The foreign relations of Croatia is primarily formulated and executed via its government which guides the state's interactions with other nations, their citizens, and foreign organizations. Active in global affairs since the 9th century, modern Croatian diplomacy is considered to have formed following their independence from Yugoslavia in 1991. As an independent state, Croatia established diplomatic relations with most world nations – 187 states in total – during the 1990s, starting with Germany (1991) and ending most recently with Togo (2023). Croatia has friendly relations with most of its neighboring countries, namely Slovenia, Hungary, Montenegro, and Italy. They maintain colder, more tense relations with Serbia as well as Bosnia and Herzegovina due to historic nation-building conflict and differing political ideologies.

Croatia is seen as a stabilizing influence in Southeast Europe due to its political alignment with the Western world. It maintains strong relations with the United States, the United Kingdom, and the European Union (E.U.), joining the organization in 2013. Croatia is a military ally to the U.S., U.K., and E.U. through its membership in NATO, having joined in 2009. The economy of Croatia is one of the largest in Southeast Europe with $80.1 billion in nominal gross domestic product (GDP) forecasted by the IMF in 2023. The country receives foreign aid from the IMF and USAID.

Their foreign policy objectives have shifted since the Croatian War of Independence. During the 1990s, Croatia sought to gain international recognition and join the United Nations (2000), later seeking entry into NATO (2009) and the European Union (2013). Modern policy objectives are regional stabilization, influence in international organizations, and strengthening multilateral cooperation. Succession issues following the 1991-92 dissolution of Yugoslavia continue to complicate regional relations. Croatia has outstanding border disputes, sovereign ownership issues, and treaty disagreements with multiple neighbors.

Croatia is a member of the United Nations (UN), the Council of Europe, the World Trade Organization (WTO), Union for the Mediterranean and a number of other international organizations. The Council of Europe has been led by Croatian diplomat Marija Pejčinović Burić since 2019.

History

Croatian-Italian diplomat Roger Joseph Boscovich, 1760

The first native Croatian ruler recognised by the Pope was duke Branimir, who received papal recognition from Pope John VIII on 7 June 879.[1] Tomislav was the first king of Croatia, noted as such in a letter of Pope John X in 925. Maritime Republic of Ragusa (1358-1808) maintained widespread diplomatic relations with the Ottoman Empire, Republic of Venice, Papal States and other states. Diplomatic relations of the Republic of Ragusa are often perceived as a historical inspiration for the contemporary Croatian diplomacy.[2] During the Wars of the Holy League Ragusa avoided alignment with either side in the conflict rejecting Venetian calls to join the Holy League.[2]

Antun Mihanović, author of the anthem of Croatia, spent over 20 years as a consul of the Austrian Empire in Belgrade (Principality of Serbia), Bucharest (Wallachia) and Istanbul (Ottoman Empire) starting in 1836.[3] The Yugoslav Committee, political interest group formed by South Slavs from Austria-Hungary during World War I, petitioned Allies of World War I and participated in international events such as the Congress of Oppressed Nationalities of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. The Association for the Promotion of the League of Nations Values was active in Zagreb in the interwar period organizing lectures by Albert Thomas, Goldsworthy Lowes Dickinson and Ludwig Quidde.[4] During World War II, the Axis puppet state known as the Independent State of Croatia maintained diplomatic relations with several different countries in Europe.

Socialist Republic of Croatia within Yugoslavia

See also: Foreign relations of Yugoslavia

Embassy of Croatia in Austria, 2015

While each constitution of Yugoslavia defined foreign affairs as a federal level issue, over the years Yugoslav constituent republics played increasingly prominent role in either defining this policy or pursuing their own initiatives. Number of diplomats from Croatia gained significant experience in the service to the prominent Cold War era Yugoslav diplomacy.[5]

In June 1943 Vladimir Velebit became the point of contact for foreign military missions in their dealings with the Yugoslav Partisans. Ivan Šubašić (1944-1945), Josip Smodlaka (NKOJ: 1943–1945), Josip Vrhovec (1978-1982) and Budimir Lončar (1987-1991) led the federal level Ministry of Foreign Affairs while numerous Croatian diplomats served in Yugoslav embassies or multilateral organizations. In 1956 Brijuni archipelago in People's Republic of Croatia hosted the Brioni Meeting, one of the major early initiatives leading to the establishment of the Non-Aligned Movement.[6][7] Between 1960 and 1967 Vladimir Velebit was executive secretary of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe. During the Croatian Spring Croatian economist Hrvoje Šošić argued for the separate admission of the Socialist Republic of Croatia into the United Nations similar to the membership of Ukrainian and Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic which led to his imprisonment.[8] In 1978, Croatia together with SR Slovenia joined the newly established Alps-Adriatic Working Group. The breakup of Yugoslavia led to mass transfers of experts from federal institutions enabling post-Yugoslav states to establish their own diplomatic bodies primarily by employing former Yugoslav cadres.[9] The 2001 Agreement on Succession Issues of the Former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia formally assigned to Croatia a portion of the diplomatic and consular properties of the previous federation.[10]

Foreign policy since independence

Vesna Pusić
Mate Granić
Tonino Picula
Ministers of Foreign Affairs: Vesna Pusić (2011-2016), Mate Granić (1993-2000) and Tonino Picula (2000-2003)
Ministry of Foreign Affairs building at the Nikola Šubić Zrinski Square, 2007
Croatia was a member state of CEFTA between 2003 and 2013. Maps of CEFTA in 2003 and 2007.

