A parliamentary republic is a republic that operates under a parliamentary system of government where the executive branch (the government) derives its legitimacy from and is accountable to the legislature (the parliament). There are a number of variations of parliamentary republics. Most have a clear differentiation between the head of government and the head of state, with the head of government holding real power, much like constitutional monarchies (however in some countries the head of state, regardless of whether the country's system is a parliamentary republic or a constitutional monarchy, has 'reserve powers' given to use at their discretion in order to act as a non-partisan 'referee' of the political process and ensure the nation's constitution is upheld). Some have combined the roles of head of state and head of government, much like presidential systems, but with a dependency upon parliamentary power.
For the first case mentioned above, the form of executive-branch arrangement is distinct from most other governments and semi-presidential republics that separate the head of state (usually designated as the "president") from the head of government (usually designated as "prime minister", "premier" or "chancellor") and subject the latter to the confidence of parliament and a lenient tenure in office while the head of state lacks dependency and investing either office with the majority of executive power.[clarification needed]
In contrast to republics operating under either the presidential system or the semi-presidential system, the head of state usually does not have executive powers as an executive president would (some may have 'reserve powers' or a bit more influence beyond that), because many of those powers have been granted to a head of government (usually called a prime minister).[clarification needed]
However, in a parliamentary republic with a head of state whose tenure is dependent on parliament, the head of government and head of state can form one office (as in Botswana, the Marshall Islands, Nauru, and South Africa), but the president is still selected in much the same way as the prime minister is in most Westminster systems. This usually means that they are the leader of the largest party or coalition of parties in parliament.
In some cases, the president can legally have executive powers granted to them to undertake the day-to-day running of government (as in Austria and Iceland) but by convention they either do not use these powers or they use them only to give effect to the advice of the parliament or head of government. Some parliamentary republics could therefore be seen as following the semi-presidential system but operating under a parliamentary system.
Typically, parliamentary republics are states that were previously constitutional monarchies with a parliamentary system, with the position of head of state given to a monarch.
Following the defeat of Napoleon III in the Franco-Prussian War, France once again became a republic – the French Third Republic – in 1870. The President of the Third Republic had significantly less executive powers than those of the previous two republics had. The Third Republic lasted until the invasion of France by Nazi Germany in 1940. Following the end of the war, the French Fourth Republic was constituted along similar lines in 1946. The Fourth Republic saw an era of great economic growth in France and the rebuilding of the nation's social institutions and industry after the war, and played an important part in the development of the process of European integration, which changed the continent permanently. Some attempts were made to strengthen the executive branch of government to prevent the unstable situation that had existed before the war, but the instability remained and the Fourth Republic saw frequent changes in government – there were 20 governments in ten years. Additionally, the government proved unable to make effective decisions regarding decolonization. As a result, the Fourth Republic collapsed and what some critics considered to be a de facto coup d'état, subsequently legitimized by a referendum on 5 October 1958, led to the establishment of the French Fifth Republic in 1959.
Chile became the first parliamentary republic in South America following a civil war in 1891. However, following a coup in 1925 this system was replaced by a presidential one.[original research?]
Main article: Commonwealth of Nations
Since the London Declaration of 29 April 1949 (just weeks after Ireland declared itself a republic, and excluded itself from the Commonwealth) republics have been admitted as members of the Commonwealth of Nations.
In the case of many republics in the Commonwealth of Nations, it was common for the Sovereign, formerly represented by a Governor-General, to be replaced by an elected non-executive head of state. This was the case in South Africa (which ceased to be a member of the Commonwealth immediately upon becoming a republic), Malta, Trinidad and Tobago, India and Vanuatu. In many of these examples, the last Governor-General became the first president. Such was the case with Sri Lanka and Pakistan.
