1864 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 25 February 1864 when has been appointed first Minister Resident of Italy to Nicaragua Antonio Maria Migliorati.[36]
 Panama 15 January 1904 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 15 January 1904[242]
 Paraguay 21 July 1867 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 21 July 1867 when has been appointed first Chargé d'Affaires of Italy to Paraguay Luigi Joannini Ceva di San Michele.[34]
 Peru 25 February 1864 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 25 February 1864 when has been appointed first Minister Resident of Italy to Peru Giovanni Antonio Migliorati.[34]
 Trinidad and Tobago 4 January 1964 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 4 January 1964.[108]
 United States 11 April 1861 See Italy–United States relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 11 April 1861.[247]

The United States enjoys a peculiar and friendly relation with Italy, as the latter, defeated in WWII, has been a secret battlefield of the Cold War. Italy and the US are NATO allies and cooperate in the United Nations, in various regional organizations, and bilaterally. Italy has worked closely with the United States and with other nations on such issues as NATO and UN operations as well as with assistance to Russia and the New Independent States; the Middle East peace process; multilateral talks.

Under longstanding bilateral agreements flowing from NATO membership, Italy hosts important U.S. military forces at Vicenza and Livorno (army); Aviano (air force); and Sigonella, Gaeta, and Naples- home port for the U.S. Navy Sixth Fleet. The United States still has about 16,000 military personnel stationed in Italy. The NATO War College is situated at Cecchignola, a neighborhood of Rome.

 Uruguay 5 May 1856 See Italy–Uruguay relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 5 May 1856 when has been appointed first Chargé d'Affaires of Italy to Uruguay Marcello Cerruti.[33]

 Venezuela 13 March 1864 See Italy–Venezuela relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 13 March 1864 when has been appointed first Minister Resident of Italy to Venezuela Antonio Maria Migliorati.[33]

Asia

Country
Beginning of formal relations
Notes
 Afghanistan 3 June 1921 See Afghanistan–Italy relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 3 June 1921.[61]

  • Afghanistan has an embassy in Rome,[249] which was established as a legation in 1921, and was upgraded to embassy in 1960.[250] Italy has an embassy in Kabul.[251]
  • Italy was among the first nations to recognise Afghanistan's sovereignty, following the 1919 recognition by the Soviet Union.[252]
  • Following Germany's 1935 closening with Afghanistan, Italy also established close relations. Afghanistan resisted calls from Moscow and London to expel the Italian and German diplomatic corps for most of World War II.[253]
  • Italy has served as a place of exile for two former Afghan kings, Amanullah Khan (deposed 1929) and Mohammed Zahir Shah (deposed 1973).
 Armenia 17 March 1992 See Armenia–Italy relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 17 March 1992.[254]

 Azerbaijan 8 May 1992 See Azerbaijan–Italy relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 8 May 1992.[169]

  • Azerbaijan has an embassy in Rome.[257]
  • Italy has an embassy in Baku.[258]
 Bahrain 16 December 1973 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 16 December 1973.[134]
 Bangladesh 18 January 1973

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 18 January 1973 when first Ambassador of Bangladesh to Italy Mr.Ikbal Athar presented his credentials to President Giovanni Leone.[131]

Relations between two countries have been wonderful. Bangladesh is a huge import market for Italy. Italy has an embassy in Dhaka. Bangladesh has an embassy in Rome.

 China 6 November 1970 See People's Republic of China – Italy relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 6 November 1970.[126] In 2005, Italy and the People's Republic of China have celebrated the 35th anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic relations between the two nations. However, China's massive exports of textile and footwear into Italy are said to be a rising concern to Italy's economy and productivity.[259]

 Georgia 11 May 1992 See Georgia–Italy relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 11 May 1992.[170]

 India 25 March 1948 See India–Italy relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 25 March 1948.[72]

In 2012, relations deteriorated following the Enrica Lexie Case

 Indonesia 25 June 1950 See Indonesia–Italy relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 25 June 1950.[4]

  • Both nations have shown strong desire to improve their relations, especially in intercultural understanding and trade.[265]
  • Indonesia recognizes Italy's strategic location and important role in the middle of Mediterranean region, while Italy has favoured relations with Indonesia, and sees Indonesia as the leader in Southeast Asia.[266]
  • The relations between two countries not only important to bridge the two regional communities; European Union and ASEAN, but also vital as intercultural and interfaith dialog.[267]
  • Indonesia has an embassy in Rome, that also accredited to Malta, Cyprus, San Marino, while Italy has an embassy in Jakarta.
 Iran 18 February 1886 See Iran–Italy relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 18 February 1886 when has been appointed first Chargé d'Affaires of Italy to Persia Alessandro De Rege Di Donato.[49]

In 2005, Italy was the third largest trading partner of Iran with 7.5% of all exports to Iran.[268] Italy was the top trading partner of Iran in the European Union in early 2006.[269] Commercial exchanges hit 6 billion euros in 2008.[270]

 Iraq See Iraq–Italy relations

Iraq has an embassy in Rome and Italy has an embassy in Baghdad and a consulate-general in Basra.

