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Provincia Pannonia
20 AD–107 AD
Pannonia SPQR.png

Province of Pannonia highlighted (red) within the Roman Empire (pink)
CapitalCarnuntum,[1] Sirmium,[2] Savaria,[3] Aquincum,[4] Poetovio[5] or Vindobona[6]
History
History 
• Established
20 AD
• Division of Pannonia
Between the years 102 and 107, Trajan divided Pannonia into Pannonia Superior (western part with the capital Carnuntum), and Pannonia Inferior (eastern part with the capitals in Aquincum and Sirmium) 107 AD
Succeeded by
Pannonia Superior
Pannonia Inferior

Pannonia (/pəˈnniə/, Latin: [panˈnɔnia]) was a province of the Roman Empire bounded on the north and east by the Danube, coterminous westward with Noricum and upper Italy, and southward with Dalmatia and upper Moesia. Pannonia was located in the territory that is now western Hungary, western Slovakia, eastern Austria, northern Croatia, north-western Serbia, northern Slovenia, and northern Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Name

Further information: Pannonii

Julius Pokorny believed the name Pannonia is derived from Illyrian, from the Proto-Indo-European root *pen-, "swamp, water, wet" (cf. English fen, "marsh"; Hindi pani, "water").[7]

Pliny the Elder, in Natural History, places the eastern regions of the Hercynium jugum, the "Hercynian mountain chain", in Pannonia and Dacia (now Romania).[8] He also gives us some dramaticised description[9] of its composition, in which the proximity of the forest trees causes competitive struggle among them (inter se rixantes). He mentions its gigantic oaks.[10] But even he—if the passage in question is not an interpolated marginal gloss—is subject to the legends of the gloomy forest. He mentions unusual birds, which have feathers that "shine like fires at night". Medieval bestiaries named these birds the Ercinee. The impenetrable nature of the Hercynia Silva hindered the last concerted Roman foray into the forest, by Drusus, during 12–9 BC: Florus asserts that Drusus invisum atque inaccessum in id tempus Hercynium saltum (Hercynia saltus, the "Hercynian ravine-land")[11] patefecit.[12]