On 17 December 1991 the European Economic Community adopted the "Common Position for the recognition of the Yugoslav Republics" requesting the Yugoslav republics wishing to gain recognition to accept provisions of international law protecting human rights as well as national minorities rights in hope that credible guarantees may prevent incentives for violent confrontations.[11][12] Later that month Croatian Parliament introduced the Constitutional Act on the Rights of National Minorities in the Republic of Croatia opening the way for 15 January 1992 collective recognition by the Community. Croatia maintained some links beyond the Euro-Atlantic world via its observer status in the Non-Aligned Movement which it enjoyed already at the 10th Summit of the Non-Aligned Movement in Jakarta, Indonesia.[13]

Following the international recognition of Croatia in 1992 the country was faced with the Croatian War of Independence between 1992 and 1995. A significant part of the country was outside of the control of the central government with the declaration of self-proclaimed unrecognized Republic of Serbian Krajina. In 1992 signing of the Sarajevo Agreement led to the cease-fire to allow UNPROFOR deployment in the country. Diplomatic efforts led to unsuccessful proposals which included the Daruvar Agreement and Z-4 Plan. In 1995 UNCRO mission took over the UNPROFOR mandate yet soon after Operation Storm led to a decisive victory for the Croatian Army with only the Eastern Slavonia, Baranja and Western Syrmia remaining initially as a rump territory of Krajina. A diplomatic solution that avoided conflict in Eastern Slavonia was reached on 12 November 1995 via the signing of the Erdut Agreement with significant support and facilitation from the international community (primarily the United States, and with United Nations and various European actors).[14][15] Temporary UNTAES administration over the region opened the way for the signing of the Dayton Agreement which ended the Bosnian War. It also led to the signing of 1996 Agreement on Normalization of Relations between the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and the Republic of Croatia.[16]

With the resolution of some of the major bilateral issues arising from the Yugoslav Wars Croatian foreign policy has focused on greater Euro-Atlantic integration, mainly entering the European Union and NATO. The progress was nevertheless slow in the period between 1996 and 1999 with rising concerns over authoritarian tendencies in the country. In order to gain access to European and trans-Atlantic institutions, it has had to undo many negative effects of the breakup of Yugoslavia and the war that ensued, and improve and maintain good relations with its neighbours. Croatia has had an uneven record in these areas between 1996 and 1999 during the right-wing HDZ government, inhibiting its relations with the European Union and the United States. In 1997 United States diplomacy even called upon its European partners to suspend Croatia from the Council of Europe as long as country fails to show adequate respect for human and minority rights.[17] Lack of improvement in these areas severely hindered the advance of Croatia's prospects for further Euro-Atlantic integration. Progress in the areas of Dayton, Erdut, and refugee returns were evident in 1998, but progress was slow and required intensive international engagement. Croatia's unsatisfactory performance implementing broader democratic reforms in 1998 raised questions about the ruling party's commitment to basic democratic principles and norms. Areas of concern included restrictions on freedom of speech, one-party control of public TV and radio, repression of independent media, unfair electoral regulations, a judiciary that is not fully independent, and lack of human and civil rights protection.

With the 1999 death of President Franjo Tuđman, 2000 Croatian parliamentary election as well as corresponding regional changes such as the Overthrow of Slobodan Milošević, the European Union organized the 2000 Zagreb and 2003 Thessaloniki Summits in which European integration perspective was discussed for all the countries in the region.[18] The new SDP-led centre-left coalition government slowly relinquished control over public media companies and did not interfere with freedom of speech and independent media, though it did not complete the process of making Croatian Radiotelevision independent. Judiciary reforms remained a pending issue as well. The government's foreign relations were severely affected by the hesitance and stalling of the extradition of Croatian general Janko Bobetko to the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY), and inability to take general Ante Gotovina into custody for questioning by the Court. Nevertheless, Croatia managed to enter NATO's Partnership for Peace Programme in May 2000, World Trade Organization in July 2000, signing a Stabilization and Association Agreement with the EU in October 2001, Membership Action Plan in May 2002, and joined the Central European Free Trade Agreement (CEFTA) in December 2002. The EU membership application was the last major international undertaking of the Račan government, which submitted a 7,000-page report in reply to the questionnaire by the European Commission. Negotiations were initiated with the achievement of the full cooperation with the Hague Tribunal in October 2005. Croatian president Stjepan Mesić participated in the NAM conferences in Havana in 2006 and Sharm el-Sheikh in 2009 using the country's post-Yugoslav link with the Third World in its successful campaign for the Eastern European Spot at the United Nations Security Council in 2008–2009 (in open competition with Czech Republic which was a member state both of EU and NATO).[19][20]

Refugee returns accelerated since 1999, reached a peak in 2000, but then slightly decreased in 2001 and 2002. The OSCE Mission to Croatia, focusing on the governed by the UNTAES, continued to monitor human rights and the return of refugees until December 2007 with the OSCE office in Zagreb finally closing in 2012.[21][22] Croatian Serbs continue to have problems with restitution of property and acceptance to the reconstruction assistance programmes. Combined with lacking economic opportunities in the rural areas of former Krajina, the return process was only partial.

Accession to the European Union

Main article: 2013 enlargement of the European Union

  EU members in 2013
  Croatia

At the time of Croatia's application to the European Union, three EU members states were yet to ratify the Stabilization and Association Agreement: United Kingdom, the Netherlands and Italy. The new Sanader government elected in 2003 elections repeated the assurances that Croatia will fulfill the missing political obligations, and expedited the extradition of several ICTY inductees. The European Commission replied to the answers of the questionnaire sent to Croatia on 20 April 2004 with a positive opinion. The country was finally accepted as EU candidate in July 2004. Italy and United Kingdom ratified the Stabilization and Association Agreement shortly thereafter, while the ten EU member states that were admitted to membership that year ratified it all together at a 2004 European Summit. In December 2004, the EU leaders announced that accession negotiations with Croatia would start on 17 March 2005 provided that Croatian government cooperates fully with the ICTY. The main issue, the flight of general Gotovina, however, remained unsolved and despite the agreement on an accession negotiation framework, the negotiations did not begin in March 2005. On 4 October 2005 Croatia finally received green light for accession negotiations after the Chief Prosecutor of the ICTY Carla Del Ponte officially stated that Croatia is fully cooperating with the Tribunal. This has been the main condition demanded by EU foreign ministers for accession negotiations. The ICTY called upon other southern European states to follow Croatia's good example. Thanks to the consistent position of Austria during the meeting of EU foreign ministers, a long period of instability and the questioning of the determination of the Croatian government to extradite alleged war criminals has ended successfully. Croatian Prime minister Ivo Sanader declared that full cooperation with the Hague Tribunal will continue. The accession process was also complicated by the insistence of Slovenia, an EU member state, that the two countries' border issues be dealt with prior to Croatia's accession to the EU.