 Israel 13 July 1949 See Israel–Italy relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 13 July 1949 when has been accredited first Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of Israel to Italy Mr. Shlomo Ginossar.[271]

 Japan 25 August 1866 See Italy–Japan relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 25 August 1866.[42]

 Jordan 7 March 1950 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 7 March 1950 when has been accredited first Chargé d'Affaires of Jordan to Italy Mr. Edmond Roch Bey.[279]
 Kazakhstan 21 August 1992 See Italy-Kazakhstan relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 21 August 1992.[173]

  • In 2017, the trade between Kazakhstan and Italy amounted to $9.6 billion, which is an increase of 13.5% compared to 2016.[280]
  • Italy has an embassy in Nur-Sultan.
  • Kazakhstan has an embassy in Rome.
 Kyrgyzstan 24 March 1992 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 24 March 1992.[166]
 Lebanon 20 November 1946 See Italy–Lebanon relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 20 November 1946 when has been accredited first Chargé d'Affaires of Italy to Lebanon Mr. Adolfo Alessandrini.[281]

 Maldives 1966 Both countries established diplomatic relations in 1966.[285]
  • Italy has an embassy in Colombo which also functed as non-resident ambassador to Maldives.
  • Maldives is represented in Italy through its permanent mission to UN in Geneva since 2012.
 Malaysia 31 August 1957 See Italy–Malaysia relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 31 August 1957.[89]

 Myanmar 24 November 1950 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 24 November 1950.[80]
   Nepal 31 August 1959 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 31 August 1959.[90]
 North Korea 4 January 2000[288] See Italy–North Korea relations
 Oman 26 January 1972 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 26 January 1972[129]
 Pakistan 7 April 1948 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 7 April 1948.[289]
  • Pakistan and Italy enjoy close relationship in all fields. Both countries formally have friendly foreign relations.[290] There are over 100,000 Pakistanis living in Italy, mainly living in Milan and Brescia.[291]
  • Pakistan has an embassy in Rome and a consulate-general in Milan for representation
  • Italy maintains an embassy in Islamabad, a consulate-general in Karachi and an honorary consulate in Lahore.
 Philippines 3 November 1946 See Italy–Philippines relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 3 November 1946 when has been accredited first interim Chargé d'Affaires of Italy to Philippines Mr. Vittorio Strigari.[292]

  • A Treaty of Friendship which was signed in Rome and ratified in December 1948. Italy has an embassy in Manila and the Philippines has an embassy in Rome.
 Qatar 15 February 1973 See Italy–Qatar relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 15 February 1973[132]

 Saudi Arabia 10 February 1932 See Italy–Saudi Arabia relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 10 February 1932.[65]

  • Italy has an embassy in Riyadh and general consulate in Jeddah.
  • Saudi Arabia has an embassy in Rome.
 Singapore 28 October 1965 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 28 October 1965.[294]
 South Korea 24 November 1956 See Italy–South Korea relations

The establishment of diplomatic relations between the kingdom of Italy and the kingdom of Korea began on 26 June 1884 and the Re establishment of Diplomatic Relations between the Italian republic the Republic of Korea was on November 24, 1956.[88]

