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The Hungary Portal

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Coat of arms of Hungary
Coat of arms of Hungary
Flag of Hungary
Flag of Hungary

Hungary (Hungarian: Magyarország [ˈmɒɟɒrorsaːɡ] (listen)) is a landlocked country in Central Europe. Spanning 93,030 square kilometres (35,920 sq mi) of the Carpathian Basin, it is bordered by Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Romania to the east and southeast, Serbia to the south, Croatia and Slovenia to the southwest, and Austria to the west. Hungary has a population of nearly 10 million, mostly ethnic Hungarians and a significant Romani minority. Hungarian, the official language, is the world's most widely spoken Uralic language, and among the few non-Indo-European languages widely spoken in Europe. Budapest is the country's capital and largest city; other major urban areas include Debrecen, Szeged, Miskolc, Pécs, and Győr.

The territory of present-day Hungary has for centuries been a crossroads for various peoples, including Celts, Romans, Germanic tribes, Huns, West Slavs and the Avars. The foundation of the Hungarian state was established in the late 9th century AD with the conquest of the Carpathian Basin by Hungarian grand prince Árpád. His great-grandson Stephen I ascended the throne in 1000, converting his realm to a Christian kingdom. By the 12th century, Hungary became a regional power, reaching its cultural and political height in the 15th century. Following the Battle of Mohács in 1526, it was partially occupied by the Ottoman Empire (1541–1699). Hungary came under Habsburg rule at the turn of the 18th century, later joining with the Austrian Empire to form Austria-Hungary, a major power into the early 20th century.

Austria-Hungary collapsed after World War I, and the subsequent Treaty of Trianon established Hungary's current borders, resulting in the loss of 71% of its territory, 58% of its population, and 32% of ethnic Hungarians. Following the tumultuous interwar period, Hungary joined the Axis Powers in World War II, suffering significant damage and casualties. Postwar Hungary became a satellite state of the Soviet Union, leading to the establishment of the Hungarian People's Republic. Following the failed 1956 revolution, Hungary became a comparatively freer, though still repressive, member of the Eastern Bloc. The removal of Hungary's border fence with Austria accelerated the collapse of the Eastern Bloc, and subsequently the Soviet Union. On 23 October 1989, Hungary again became a democratic parliamentary republic. Hungary joined the European Union in 2004 and has been part of the Schengen Area since 2007.

Hungary is a middle power in international affairs, owing mostly to its cultural and economic influence. It is has a high-income economy with a very high human development index, where citizens enjoy universal health care and tuition-free secondary education. Hungary has a long history of significant contributions to arts, music, literature, sports, science and technology. It is a popular tourist destination in Europe, drawing 24.5 million international tourists in 2019. It is a member of numerous international organisations, including the European Union, along with the Schengen Area, the Council of Europe, NATO, United Nations, WHO, WTO, World Bank, IIB, the AIIB, and the Visegrád Group. (Full article...)

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Joseph Szigeti
Joseph Szigeti

Joseph Szigeti (Hungarian: Szigeti József, [ˈsiɡɛti ˈjoːʒɛf ]; 5 September 1892 – 19 February 1973) was a Hungarian violinist.

Born into a musical family, he spent his early childhood in a small town in Transylvania. He quickly proved himself to be a child prodigy on the violin, and moved to Budapest with his father to study with the renowned pedagogue Jenő Hubay. After completing his studies with Hubay in his early teens, Szigeti began his international concert career. His performances at that time were primarily limited to salon-style recitals and the more overtly virtuosic repertoire; however, after making the acquaintance of pianist Ferruccio Busoni, he began to develop a much more thoughtful and intellectual approach to music that eventually earned him the nickname "The Scholarly Virtuoso". (Full article...)
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Debrecen (/ˈdɛbrətsɛn/ DEB-rət-sen, Hungarian: [ˈdɛbrɛt͡sɛn] (listen) is Hungary's second-largest city, after Budapest, the regional centre of the Northern Great Plain region and the seat of Hajdú-Bihar County. A city with county rights. It was the largest Hungarian city in the 18th century and it is one of the Hungarian people's most important cultural centres. Debrecen was also the capital city of Hungary during the revolution in 1848–1849. During the revolution, the dethronement of the Habsburg dynasty was declared in the Reformed Great Church. The city also served as the capital of Hungary by the end of World War II in 1944–1945. It is home of the University of Debrecen. (Full article...)
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Béla BartókJános BihariErnő DohnányiBéni EgressyFerenc ErkelZoltán KocsisZoltán KodályFranz Liszt - Eugene Ormandy - George Szell - András Schiff

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Gyula BenczúrTivadar Csontváry KosztkaBéla CzóbelÁrpád FesztyKároly LotzViktor MadarászMihály MunkácsyJózsef Rippl-RónaiPál Szinyei MerseIstván SzőnyiVictor Vasarely

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BrassaïCornell CapaRobert CapaLucien HervéAndré KertészLászló Moholy-NagyMartin Munkácsi

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Endre AdyJános AranyJózsef EötvösGyörgy FaludyBéla HamvasMór JókaiAttila JózsefFerenc KazinczyImre KertészJános KodolányiFerenc KölcseyImre MadáchSándor MáraiFerenc MolnárSándor PetőfiMiklós RadnótiMagda SzabóAntal SzerbMiklós VámosMihály Vörösmarty

  • Statesmen, Politicians and Military

Gyula AndrássyLajos BatthyányGabriel BethlenStephen BocskayMatthias CorvinusFerenc DeákMiklós HorthyLajos KossuthFerenc NagyImre NagyBertalan SzemereIstván SzéchenyiMiklós WesselényiVilmos Nagy of Nagybaczon

  • Sportspeople

József BozsikKrisztina EgerszegiZoltán GeraDezső GyarmatiÁgnes KeletiPéter LékóCsaba MérőTibor NyilasiLászló PappJudit PolgárZsuzsa PolgárFerenc Puskás

  • Film & Stage

Nimród AntalMichael CurtizJohn GarfieldMiklós JancsóSir Alexander KordaPeter LorreBéla LugosiEmeric PressburgerMiklós RózsaAndy G. VajnaGábor Zsazsa

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Duke Ladislaus (left) at the Battle of Kerlés
Duke Ladislaus (left) at the Battle of Kerlés

The Battle of Kerlés (Hungarian: kerlési csata) or Battle of Chiraleș, also known as the Battle of Cserhalom, was an engagement between an army of Pechenegs and Ouzes commanded by Osul and the troops of King Solomon of Hungary and his cousins, Dukes Géza and Ladislaus, in Transylvania in 1068. The Pechenegs had been the dominant power of the westernmost regions of the Eurasian steppes since around 895. However, large Pecheneg groups moved to the Balkan Peninsula at the same time as the westward migration of the Ouzes and Cumans in the 1040s. The first recorded Pecheneg invasion of Transylvania occurred during the reign of Stephen I of Hungary (r. 997–1038).

In 1068, the invaders broke into Transylvania through the passes of the Carpathian Mountains. Archaeological finds suggest that they destroyed at least three fortresses made of earth and timber, including the ones at Doboka (now Dăbâca in Romania) and Sajósárvár (present-day Șirioara). They also made a plundering raid in the Nyírség region, to the west of Transylvania. After taking much booty, they planned to leave Hungary, but the Hungarians ambushed and annihilated them at a hill near Doboka. According to a popular legend, a "Cuman" warrior tried to escape from the battlefield, taking a Hungarian girl, but Duke Ladislaus defeated and killed him in single combat. (Full article...)
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