Croatia finished accession negotiations on 30 June 2011, and on 9 December 2011, signed the Treaty of Accession.[23] A referendum on EU accession was held in Croatia on 22 January 2012, with 66% of participants voting in favour of joining the Union.[24][25][26][27] The ratification process was concluded on 21 June 2013, and entry into force and accession of Croatia to the EU took place on 1 July 2013.[28]

Current events

The main objective of the Croatian foreign policy is positioning within the EU institutions and in the region, cooperation with NATO partners and strengthening multilateral and bilateral cooperation.[29]

Government officials in charge of foreign policy include the Minister of Foreign and European Affairs, currently Gordan Grlić-Radman, and the President of the Republic, currently Zoran Milanović.

Croatia has established diplomatic relations with 186 countries around the world. As of 2009, Croatia maintains a network of 51 embassies, 24 consulates and eight permanent diplomatic missions abroad. Furthermore, there are 52 foreign embassies and 69 consulates in the Republic of Croatia in addition to offices of international organizations such as the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, International Organization for Migration, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), World Bank, World Health Organization, International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY), United Nations Development Programme, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees and UNICEF.[30]

International organizations

Republic of Croatia participates in the following international organizations: CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, EU, FAO, G11, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, ITUC, NAM (observer[31][32]), NATO, OAS (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, SECI, UN, UNAMSIL, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMEE, UNMOGIP, UPU, WCO, WEU (associate), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO

There exists a Permanent Representative of Croatia to the United Nations.

Foreign support

Croatia receives support from donor programs of:

Between 1991 and 2003, the EBRD had directly invested a total of 1,212,039,000 EUR into projects in Croatia.

In 1998, U.S. support to Croatia came through the Southeastern European Economic Development Program (SEED), whose funding in Croatia totaled $23.25 million. More than half of that money was used to fund programs encouraging sustainable returns of refugees and displaced persons. About one-third of the assistance was used for democratization efforts, and another 5% funded financial sector restructuring.

In 2003 USAID considered Croatia to be on a "glide path for graduation" along with Bulgaria. Its 2002/2003/2004 funding includes around $10 million for economic development, up to $5 million for the development of democratic institutions, about $5 million for the return of population affected by war and between 2 and 3 million dollars for the "mitigation of adverse social conditions and trends". A rising amount of funding is given to cross-cutting programs in anti-corruption, slightly under one million dollars.

The European Commission has proposed to assist Croatia's efforts to join the European Union with 245 million euros from PHARE, ISPA and SAPARD aid programs over the course of 2005 and 2006.

International disputes

Relations with neighbouring states have normalized somewhat since the breakup of Yugoslavia. Work has begun — bilaterally and within the Stability Pact for South Eastern Europe since 1999 — on political and economic cooperation in the region.

Bosnia and Herzegovina

Main article: Bosnia and Herzegovina–Croatia relations

Consulate-General in Banja Luka, 2011

Discussions continue between Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina on various sections of the border, the longest border with another country for each of these countries. Sections of the Una river and villages at the base of Mount Plješevica are in Croatia, while some are in Bosnia, which causes an excessive number of border crossings on a single route and impedes any serious development in the region. The Zagreb-Bihać-Split railway line is still closed for major traffic due to this issue. The border on the Una river between Hrvatska Kostajnica on the northern, Croatian side of the river, and Bosanska Kostajnica on the southern, Bosnian side, is also being discussed. A river island between the two towns is under Croatian control, but is also claimed by Bosnia. A shared border crossing point has been built and has been functioning since 2003, and is used without hindrance by either party.

The Herzegovinian municipality of Neum in the south makes the southernmost part of Croatia an exclave and the two countries are negotiating special transit rules through Neum to compensate for that. Recently Croatia has opted to build a bridge to the Pelješac peninsula to connect the Croatian mainland with the exclave but Bosnia and Herzegovina has protested that the bridge will close its access to international waters (although Croatian territory and territorial waters surround Bosnian-Herzegovinian territory and waters completely) and has suggested that the bridge must be higher than 55 meters for free passage of all types of ships. Negotiations are still being held.

Italy

Main article: Croatia–Italy relations

The relations between Croatia and Italy have been largely cordial and friendly. Occasional incidents do arise on issues such as the Istrian–Dalmatian exodus or the Ecological and Fisheries Protection Zone.

Montenegro

Main article: Croatia–Montenegro relations

Croatia and Montenegro have a largely latent border dispute over the Prevlaka peninsula, and maintain friendly relations.

Serbia

Main articles: Croatia–Serbia relations and Croatia–Serbia border dispute

The border between Croatia and Serbia in the area of the Danube is disputed while at the same time the issue is not considered of the highest priority for either country in their bilateral relations.[33] The issue therefore only occasionally entered into in the public debate with other open issues being higher on the agenda, yet with some commentators fearing that the issue may once be used as an asymmetric pressure tool in the accession of Serbia to the European Union.[34][35] While Serbia holds the opinion that the thalweg of the Danube valley and the centerline of the river represents the international border between the two countries, Croatia disagrees and claims that the international border lies along the boundaries of the cadastral municipalities located along the river—departing from the course at several points along a 140-kilometre (87 mi) section.[35] The cadastre-based boundary reflects the course of the Danube which existed in the 19th century, before meandering and hydrotechnical engineering works altered its course. The area size of the territory in dispute is reported variously, up to 140 square kilometres (54 square miles) and is uninhabited area of forests and islands.[35] Croatian and Serbian authorities have made only occasional attempts to resolve the issue with the establishment of a joint commission that rarely met and the 2018 statement by presidents of the two countries that the issue will be brought to international arbitration if agreement is not reached until 2020.[35]

Slovenia

Main articles: Croatia–Slovenia relations and Croatia–Slovenia border disputes

Croatia and Slovenia have several land and maritime boundary disputes, mainly in the Gulf of Piran, regarding Slovenian access to international waters, a small number of pockets of land on the right-hand side of the river Dragonja, and around the Sveta Gera peak. The two states contested the sovereign ownership of Yugoslav bank Ljubljanska banka, which ended in Slovenia's favor. The status of Croatian depositors' savings in the bank remains an outstanding issue. Slovenia was disputing Croatia's claim to establish the Ecological and Fisheries Protection Zone, an economic section of the Adriatic.