History

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Banate (~1154–1377) - Kingdom (1377-1463)("zemlje"/counties: Usora / Soli / Donji Kraji / Hum (Herzegovina from 1454) / Podrinje) Bosansko Krajište (1451-1463) Duchy of Herzegovina (1463–1482) Ottoman era Ottoman conquest (Bosansko Krajište (1451-1463)) Ottoman era(Bosnia Sanjak (1463–1580), Sanjak of Herzegovina (1481–1833) / Bosnia Eyalet (1580-1867), Herzegovina Eyalet (1833–1851) / Bosnia Vilayet (1867-1908) / Herzegovina Uprising (1875–1877)) Habsburg era Habsburg era(Bosnian crisis) Yugoslavia Kingdom of Yugoslavia(Drina Banovina) World War II SFR Yugoslavia(SR Bosnia and Herzegovina) Breakup of Yugoslavia Contemporary Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnian War(defunct: Herzeg-Bosnia / Western Bosnia) Bosnia and Herzegovina (Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Republika Srpska)  Bosnia and Herzegovina portalvte Part of a series on the History of Croatia Early history History of Croatia before the Croats Roman Pannonia Roman Dalmatia Origins of the Croats White Croatia White Croats Middle Ages Avar Khaganate Duchy of Croatia Lower Pannonia Southern Dalmatia March of Istria Kingdom of Croatia Union with Hungary Republic of Dubrovnik Republic of Poljica Modernity Ottoman Croatia Republic of Venice Kingdom of Croatia (Habsburg) Croatian Military Frontier Illyrian Provinces Kingdom of Illyria Kingdom of Slavonia Kingdom of Dalmatia Triune Kingdom of Croatia, Slavonia and Dalmatia Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia 20th century World War I State of Slovenes,Croats and Serbs Kingdom of Yugoslavia Banovina of Croatia World War II Independent State of CroatiaFederal State of Croatia Socialist Republic of Croatia Contemporary Croatia Independence War of independence Croatia since 1995 Timeline  Croatia portalvte Part of a series on the History of Hungary Early history Hungarian prehistory Hungary before the Hungarians Roman Pannonia Hungarian conquest MedievalPrincipality895–1000High Medieval Kingdom1000–1301Late Medieval Kingdom1301–1526Ottoman Wars1366–1526 Early modernHabsburg kingdom1526–1867Eastern kingdom1526–1570Ottoman Hungary1541–1699Principality of Transylvania1570–1711 Late modernRákóczi's War1703–1711Revolution of 18481848–1849Austria-Hungary1867–1918Lands of the Crown1867–1918World War I1914–1918Interwar period1918–1941First Hungarian Republic1918–1920Hungarian Soviet Republic1919Kingdom of Hungary1920–1946World War II1941–1945 ContemporarySecond Hungarian Republic1946–1949Hungarian People's Republic1949–1989Revolution of 1956 1956Third Hungarian Republicsince 1989 By topic Timeline Christianity Military Music Nobility Hungarians Jews Székelys  Hungary portalvte Part of a series on the History of Serbia By century 9th 10th Prehistory Paleolithic Mesolithic Neolithic Bronze Age Iron Age Pre-Roman Illyrians Autariatae Dardani Triballi Moesi Scordisci Dacians Early Roman Illyricum Pannonia Pannonia Inferior Dalmatia Moesia Moesia Superior Dacia Dacia Aureliana Late Roman Moesia Prima Dacia Mediterranea Dacia Ripensis Dardania Praevalitana Pannonia Secunda Diocese of Moesia Diocese of Dacia Diocese of Pannonia Praetorian prefecture of Illyricum Early Middle Ages White Serbia around 600 AD Principality of Serbia Duklja, Travunia, Zachlumia, Narentines, Raška, Bosnia 7th–10th century Catepanate of Ras around 969–976 High Middle Ages Duklja (Zeta) 11th–12th century Theme of Sirmium 1018–1071 Grand Principality 1071–1217 Kingdom of Serbia 1217–1346 King Dragutin's realm 1282–1325 Empire · Fall 1346–1371 Prince Lazar's Serbia 1371–1402 Despotate of Serbia 1402–1537 Early Modern Serbia under Turkish rule 1459–1804 Jovan Nenad / Radoslav Čelnik 1526–1530 Banate of Lugoj and Caransebeș 16th–17th Habsburg occupation 1686–1699 Great Serb Migrations 1690 and1737–1739 Military Frontier 1702–1882 Habsburg Serbia 1718–1739 Koča's frontier 1788–1791 Serbia 1804–1918 Revolution 1804–1815 Principality of Serbia 1815–1882 Serbian Vojvodina 1848–1849 Serbia and Banat 1849–1860 Kingdom of Serbia 1882–1918 Serbia since 1918 Kingdom of Yugoslavia 1918–1941 Axis occupation 1941–1944 Federal unit of Socialist Yugoslavia 1944–1992 Constituent state with Montenegro 1992–2006 Republic of Serbia 2006–present  Serbia portalvte Part of a series on the History of Slovenia Italy / Noricum / Pannonia Slavic settlement of the Eastern Alps Avars Samo's Realm Carantania Carneola Holy Roman Empire March of Carniola Windic March Duchy of Carniola Venetian Republic Illyrian Provinces Kingdom of Illyria Inner Austria Venezia Giulia Drava Banovina World War II in the Slovene Lands Socialist Republic of Slovenia Ten-Day War Republic of Slovenia  Slovenia portalvte

Prior to Roman conquest

Further information: Prehistoric Hungary, Prehistoric Croatia, Prehistoric Serbia, Prehistoric Slovenia, Prehistoric Bosnia and Herzegovina, Prehistoric Austria, and Prehistoric Slovakia

The first inhabitants of this area known to history were the Pannonii (Pannonians), a group of Indo-European tribes akin to Illyrians. From the 4th century BC, it was invaded by various Celtic tribes. Trade flourished between Latins and Celts for one and a half century before the sudden Roman invasion.[13] The country was not, however, definitively subdued by the Romans until 9 BC, when it was incorporated into Illyricum, the frontier of which was thus extended as far as the Danube.

Under Roman rule

The expansion of Dacians into Pannonia pressured Rome to prevent them from fully conquering it. Cotiso was defeated by Augustus and with his death in 9 BC, Pannonia fully came under Roman control.[14]

Seuso and his wife at Lacus Pelso (today Lake Balaton)
Seuso and his wife at Lacus Pelso (today Lake Balaton)
The Roman empire in the time of Hadrian (ruled 117-138 AD), showing, on the middle Danube river, the imperial provinces of Pannonia Superior and Pannonia Inferior and the 2 legions deployed in each in 125
The Roman empire in the time of Hadrian (ruled 117-138 AD), showing, on the middle Danube river, the imperial provinces of Pannonia Superior and Pannonia Inferior and the 2 legions deployed in each in 125
Map showing Constantine I's conquests of areas of present-day eastern Hungary, western Romania and northern Serbia, in the first decades of the 4th century (pink color).
Map showing Constantine I's conquests of areas of present-day eastern Hungary, western Romania and northern Serbia, in the first decades of the 4th century (pink color).