  • Italy has a Working Holiday Program Agreement with South Korea.
  • During the Korean War Italy sent medical staff to help the South Korea.[295]
  • Bilateral Trade in 2014
    • Exports 3,473,000,000 US dollars
    • Imports 6,260,000,000 US dollars
  • Bilateral Investments in 2014
    • South Korea's Investment in Italy 654,000,000 US
    • Italy's Investment in South Korea US$539,000,000
  • The number of the South Koreans living in Italy in 2012 was about 4,054.
  • The Italian Prime Minister Mario Monti visited Seoul in March 2012. (To attend the Seoul Nuclear Security Summit)
  • The President of the Republic of Korea Park Geun-hye visited Rome in October 2014.
  • From 20 to 24 November 2011, 54 participating Italian companies, 8 trade associations and chambers of commerce and 7 banks, held over 300 meetings with 139 Korean companies. The events were promoted by Confindustria (the Italian employers' federation), the Italian Banking Association (ABI), the Ministry for Economic Development (MiSE) and the Ministry for Foreign Affairs (MFA). It took the form of seminars, workshops, B2B meetings and institutional events, as well as visits to representations of Korean industry. This was the first structured initiative, with a broad-ranging business representation in Korea, by the Italian economic system since the EU-Korea Free Trade Agreement (FTA) entered into force.[300]
 Sri Lanka 18 April 1950

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 18 April 1950.[78]

Italy and Sri Lanka maintain a strong relationship dated back from 1st century.[301]

  • Italy aided Sri Lanka with almost 50 million Euros when a tsunami struck Sri Lanka in 2004.
  • Italy has an embassy in Colombo.
  • Sri Lanka has an embassy in Rome.
  • The estimated trade value between these countries were US$604.49 million in 2009.
 Tajikistan 19 May 1992 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 19 May 1992.[171]
 Thailand 3 October 1868 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 3 October 1868.[43]
 Timor Leste 24 November 2003 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 24 November 2003.[184]
 Turkey 25 September 1856 See Italy–Turkey relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 25 September 1856 when has been appointed first Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of Italy to Turkey Giacomo Durando.[33]

 Turkmenistan 9 June 1992 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 9 June 1992.[172]
 United Arab Emirates
 Uzbekistan 24 March 1992 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 24 March 1992.[167]
 Vietnam 23 March 1973 See Italy–Vietnam relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 23 March 1973.[133]

Europe

Country
Beginning of formal relations
Notes
 Albania 21 February 1914 See Albania–Italy relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 21 February 1914 when has been appointed first Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of Italy to Albania Carlo Aliotti.[56]

The Kingdom of Italy supported Albanian Declaration of Independence in 1912.
Arbëreshë people
Italian protectorate over Albania
Italian invasion of Albania
Albanian Kingdom (1939–1943)
Italian colonists in Albania

  • Albania has an embassy in Rome and a consulate general in Bari and Milan.
  • Italy has an embassy in Tirana and consulates in Gjirokastër, Shkodra, Vlora.
  • Italy and Albania share similar historical, political and cultural backgrounds.[307]
  • Albania is home to 20,000 Italian migrants and has a 5,000 Italian indigenous community.[308]
  • Italy is home to indigenous Arbereshe community, including up to 900,000 Albanian immigrants.
  • Italian is the third most spoken language of Albania, after Albanian and Greek.[309]
  • Italy is considered one of Albania's strongest allies especially within the European Union.
  • Albanian is a prominent language in Italy with Albanian immigrants speaking Albanian in large numbers on top of the over 800,000 Italians who speak the Arbereshe dialect of Albanian (see Albanians in Italy and Arbëreshë people).[309]
 Andorra 1 February 1995

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 1 February 1995.[310]

Italy is represented in Andorra through its embassy in Madrid (Spain) and an honorary consulate in Andorra La Vella.

 Austria 27 January 1867 See Austria–Italy relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 27 January 1867 when has been appointed first Envoy Extraordinary and minister Plenipotentiary of Italy to Austro-Hungary Giulio Camillo De Barral De Monteauvrard.[30]

 Belarus 13 April 1992 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 13 April 1992.[168]
  • Belarus has an embassy in Rome and 2 honorary consulates (in Naples and Turin).[311]
  • Italy has an embassy in Minsk.[312]
 Belgium 24 February 1851 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 24 February 1851 when has been appointed Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of Italy to Belgium Alberto Lupi Di Montalto.[30]
 Bosnia and Herzegovina 1 February 1993 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 1 February 1993.[176]
 Bulgaria 25 July 1879 See Bulgaria–Italy relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 25 July 1879.[319][47]

 Croatia 17 January 1992 See Croatia–Italy relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 17 January 1992.[161]