Diplomatic relations

List of countries which Croatia maintains diplomatic relations with:

# Country Date[36]
1  Germany 15 January 1992
2  Austria 15 January 1992
3  Italy 17 January 1992
4  Hungary 18 January 1992
5  Sweden 29 January 1992
6   Switzerland 30 January 1992
7  Denmark 1 February 1992
8  Portugal 3 February 1992
9  Liechtenstein 4 February 1992
10  Slovenia 6 February 1992
 Holy See 8 February 1992
11  Netherlands 11 February 1992
12  Australia 13 February 1992
13  Latvia 14 February 1992
14  Ukraine 18 February 1992
15  Finland 19 February 1992
16  Norway 20 February 1992
17  New Zealand 25 February 1992
18  Estonia 2 March 1992
19  Spain 9 March 1992
20  Belgium 10 March 1992
21  Paraguay 13 March 1992
22  Lithuania 18 March 1992
23  North Macedonia 30 March 1992
24  Poland 11 April 1992
25  Argentina 13 April 1992
26  Chile 15 April 1992
27  Iran 18 April 1992
28  France 24 April 1992
29  Luxembourg 29 April 1992
30  Malaysia 4 May 1992
31  Czech Republic 11 May 1992[37]
32  China 13 May 1992
33  Russia 25 May 1992
34  United Arab Emirates 23 June 1992
35  United Kingdom 24 June 1992
36  Morocco 26 June 1992
37  Iceland 30 June 1992
38  Malta 30 June 1992
39  India 9 July 1992
40  Sudan 17 July 1992
41  Greece 20 July 1992
42  Moldova 20 July 1992
43  Bosnia and Herzegovina 21 July 1992
44  United States 11 August 1992
45  Bulgaria 13 August 1992
46  Albania 25 August 1992
47  Turkey 26 August 1992
48  Romania 29 August 1992
49  Indonesia 3 September 1992
50  Thailand 9 September 1992
51  Cuba 23 September 1992
52  Belarus 25 September 1992
53  Egypt 1 October 1992
54  Algeria 15 October 1992
55  Kazakhstan 20 October 1992
56  South Korea 18 November 1992
57  South Africa 19 November 1992
58  Singapore 23 November 1992
59  Bolivia 26 November 1992
60  North Korea 30 November 1992
61  Qatar 5 December 1992
62  Mexico 6 December 1992
63  Guatemala 22 December 1992
 Sovereign Military Order of Malta 22 December 1992[38]
64  Brazil 23 December 1992
65  Slovakia 1 January 1993
66  Nigeria 7 January 1993
67  Peru 12 January 1993
68  Yemen 17 January 1993
69  Bahrain 18 January 1993
70  Tunisia 18 January 1993
71  Georgia 1 February 1993
72  Cyprus 4 February 1993
73  Venezuela 8 February 1993
74  San Marino 11 February 1993
75  Ghana 17 February 1993
76  Philippines 25 February 1993
77  Japan 5 March 1993
78  Mongolia 10 March 1993
79  Canada 14 April 1993
80  Uruguay 4 May 1993
81  São Tomé and Príncipe 23 May 1993
82  Tanzania 2 July 1993
83  Samoa 8 March 1994
84  Jordan 29 June 1994
85  Vietnam 1 July 1994
86  Pakistan 20 July 1994
87  Cape Verde 19 August 1994
88  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 7 October 1994
89  Kuwait 8 October 1994
90  Angola 16 November 1994
91  Lebanon 5 December 1994
92  Azerbaijan 26 January 1995
93  Ireland 27 January 1995
94  Uzbekistan 6 February 1995
95  Colombia 25 April 1995
96  Andorra 28 April 1995
97  Burkina Faso 18 May 1995
98  Saudi Arabia 8 June 1995
99  Zambia 20 September 1995
100  Ethiopia 17 October 1995
101  Ivory Coast 17 October 1995
102  Costa Rica 19 October 1995
103  Guinea-Bissau 19 October 1995
104  Afghanistan 3 January 1996
105  Belize 23 January 1996
106  Ecuador 22 February 1996
107  Laos 4 March 1996
108  Nicaragua 29 March 1996
109  Panama 12 June 1996
110  Turkmenistan 2 July 1996
111  Armenia 8 July 1996
112  Mozambique 23 August 1996
113  Serbia 9 September 1996
114  Cambodia 10 September 1996
115  Jamaica 9 October 1996
116  Kyrgyzstan 23 December 1996
117  Sri Lanka 14 February 1997
118  Maldives 8 April 1997
119  Oman 30 June 1997
120  Barbados 11 July 1997
121  Fiji 14 July 1997
122  El Salvador 24 July 1997
123  Syria 29 August 1997
124  Mauritius 3 September 1997
125  Israel 4 September 1997
126  Seychelles 30 September 1997
127  Senegal 1 October 1997
128  Papua New Guinea 5 December 1997
129  Guinea 8 December 1997
130  Saint Lucia 10 December 1997
131  Suriname 17 December 1997
132  Bangladesh 18 December 1997
133    Nepal 6 February 1998
134  Brunei 1 May 1998
135  Namibia 22 June 1998
136  Gambia 16 October 1998
137  Lesotho 6 November 1998
138  Malawi 13 November 1998
139  Zimbabwe 12 February 1999
140  Uganda 10 March 1999
141  Tajikistan 1 April 1999
142  Eritrea 4 June 1999
143  Antigua and Barbuda 15 June 1999
144  Comoros 29 June 1999
145  Myanmar 3 September 1999
146  Chad 17 September 1999
147  Honduras 20 September 1999
148  Federated States of Micronesia 29 September 1999
149  Haiti 15 October 1999
150  Libya 30 March 2000
151  Vanuatu 18 April 2000
152  Grenada 19 May 2000
153  Nauru 4 December 2000
154  Dominican Republic 5 February 2001
155  Benin 26 March 2001
156  Mali 13 September 2001
157  Gabon 22 October 2001
158  Cameroon 18 October 2002
159  East Timor 5 February 2003
160  Guyana 25 February 2003
161  Sierra Leone 23 July 2003
162  Mauritania 24 November 2004
163  Kenya 1 December 2004
164  Iraq 4 January 2005
165  Botswana 9 September 2005
166  Montenegro 7 July 2006
167  Madagascar 27 September 2006
168  Republic of the Congo 10 May 2007
169  Democratic Republic of the Congo 18 October 2007
170  Equatorial Guinea 19 October 2007
171  Monaco 14 December 2007
 Kosovo 30 June 2008
172  Trinidad and Tobago 14 December 2011
173  Solomon Islands 18 April 2012
174  Dominica 30 April 2013
175  Palau 26 September 2015
176  Saint Kitts and Nevis 27 May 2016
177  Kiribati 26 August 2016
178  Bahamas 31 January 2017
179  Djibouti 22 May 2017
180  Rwanda 15 February 2018
181  Eswatini 5 April 2019
182  Marshall Islands 24 September 2019
183  Tuvalu 2 November 2020
184  Burundi 14 May 2021
185  South Sudan 16 November 2021
186  Somalia 4 February 2022
187  Central African Republic 18 September 2023
188  Togo 18 September 2023