In AD 6, the Pannonians, with the Dalmatians and other Illyrian tribes, engaged in the so-called Great Illyrian Revolt, and were overcome by Tiberius and Germanicus, after a hard-fought campaign, which lasted for three years. After the rebellion was crushed in AD 9, the province of Illyricum was dissolved, and its lands were divided between the new provinces of Pannonia in the north and Dalmatia in the south. The date of the division is unknown, most certainly after AD 20 but before AD 50. The proximity of dangerous barbarian tribes (Quadi, Marcomanni) necessitated the presence of a large number of troops (seven legions in later times), and numerous fortresses were built on the bank of the Danube.

Some time between the years 102 and 107, between the first and second Dacian wars, Trajan divided the province into Pannonia Superior (western part with the capital Carnuntum), and Pannonia Inferior (eastern part with the capitals in Aquincum and Sirmium[15]). According to Ptolemy, these divisions were separated by a line drawn from Arrabona in the north to Servitium in the south; later, the boundary was placed further east. The whole country was sometimes called the Pannonias (Pannoniae).

Pannonia Superior was under the consular legate, who had formerly administered the single province, and had three legions under his control. Pannonia Inferior was at first under a praetorian legate with a single legion as the garrison; after Marcus Aurelius, it was under a consular legate, but still with only one legion. The frontier on the Danube was protected by the establishment of the two colonies Aelia Mursia and Aelia Aquincum by Hadrian.

Under Diocletian, a fourfold division of the country was made:

Diocletian also moved parts of today's Slovenia out of Pannonia and incorporated them in Noricum. In 324 AD, Constantine I enlarged the borders of Roman Pannonia to the east, annexing the plains of what is now eastern Hungary, northern Serbia and western Romania up to the limes that he created: the Devil's Dykes.[citation needed]

In the 4th-5th century, one of the dioceses of the Roman Empire was known as the Diocese of Pannonia. It had its capital in Sirmium and included all four provinces that were formed from historical Pannonia, as well as the provinces of Dalmatia, Noricum Mediterraneum and Noricum Ripense.[citation needed]

In the 4th century, the Romans (especially under Valentinian I) fortified the villas and relocated barbarians to the border regions. In 358 they won a great victory over the Sarmatians, but raids didn't stop. In 401 the Visigoths fled to the province from the Huns, and the border guarding peoples fled to Italia from them, but were beaten by Uldin in exchange for the transferring of Eastern Pannonia. In 433 Rome completely handed over the territory to Attila for the subjugation of the Burgundians attacking Gaul.[16]

Post-Roman

Gerulata- a Roman military camp located near today's Rusovce, Slovakia.
Gerulata- a Roman military camp located near today's Rusovce, Slovakia.

During the Migrations Period in the 5th century, some parts of Pannonia were ceded to the Huns in 433 by Flavius Aetius, the magister militum of the Western Roman Empire.[17] After the collapse of the Hunnic empire in 454, large numbers of Ostrogoths were settled by Emperor Marcian in the province as foederati. The Eastern Roman Empire controlled southern parts of Pannonia in the 6th century, during the reign of Justinian I. The Byzantine province of Pannonia with its capital at Sirmium was temporarily restored, but it included only a small southeastern part of historical Pannonia.

Afterwards, it was again invaded by the Avars in the 560s, and the Slavs, who first may settled c. 480s but became independent only from the 7th century. In 790s, it was invaded by the Franks, who used the name "Pannonia" to designate the newly formed frontier province, the March of Pannonia. The term Pannonia was also used for Slavic polity like Lower Pannonia that was vassal to the Frankish Empire.