  • Croatia has an embassy in Rome, 2 general consulates (in Milan and Trieste), and 5 honorary consulates (in Bari, Florence, Montemitro, Naples, and Padua).
  • Italy has an embassy in Zagreb, a general consulate in Rijeka, a consulate in Split and 2 honorary consulates (in Buje and Pula).
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union, NATO, Council of Europe and of the Union for the Mediterranean.
  • There are around 19,500 local ethnic Italians (Istrian Italians and Dalmatian Italians) living in Croatia, whose number decreased following the Istrian–Dalmatian exodus.
  • There are 21,360 Croats, some of which are local ethnic, living in Italy (see Croats of Italy and Molise Croats).
 Cyprus 12 September 1961 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 12 September 1961 when the first Ambassador of Italy to Cyprus, Pietro Solari presentation of credentials.[323]
 Czech Republic 24 October 1918 See Czech Republic–Italy relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 24 October 1918.[325]

 Denmark 23 December 1859 See Denmark–Italy relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 23 December 1859 when has been appointed first interim chargé d'affaires Giovanni Antonio Migliorati.[35]

 Estonia 31 August 1991 Both countries re-established diplomatic relations on 31 August 1991.[160]
 Finland 6 September 1919 See Finland–Italy relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 6 September 1919.[59]

 France 25 July 1861 See France–Italy relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 25 July 1861 when has been appointed Envoy Extraordinary and minister Plenipotentiary of Italy to France Costantino Nigra.[35]

 Germany 20 April 1871 See Germany–Italy relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 20 April 1871 when has been appointed first Ambassador Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of Italy to Germany Edoardo De Launay.[44]

 Greece 16 June 1861 See Greece–Italy relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 16 June 1861 when has been appointed first Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of Italy to Greece Terenzio Mamiani della Rovere.[36]

 Holy See 24 June 1929 See Holy See – Italy relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 24 June 1929.[335]

Due to the size of the Vatican City State, embassies accredited to the Holy See are based on Italian territory. Treaties signed between Italy and the Vatican City State permit such embassages. The Embassy of Italy to the Holy See is unique amongst foreign embassages in that it is the only embassy based on its home territory.

The Holy See maintains formal diplomatic relations with 176 sovereign states, the European Union, and the Order of Malta; 69 of the diplomatic missions accredited to the Holy See are situated in Rome, though those countries than have two embassies in the same city, since, by agreement between the Holy See and Italy, the same person cannot be accredited simultaneously to both. This is shown clearly by the fact that Italy recognizes the People's Republic of China, and as such, the Chinese Embassy is in Rome. However, the Vatican City State recognizes the Taiwan, and as such, Taiwan's embassy to the Holy See is also in Rome. As Italy was the first country to recognize the Holy See as a sovereign nation, their embassy was the first one established.

 Hungary 21 November 1920 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 21 November 1920 when has been appointed first Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of Italy to Hungary Gaetano Caracciolo Di Castagneto.[60]
 Iceland 15 August 1945 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 15 August 1945.[67]
 Ireland 27 September 1937 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 27 September 1937 when has been accredited first Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of Italy to Ireland Mr. Romano Lodi Fe.[341]
  • Ireland has an embassy in Rome and an honorary consulate in Milan.[342]
  • Italy has an embassy in Dublin.[343] and an honorary consulate in Galway.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and the Council of Europe.
  • There are 15,000 Irish people living in Italy.
  • There are 7,656 Italians living in Ireland.
 Kosovo 15 May 2008 See Italy–Kosovo relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 15 May 2008.[186]

Italy recognized Kosovo on 21 February 2008.[344][345] Italy has an embassy in Pristina since 15 May 2008.[346] Kosovo will open an embassy in Rome.

  • There are upwards to 900,000 ethnic Albanians in Italy, many also from Kosovo.
 Latvia 30 August 1991 Both countries re-established diplomatic relations on 30 August 1991.[158]
 Liechtenstein 11 December 1995 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 11 December 1995 when has been appointed Ambassador of Italy to Liechtenstein with residence in Berne Mr. Arduino Fornara.[155]
  • Italy is represented in Liechtenstein through its embassy in Bern (Switzerland)
 Lithuania 30 August 1991 Both countries re-established diplomatic relations on 30 August 1991.[159]
 Luxembourg 7 February 1891 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 7 February 1891.[50]
 Malta 21 September 1964 See Italy–Malta relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 21 September 1964.[353]

 Moldova 21 February 1992 See Italy-Moldova relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 21 February 1992.[163]

 Monaco 25 April 1875 See Italy-Monaco relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 25 April 1875.[354]

  • Italy has an embassy in Monaco.
  • Monaco has an embassy in Rome and an honorary consulate in Venice.
 Montenegro 14 June 2006 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 14 June 2006.[185]
 Netherlands 15 September 1859 See Italy–Netherlands relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 15 September 1859 when has been appointed first Chargé d'Affaires of Italy to the Netherlands Andrea Taliacarne.[36]