Bilateral relations

Multilateral

Organization Formal Relations Began Notes
 European Union See 2013 enlargement of the European Union

Croatia joined the European Union as a full member on 1 July 2013.

 NATO See Croatia–NATO relations

Croatia joined NATO as a full member on 1 April 2009.

Africa

Country Formal relations began Notes
 Algeria 15 October 1992
 Angola 16 November 1994
  • Croatia is represented in Angola through its embassy in Lisbon (Portugal).[41]
  • Angola is represented in Croatia through its embassy in Vienna (Austria).[42]
 Benin 26 March 2001
  • Croatia is represented in Benin through its embassy in Paris (France).[43]
  • Benin is represented in Croatia through its embassy in Geneva (Switzerland).[44]
 Botswana 9 September 2005

Diplomatic relations between Botswana and Croatia were established on 9 September 2005.[45][46]

 Burkina Faso 18 May 1995
  • Croatia is represented in Burkina Faso through its embassy in Paris (France).
  • Burkina Faso is represented in Croatia through its embassy in Vienna (Austria) and consulate in Zagreb.[47]
 Cape Verde 13 August 1994
  • Croatia is represented in Cape Verde through its embassy in Lisbon (Portugal).
  • Cape Verde is not represented in Croatia.
Central African Republic Central African Republic September 18, 2023
  • Croatia maintains diplomatic relations with the C.A.R.
 Chad 17 September 1999
  • Croatia is represented in Chad through its embassy in Paris (France).
  • Chad is not represented in Croatia.
 Comoros 29 June 1999
  • Croatia is represented in Comoros through its embassy in Pretoria (South Africa).
  • Comoros is not represented in Croatia.
 Côte d'Ivoire 17 October 1995
 Djibouti 25 May 2017

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 25 May 2017.[48][49]

 Egypt 1 October 1992

See Croatia–Egypt relations

 Eritrea 4 June 1999
  • Croatia is represented in Eritrea through its embassy in Cairo (Egypt).
  • Eritrea is not represented in Croatia.
 Ethiopia 17 October 1995
  • Croatia is represented in Ethiopia through its embassy in Cairo (Egypt).
  • Ethiopia is not represented in Croatia.
 Gabon 22 October 2001
  • Croatia is represented in Gabon through its embassy in Rabat (Morocco).
  • Gabon is not represented in Croatia.
 Gambia 16 October 1998
  • Croatia is represented in Gambia through its embassy in London (UK).
  • Gambia is represented in Croatia through its embassy in London (UK).
 Ghana 17 February 1993
  • Croatia is represented in Ghana through its embassy in London (UK).
  • Ghana is represented in Croatia through its embassy in Rome (Italy).
 Guinea-Bissau 19 October 1995
  • Croatia is represented in Guinea-Bissau through its embassy in Lisbon (Portugal).
  • Guinea-Bissau is not represented in Croatia.
 Kenya 22 May 1992
  • Croatia is represented in Kenya through its embassy in Pretoria (South Africa).[50]
  • Kenya has a consulate in Zagreb, accredited to its embassy in Rome (Italy).[51]
 Lesotho 6 November 1998
  • Croatia is represented in Lesotho through its embassy in Pretoria (South Africa).
  • Lesotho is represented in Croatia through its embassy in Rome (Italy).
Liberia Liberia N/A Croatia does not maintain diplomatic relations with Liberia.
 Libya 30 March 2000

See Croatia–Libya relations

 Madagascar 27 September 2006

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 27 September 2006.[52][53]

 Malawi 13 October 1998

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 13 November 1998.[52][54]

 Mali 20 September 1995
  • Croatia is represented in Mali through its embassy in Rabat (Morocco).
  • Mali is represented in Croatia through its embassy in Rome (Italy).
 Mauritania 11 November 2004
  • Croatia is represented in Mauritania through its embassy in Rabat (Morocco).
  • Mauritania is not represented in Croatia.
 Mauritius 3 September 1997
  • Croatia is represented in Mauritius through its embassy in Pretoria (South Africa).
  • Mauritius is not represented in Croatia.
 Morocco 26 June 1992
 Mozambique 23 August 1996
  • Croatia is represented in Mozambique through its embassy in Pretoria (South Africa).
  • Mozambique is not represented in Croatia.
 Namibia 22 June 1998