Other states became parliamentary republics upon gaining independence.
|Changed to||Reason for change|
|First Austrian Republic||1920||1929||Semi-presidential system||Constitutional amendment|
|Belarus||1990||1994||Presidential system||New constitution adopted|
|Burma (present-day Myanmar)||1948||1962||Military dictatorship||1962 Burmese coup d'état|
|Chile||1891||1924||Military junta||1924 Chilean coup d'état|
|1925||1925||Presidential system||Constitutional amendment|
|Republic of China||1947||1991||Semi-presidential system||Constitutional amendment[note 12]|
|First Czechoslovak Republic||1920||1939||One-party state||Munich agreement|
|Third Czechoslovak Republic||1945||1948||One-party state||Coup d'état|
|Fifth Czechoslovak Republic||1989||1992||State dissolved||Velvet Divorce|
|French Third Republic||1870||1940||Puppet state||World War II German occupation|
|French Fourth Republic||1946||1958||Semi-presidential system||Political instability|
|Hungary||1946||1949||One-party state||Creation of the People's Republic of Hungary|
|Indonesia||1945||1959||Presidential system||Constitutional amendment|
|Israel||1948||1996||Semi-parliamentary system||Constitutional amendment|
|Second Republic of South Korea||1960||1961||Military junta||16 May coup|
|Kyrgyzstan||2010||2021||Presidential system||New constitution adopted|
|Lithuanian First Republic||1920||1926||One-party state||1926 Lithuanian coup d'état[note 13]|
(which led in 1979 to the democratic, presidential Second Nigerian Republic)
|Pakistan||1956||1958||Military dictatorship||1958 Pakistani coup d'état|
|1973||1978||1977 Pakistani coup d'état|
|1988||1999||1999 Pakistani coup d'état|
|Second Polish Republic||1919||1939||One-party state||Invasion of Poland|
|First Portuguese Republic||1911||1926||Military dictatorship
(which led in 1933
to the Estado Novo One-party state)
|28 May coup|
|First Philippine Republic (Malolos Republic)||1899||1901||Military dictatorship
(De facto United States Colony)
|Capture of Emilio Aguinaldo to the American forces|
|Fourth Philippine Republic||1973||1981||Semi-presidential system
(de facto Military dictatorship under Martial Law between 1972 and 1986.)
|Republic of the Congo||1960||1965||Military dictatorship
(De facto one-party state)
|1965 Congolese coup d'état|
|Rhodesia||1970||1979||Parliamentary system||Creation of Zimbabwe-Rhodesia|
|First Spanish Republic||1873||1874||Restoration of the monarchy||Restoration|
|Second Spanish Republic||1931||1939||Constitutional monarchy||Coup d'état|
|Sri Lanka||1972||1978||Semi-presidential system||Constitutional amendment|
|Syrian Republic||1930||1958||One-party state||Creation of the United Arab Republic|
|Syrian Arab Republic||1961||1963||One-party state||1963 Syrian coup d'état|
|Transvaal Republic||1852||1902||Colony of the British Empire||Second Boer War|
|Uganda||1963||1966||One-party state||Suspension of the constitution|
|Zimbabwe Rhodesia||1979||1979||Parliamentary system||Reversion to Southern Rhodesia|
|Zimbabwe||1980||1987||Presidential system||Constitutional amendment|
Duhamel has developed the approach further: He stresses that the French construction does not correspond to either parliamentary or the presidential form of government, and then develops the distinction of 'système politique' and 'régime constitutionnel'. While the former comprises the exercise of power that results from the dominant institutional practice, the latter is the totality of the rules for the dominant institutional practice of the power. In this way, France appears as 'presidentialist system' endowed with a 'semi-presidential regime' (1983: 587). By this standard he recognizes Duverger's pléiade as semi-presidential regimes, as well as Poland, Romania, Bulgaria and Lithuania (1993: 87).
Even if the president has no discretion in the forming of cabinets or the right to dissolve parliament, his or her constitutional authority can be regarded as 'quite considerable' in Duverger's sense if cabinet legislation approved in parliament can be blocked by the people’s elected agent. Such powers are especially relevant if an extraordinary majority is required to override a veto, as in Mongolia, Poland, and Senegal. In these cases, while the government is fully accountable to parliament, it cannot legislate without taking the potentially different policy preferences of the president into account.