 North Macedonia 16 December 1993 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 16 December 1993.[178]
  • Italy has an embassy in Skopje
  • North Macedonia has an embassy in Rome.
  • Both countries are full members of the Council of Europe and of NATO.
 Norway 22 March 1906 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 22 March 1906.[360]
 Poland 27 February 1919 See Italy–Poland relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 27 February 1919.[58]

 Portugal 24 October 1860 See Italy–Portugal relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 24 October 1860 when has been appointed first Chargé d'Affaires of Italy to Portugal Minerva Domenico Pes Di San Vittorio.[34]

 Romania 26 December 1879 See Italy–Romania relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 26 December 1879.[364]

 Russia 25 September 1856 See Italy–Russia relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 25 September 1856 when has been appointed first Envoy Extraordinary and minister Plenipotentiary of Italy to Russia Francesco Maria Sauli.[34]

Russia has an embassy in Rome and consulates in Genoa, Milan and Palermo, and Italy has an embassy in Moscow, a consulate in Saint Petersburg, two consulte generals (in Ekaterinburg and Kaliningrad), and two embassy branches in (Samara and Volgograd). Both countries are full members of the Council of Europe and the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe.

In 2006, Russia and Italy have signed a protocol of cooperation for fighting crime and defending civil liberties.

The relationship between Russia and Italy goes back a long way. Already in the 1960s, Italy's FIAT built a car-assembling plant in the Soviet city of Tolyatti (a city named after the Italian Communist Party's secretary Palmiro Togliatti). In the past, Russians visited Italy in great numbers. Many Russian students came to Italy each year to study in Italian universities.[369] The Silvio Berlusconi Government (2001–2006) strengthened Italy's ties with Russia, due to his personal friendship with President Vladimir Putin. Cooperation extended also to the aviation sector, between Italy's Alenia and Russia's Sukhoi. Finally, for a long time Italy had the largest communist party in the Western world, with over 2 million members. .[370] Good relations ended in 2022 after the invasion of Russia in Ukraine.

 San Marino See Italy–San Marino relations
  • Italy has an embassy in San Marino.
  • San Marino has an embassy in Rome.
 Serbia 18 January 1879 See Italy–Serbia relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 18 January 1879.[46]

 Slovakia 1 January 1993 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 1 January 1993.[175]
 Slovenia 17 January 1992 See Italy–Slovenia relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 17 January 1992.[162]

 Spain 5 May 1856 See Italy–Spain relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 5 May 1856 when has been appointed first Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of Italy to Spain barone Romualdo Tecco.[32]

Both countries established diplomatic relations after the unification of Italy. Relations between Italy Spain have remained strong and affable for centuries owing to various political, cultural, and historical connections between the two nations.

 Sweden 23 December 1859 See Italy–Sweden relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 23 December 1859 when has been appointed first interim Chargé d'Affaires Giov. Antonio Migliorati.[38]

  Switzerland 12 February 1860 See Italy–Switzerland relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 12 February 1860 when has been appointed first Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of Italy to Switzerland Alessandro Jocteau.[33]

 Ukraine 29 January 1992 See Italy–Ukraine relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 29 January 1992.[164]

 United Kingdom 13 April 1859 See Italy–United Kingdom relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 13 April 1859 when has been appointed first Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of Italy to Great Britain Roberto Taparelli d'Azeglio.[35]

Although enemies during World War II, the United Kingdom and Italy have generally enjoyed a warm and friendly relationship throughout history. Both states embrace membership of the NATO, OSCE and the G7[377]

Between 4 and 5 million British tourists visit Italy every year, while 1 million Italian tourists visit the UK.[378] There are about 30,000 British nationals living in Italy (see British in Italy), and 200,000 Italians living in the UK.[379]

Oceania

Country
Beginning of formal relations
Notes
 Australia 4 February 1949 See Australia–Italy relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 4 February 1949.[6]

 Fiji 13 October 1972 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 13 October 1972.[384]
 New Zealand 22 August 1950 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 22 August 1950.[2]
 Vanuatu

Italy has an honorary consulate in Port Vila.[387]

International institutions

Italy is part of the UN, EU, NATO, the OECD, the OSCE, the DAC, the WTO, the G7, the G20, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Latin Union, the Council of Europe, the Central European Initiative, the ASEM, the MEF, the ISA, the Uniting for Consensus and several Contact Groups.

See also

References

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