Between the 5th and the 10th centuries, the romanized population of Pannonia developed the Romance Pannonian language, mainly around Lake Balaton in present-day western Hungary, where there was the keszthely culture. This language and the related culture became extinct with the arrival of the Magyars.[citation needed]

Cities and auxiliary forts

Aerial photography: Gorsium - Tác - Hungary
Aerial photography: Gorsium - Tác - Hungary
Aquincum, Hungary
Aquincum, Hungary
Ruins of Imperial Palace in Sirmium
Ruins of Imperial Palace in Sirmium

The native settlements consisted of pagi (cantons) containing a number of vici (villages), the majority of the large towns being of Roman origin. The cities and towns in Pannonia were:

Now in Austria:

Now in Bosnia and Herzegovina:

Now in Croatia:

Now in Hungary:

Now in Serbia:

Now in Slovakia:

Now in Slovenia:

Economy and country features

Ancient peoples in Pannonia
Ancient peoples in Pannonia

The country was fairly productive, especially after the great forests had been cleared by Probus and Galerius. Before that time, timber had been one of its most important exports. Its chief agricultural products were oats and barley, from which the inhabitants brewed a kind of beer named sabaea. Vines and olive trees were little cultivated. Pannonia was also famous for its breed of hunting dogs. Although no mention is made of its mineral wealth by the ancients, it is probable that it contained iron and silver mines. Its chief rivers were the Dravus, Savus, and Arrabo, in addition to the Danuvius (less correctly, Danubius), into which the first three rivers flow.

Legacy

The ancient name Pannonia is retained in the modern term Pannonian plain.

See also

References

  1. ^ Haywood, Anthony; Sieg, Caroline (2010). Vienna, Anthony Haywood, Caroline (CON) Sieg, Lonely Planet Vienna, 2010, page 21. ISBN 9781741790023.
  2. ^ Goodrich, Samuel Griswold (1835). "The third book of history: containing ancient history in connection with ancient geography, Samuel Griswold Goodrich, Jenks, Palmer, 1835, page 111".
  3. ^ Lengyel, Alfonz; Radan, George T.; Barkóczi, László (1980). The Archaeology of Roman Pannonia, Alfonz Lengyel, George T. Radan, University Press of Kentucky, 1980, page 247. ISBN 9789630518864.
  4. ^ Laszlovszky, J¢Zsef; Szab¢, P'ter (January 2003). People and nature in historical perspective, Péter Szabó, Central European University Press, 2003, page 144. ISBN 9789639241862.
  5. ^ "Historical outlook: a journal for readers, students and teachers of history, Том 9, American Historical Association, National Board for Historical Service, National Council for the Social Studies, McKinley Publishing Company, 1918, page 194". 1918.
  6. ^ Pierce, Edward M. (1869). "THE COTTAGE CYCLOPEDIA OF HISTORY AND BIOGRAPHY, ED.M.PIERCE, 1869, page 915".
  7. ^ J. Pokorny, Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch, No. 1481 Archived 2011-06-12 at the Wayback Machine
  8. ^ Pliny, iv.25
  9. ^ The threatening nature of the pathless woodland in Pliny is explored by Klaus Sallmann, "Reserved for Eternal Punishment: The Elder Pliny's View of Free Germania (HN. 16.1–6)" The American Journal of Philology 108.1 (Spring 1987:108–128) pp 118ff.
  10. ^ Pliny xvi.2
  11. ^ Compare the inaccessible Carbonarius Saltus west of the Rhine
  12. ^ Florus, ii.30.27.
  13. ^ Elekes, Lajos; Lederer, Emma; Székely, György (1961). "Pannónia és Dacia a rómaiak, az Alföld a lovas nomádok uralma alatt" [Pannonia and Dacia under Roman, and the Great Hungarian plain under nomad rule]. Magyarország története [History of Hungary]. Vol. I. Tankönyvkiadó. p. 12.
  14. ^ Elekes, Lajos; Lederer, Emma; Székely, György (1961). "Pannónia és Dacia a rómaiak, az Alföld a lovas nomádok uralma alatt" [Pannonia and Dacia under Roman, and the Great Hungarian plain under nomad rule]. Magyarország története [History of Hungary]. Vol. I. Tankönyvkiadó. p. 13.
  15. ^ Marquez-Grant, Nicholas; Fibiger, Linda (21 March 2011). The Routledge Handbook of Archaeological Human Remains and Legislation, Taylor & Francis, page 381. ISBN 9781136879562.
  16. ^ Elekes, Lajos; Lederer, Emma; Székely, György (1961). "A népvándorlás hullámai a Kárpátok medencéjében" [The waves of migration in the Carpathian Basin]. Magyarország története [History of Hungary]. Vol. I. Tankönyvkiadó. p. 18.
  17. ^ Harvey, Bonnie C. (2003). Attila, the Hun – Google Knihy. ISBN 0-7910-7221-5. Retrieved 2018-10-17.

Sources

Further reading

Coordinates: 44°54′00″N 19°01′12″E / 44.9000°N 19.0200°E / 44.9000; 19.0200