Diplomatic relations between Croatia and Namibia were established on 22 June 1998.[45][46]

Niger Niger N/A Croatia does not maintain diplomatic relations with Niger.
 Nigeria 7 January 1993
  • Croatia is represented in Nigeria through its embassy in London (UK).
  • Nigeria is represented in Croatia through its embassy in Budapest (Hungary).
 São Tomé and Príncipe 23 May 1993
  • Croatia is represented in São Tomé and Príncipe through its embassy in Lisbon (Portugal).
  • São Tomé and Príncipe is not represented in Croatia.
 Senegal 1 October 1997
  • Croatia is represented in Senegal through its embassy in Rabat (Morocco).
  • Senegal is not represented in Croatia.
 Seychelles 30 September 1997
  • Croatia is represented in Seychelles through its embassy in Pretoria (South Africa).
  • Seychelles is not represented in Croatia.
 South Africa 19 November 1992
 Sudan 17 July 1992
  • Croatia is represented in Sudan through its embassy in Cairo (Egypt).
  • Sudan is represented in Croatia through its embassy in Rome (Italy).
 Tanzania 2 July 1993
  • Croatia is represented in Tanzania through its embassy in Pretoria, (South Africa).[58]
  • Tanzania is represented in Croatia through its embassy in Rome, (Italy).[59]
 Togo 20 December 1993
  • Croatia is represented in Tongo through its embassy in Paris (France).
  • Togo is not represented in Croatia.
 Tunisia 30 January 1993
 Uganda 10 March 1999
  • Croatia is represented in Uganda through its embassy in Pretoria (South Africa).
  • Uganda is not represented in Croatia.
 Zambia 20 September 1995
  • Croatia is represented in Zambia through its embassy in Pretoria (South Africa).
  • Zambia is represented in Croatia through its embassy in Paris (France).
 Zimbabwe 12 February 1999

Both countries established diplomatic relations on February 12, 1999.[48][60]

Americas

Country Formal relations began Notes
 Antigua and Barbuda 20 September 1999
  • Croatia is represented in Antigua and Barbuda through its Permanent Mission to the United Nations in New York (USA).[61]
  • Antigua and Barbuda is represented in Croatia through its through its embassy in Vienna (Austria).
 Argentina 13 April 1992 See Argentina–Croatia relations
 Bahamas 31 January 2017
  • Joint Communiqué on the Establishment of Diplomatic Relations between the Republic of Croatia and the Commonwealth of Bahamas was signed on 31 January 2017.[64]
 Belize 23 January 1996
  • Both countries established diplomatic relations on 23 January 1996.[52][65]
 Bolivia 26 November 1992
 Brazil 23 December 1992
 Canada 14 April 1993
 Chile 15 April 1992 See Chile–Croatia relations
 Colombia 25 April 1995
  • Colombia is represented in Croatia through its embassy in Vienna (Austria).
  • Croatia is represented in Colombia through its embassy in Brasilia (Brazil).
  • Croatia is defined as an ally by Colombia on the war on drugs and as an example to follow after a post-conflict situation[67]
 Costa Rica 19 October 1995
  • Croatia is represented in Costa Rica through its Permanent Mission to the United Nations in New York (US).
  • Costa Rica is represented in Croatia through its embassy in Vienna (Austria).
 Cuba 23 September 1992
 Dominica 2013[68]
  • Joint Communiqué on the Establishment of Diplomatic Relations between the Republic of Croatia and the Commonwealth of Dominica was signed on 30 July 2013.[68]
 Ecuador 22 February 1996
  • Croatia is represented in Ecuador through its embassy in Santiago (Chile).
  • Ecuador is represented in Croatia through its embassy in Budapest (Hungary).
  • A honorary consulate for Croatia was established in Guayaquil in 2022.[69]
 El Salvador 24 July 1997
  • Croatia is represented in El Salvador through its Permanent Mission to the United Nations in New York (US).
  • El Salvador is not represented in Croatia.
 Grenada 19 May 2000
  • Croatia is represented in Grenada through its Permanent Mission to the United Nations in New York (USA).
 Guatemala 22 December 1992
  • Croatia is represented in Guatemala through its Permanent Mission to the United Nations in New York (US).
  • Guatemala is not represented in Croatia.
 Guyana 25 February 2003
  • Both countries established diplomatic relations on 25 February 2003.[70]
  • Croatia is represented in Guyana through its Permanent Mission in New York City.[71]
 Honduras 20 September 1999
  • Croatia is represented in Honduras through its Permanent Mission to the United Nations in New York (US).
  • Honduras is not represented in Croatia.
 Jamaica 9 October 1996
  • Croatia is represented in Jamaica through its Permanent Mission to the United Nations in New York (USA).[72]
 Mexico 6 December 1992 See Croatia–Mexico relations
 Nicaragua 29 March 1996
  • Croatia is represented in Nicaragua through its Permanent Mission to the United Nations in New York (US) and embassy in Brasilia (Brazil).
  • Nicaragua is not represented in Croatia.
 Panama 12 June 1996
  • Croatia is represented in Panama through its embassy in Washington, D.C. (US).
  • Panama is represented in Croatia through its embassy in Piraeus (Greece).[75]
 Paraguay 13 March 1992
  • Croatia is represented in Paraguay through its embassy in Buenos Aires (Argentina).
  • Paraguay is not represented in Croatia.
 Peru 12 January 1993
  • Croatia is represented in Peru through its embassy in Santiago (Chile) and consulate in Lima.
  • Peru is represented in Croatia through its embassy in Bucharest (Romania) and consulate in Zagreb.
  • There are around 6,500 people of Croatian descent living in Peru.
 Saint Lucia 10 December 1997
  • Croatia is represented in Saint Lucia through its Permanent Mission to the United Nations in New York (USA).
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 7 October 1994
  • Croatia is represented in Saint Vincent and the Grenadines through its Permanent Mission to the United Nations in New York (USA).
 Suriname 17 December 1997
  • Croatia is represented in Suriname through its Permanent Mission to the United Nations in New York (US) and embassy in Brasilia (Brazil).[76]
  • Suriname is not represented in Croatia.
 Trinidad and Tobago 14 December 2011

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 14 December 2011.[77][78]

 United States of America 11 August 1992 See Croatia–United States relations
 Uruguay 4 May 1993 See Croats in Uruguay
  • Croatia is represented in Uruguay through its embassy in Buenos Aires (Argentina) and consulate in Montevideo.
  • Uruguay is not represented in Croatia.
  • According to UN estimates there are some 3,300 people of Croat descent living in Uruguay. Other estimates place the figure at around 5,000.
 Venezuela 9 October 1992
  • Croatia is represented in Venezuela through its embassy in Brasilia (Brazil).
  • Venezuela is represented in Croatia through its embassy in Vienna (Austria).

Asia

Country Formal relations began Notes
 Afghanistan 3 January 1996
 Armenia 8 July 1994 See Armenia–Croatia relations
 Azerbaijan 26 January 1995 See Azerbaijan–Croatia relations
 Bahrain 18 January 1993
  • Croatia is represented in Bahrain through its embassy in Cairo (Egypt).
  • Bahrain is not represented in Croatia.
Bhutan Bhutan N/A Croatia does not maintain diplomatic relations with Bhutan.
 Cambodia 10 September 1996
  • Croatia is represented in Cambodia through its embassy in Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia).
  • Cambodia is not represented in Croatia.
 China (People's Republic) 13 May 1992
 Georgia 1 February 1993

See Croatia–Georgia relations

 India 9 July 1992

See Croatia–India relations

 Indonesia 3 September 1992
 Iran 18 April 1992 See Croatia–Iran relations
  • Croatia has an embassy in Tehran.
  • Iran has an embassy and a cultural centre in Zagreb.
  • Croatia and Iran signed 24 agreements of cooperation.
 Iraq 5 January 2005
  • Croatia is represented in Iraq through its embassy in Baghdad.[86]
  • Iraq is represented in Croatia through its embassy in Vienna.[87]
 Israel 4 September 1997 See Croatia–Israel relations
 Japan 5 March 1993

See Croatia–Japan relations

 Jordan 29 June 1994
 Kazakhstan 20 October 1992
 Kuwait 10 August 1994
  • Croatia has an embassy in Kuwait City.
  • Kuwait is represented in Croatia through its embassy in Prague (Czech Republic) and consulate in Zagreb.[92]
 Kyrgyzstan 23 December 1996
  • Croatia is represented in Kyrgyzstan through its embassy in Ankara (Turkey).
 Laos 4 March 1996
 Lebanon 5 December 1994
 Malaysia 4 May 1992
  • Croatia is represented in Malaysia through its embassy in Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia).
  • Malaysia has embassy in Zagreb.
 Maldives 8 April 1997
  • Croatia is represented in Maldives through its embassy in New Delhi (India).
  • Maldives is not represented in Croatia.
 Mongolia 10 March 1993
 Myanmar 3 September 1999
   Nepal 6 February 1998
  • Croatia is represented in Nepal through its embassy in New Delhi and consulate in Kathmandu.
  • Nepal is represented in Croatia through its embassy in Geneva (Switzerland).[100]
 North Korea 30 November 1992
  • Croatia is represented in North Korea through its embassy in Beijing (China).[101]
  • North Korea is represented in Croatia through its embassy in Bucharest (Romania).[102]
  • In January 2016, former Croatian president Stjepan Mesić visited North Korea.[103]
 Pakistan 20 July 1994
 Philippines 25 February 1993
 Qatar 5 December 1992 See Croatia–Qatar relations
 Saudi Arabia 8 June 1995 See Croatia–Saudi Arabia relations
  • Croatia is represented in Saudi Arabia through its embassy in Cairo (Egypt).
  • Saudi Arabia is not represented in Croatia but citizens that need any assistance are advised to contact the Saudi Arabia embassy in Sarajevo (BiH).
 Singapore 23 November 1992
 South Korea 18 November 1992

See Croatia–South Korea relations

The Establishment of diplomatic relations between the Republic of Croatia and the South Korea began on 18 November 1992.

 Sri Lanka 14 February 1997
  • Croatia is represented in Croatia through its embassy in New Delhi and consulate in Colombo.[110]
  • Sri Lanka is represented in Sri Lanka through its embassy in Vienna (Austria) and consulate in Zagreb.[111]
 Syria 29 August 1997

See Croatia–Syria relations

Taiwan Taiwan N/A Croatia does not maintain diplomatic relations with Taiwan.
 Tajikistan 1 April 1999
 Thailand 9 September 1992
 Timor-Leste 5 February 2003
 Turkey 26 August 1992

See Croatia–Turkey relations

 Turkmenistan 2 July 1996 See Croatia–Turkmenistan relations
 United Arab Emirates 23 June 1992
  • Croatia is represented in United Arab Emirates through its embassy in Cairo (Egypt).[120]
  • United Arab Emirates are represented in Croatia through its embassy in Berlin (Germany).[121]
 Uzbekistan 6 February 1995
  • Croatia is represented in Uzbekistan through its embassy in Ankara (Turkey).
 Vietnam 1 July 1994
 Yemen 17 January 1993
  • Croatia is represented in Yemen through its embassy in Cairo (Egypt).
  • Yemen is represented in Croatia through its embassy in Vienna (Austria) and consulate in Zagreb.

Europe

Country Formal relations began Notes
 Albania 25 August 1992 See Albania–Croatia relations
 Andorra 28 April 1995
  • Croatia is represented in Andorra through its embassy in Madrid (Spain).
  • Andorra is represented in Croatia through its embassy in Paris (France).
 Austria 15 January 1992 See Austria–Croatia relations
 Belarus 25 September 1992 See Belarus–Croatia relations
 Belgium 10 March 1992 See Belgium–Croatia relations
 Bosnia and Herzegovina 21 July 1992 See Bosnia and Herzegovina–Croatia relations
 Bulgaria 13 August 1992 See Bulgaria–Croatia relations
 Cyprus 4 February 1993

See Croatia–Cyprus relations

 Czech Republic 1 January 1993

See Croatia–Czech Republic relations

 Denmark 1 February 1992

See Croatia–Denmark relations

 Estonia 2 March 1992
  • Croatia is represented in Estonia through its embassy in Helsinki, Finland and honorary consulate in Tallinn.
  • Estonia is represented in Croatia through its embassy in Rome, Italy and honorary consulate in Zagreb.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and NATO.
 Finland 19 February 1992

See Croatia–Finland relations

 France 24 April 1992

See Croatia–France relations

 Germany 15 January 1992

See Croatia–Germany relations

 Greece 20 July 1992

See Croatia–Greece relations

 Holy See 8 February 1992

See Croatia–Holy See relations

  • Croatia has a resident embassy to the Holy See in Rome.[134]
  • Holy See has a nunciature with a nuncio of ambassadorial rank with additional privileges in Zagreb.
  • According to the 2011 census 86.28% of Croats are Roman Catholic.
 Hungary 18 January 1992

See Croatia–Hungary relations

 Iceland 30 June 1992
  • Croatia is represented in Iceland thought it embassy in Copenhagen (Denmark) and consulate in Reykjavík.[137]
  • Iceland is represented in Croatia thought it embassy in Berlin (Germany) and consulate in Zagreb.[137]
  • Iceland is the first fully sovereign country that recognized Croatia as an independent state. (19 December 1991)
  • Both countries are full members of NATO.
 Ireland 27 January 1995

See Croatia-Ireland relations

 Italy 17 January 1992

See Croatia-Italy relations

 Kosovo 30 June 2008

See Croatia–Kosovo relations

 Latvia 14 February 1992
 Liechtenstein 4 February 1992
  • Croatia is represented in Liechtenstein through its embassy in Bern (Switzerland).
  • Liechtenstein is not represented in Croatia.
 Lithuania 18 March 1992
 Luxembourg 29 April 1992
  • Croatia is represented in Luxembourg through it embassy in Brussels (Belgium).[145]
  • Luxembourg is represented in Croatia through it embassy in Berlin (Germany).[146]
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and NATO.
 Malta 30 June 1992
 Moldova 28 July 1992
 Monaco 14 December 2007
  • Croatia is represented in Monaco through it embassy in Paris (France) and honorary consulate in Monaco.[148]
  • Monaco is represented in Croatia through its embassy in Rome (Italy) and honorary consulate in Zagreb.[149]
 Montenegro 7 July 2006

See Croatia–Montenegro relations

 Netherlands 23 April 1992 See Croatia–Netherlands relations
 North Macedonia 30 March 1992
  • Croatia has an embassy in Skopje, and the general consulate in Bitola.
  • North Macedonia has an embassy in Zagreb and 2 consulates in Zadar and Rijeka.
  • From 1918 to 1991 Croatia and North Macedonia were part of Yugoslavia.
  • Croatia is full member of the European Union and NATO while North Macedonia is among candidates for membership.
 Norway 20 February 1992

See Croatia–Norway relations

 Poland 11 April 1992

See Croatia–Poland relations

 Portugal 3 February 1992
 Romania 29 August 1992

See Croatia–Romania relations

 Russia 25 May 1992

See Croatia–Russia relations

 San Marino 11 February 1993
  • Croatia is represented in San Marino through its embassy in Rome (Italy).[161]
  • San Marino is represented in Croatia through its General embassy in San Marino.[162]
  • According to legend San Marino was founded in year 301 by sculptor Saint Marinus from the Croatian island of Rab.
 Serbia 9 September 1996
then as FR Yugoslavia and including Montenegro
See Croatia–Serbia relations
  • Croatia has an embassy in Belgrade and a general consulate in Subotica.
  • Serbia has an embassy in Zagreb and 2 general consulates in Rijeka and Vukovar.
  • Both countries shares 241 km of common border.
  • From 1918 to 1991 Croatia and Serbia were part of Yugoslavia.
  • Croatia is full member of the European Union while Serbia is candidate for membership.
 Slovakia 1 January 1993 See Croatia–Slovakia relations
 Slovenia 6 February 1992 See Croatia–Slovenia relations
  • Croatia has an embassy in Ljubljana and 2 honorary consulates in Maribor and Koper.
  • Slovenia has an embassy in Zagreb and an honorary consulate in Split.
  • Both countries shares 670 km of common border.
  • From 1918 to 1991 Croatia and Slovenia were part of Yugoslavia.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and NATO.
 Sovereign Military Order of Malta 22 December 1992
  • Sovereign Military Order of Malta has an embassy in Zagreb.
 Spain 9 March 1992 See Croatia–Spain relations
 Sweden 29 January 1992 See Croatia–Sweden relations
  Switzerland 30 January 1992
 Turkey 26 August 1992
 Ukraine 18 February 1992

See Croatia–Ukraine relations

 United Kingdom 24 June 1992

See Croatia–United Kingdom relations

Oceania

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Australia 13 February 1992
 Fiji 14 June 1997

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 14 July 1997.[52][174]

 Nauru 14 December 2000
  • Croatia is represented in Nauru through its embassy in Canberra (Australia).[175]
  • Nauru is not represented in Croatia.
 New Zealand 25 February 1992
Tonga Tonga N/A Croatia does not maintain diplomatic relations with Tonga.
 Samoa 8 March 1994
  • Croatia is represented in Samoa through its embassy in Canberra (Australia).
  • Samoa is not represented in Croatia.
 Tuvalu 2 November 2020
  • Diplomatic relations were established between the Republic of Croatia and Tuvalu in an agreement signed at the United Nations.[178]
  • Croatia is represented in Tuvalu through its embassy in Canberra (Australia).
  • Tuvalu is not represented in Croatia.
 Vanuatu 18 April 2000
  • Both countries established diplomatic relations on 18 April 2000.[52][179]

See also

References

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