The abolition of monarchy and anti-royalism is a legislative or revolutionary movement to abolish monarchical elements in government, usually hereditary.

Abolition of absolutist monarchy in favor of limited government under constitutional monarchy is a less radical form of anti-royalism that has succeeded in some nations that still retain monarchs, such as the United Kingdom, Spain, Thailand.

Abolition has been carried out in various ways, including via abdication leading to the extinction of the monarchy, legislative reform, revolution, coup d'état, and decolonisation. Abolition became more frequent in the 20th century, with the number of monarchies in Europe falling from 22 to 12 between 1914 and 2015, and the number of republics rising from 4 to 34. Decolonisation and independence have resulted in an abolition of monarchies in a number of former colonies such as those created by the United Kingdom.

Motivations for abolition include egalitarianism and anti-class views, eliminating a rival system potentially opposed to another incoming system (as had occurred in Romania in 1947), opposition to undemocratic and hereditary institutions, perception of monarchy as anachronistic or outdated, and opposition to a particular monarch or dynasty.[1][2] In many colonies and former colonies, abolishing the influence of the monarchy of a colonising state is considered part of decolonisation. In many Commonwealth realms, the monarchy may be viewed as a foreign institution running counter to the national identity or national sovereignty.

In the 21st century, some countries that are monarchies have significant republican movements, such as Spain[3] and Australia.[4]

Since the beginning of the 20th century, restorations of monarchies have been comparatively rare. Examples are the monarchy of Spain, which since 1947 had been nominally a regency with a vacant throne but the Bourbon dynasty was restored in 1975; the reinstatement in 1991 of the Emir of Kuwait following abolition in 1990 and the Gulf War; and a 1993 transition of Cambodia from a Marxist-Leninist republic to an elective monarchy.

Ancient World

Classical Athens

Further information: Classical Athens

The city-state of Athens was ruled by monarchs in a period before the establishment of Athenian Democracy. Most of this is either mythical or semi-historical. The Athenian monarchy was abolished and replaced with lifetime archons around 1068 BC, whose power was reduced over many years.[5]

Roman Kingdom/Republic

The Roman Republic was established after the overthrow of the seventh king of Rome, Lucius Tarquinius Superbus, in 509 BC, after their disrespect for roman customs and senate as well as use of violence to control Rome[6]

Political theory

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (April 2022)

Civil War and English Republic

Under the leadership of Oliver Cromwell, in 1649, King Charles I was tried for high treason, convicted and executed. This marked the conclusion of the English Civil War which resulted in the Parliament of England overthrowing the English monarchy, and initiating a period of an English republic (known as the Wars of the Three Kingdoms). After eleven years, in 1660, a limited monarchy was restored but moderated by an independent Parliament.[7][8]

In the Kingdom of England, the Glorious Revolution of 1688 furthered the constitutional monarchy, restricted by laws such as the Bill of Rights 1689 and the Act of Settlement 1701. At the same time, in Scotland, the Convention of Estates enacted the Claim of Right Act 1689, which placed similar limits on the Scottish monarchy.

Atlantic Revolutions

Main article: Atlantic Revolutions

American

Further information: American Revolution

Organized anti-monarchism in what is now the United States developed out of a gradual revolution that began in 1765, as colonists resisted a stamp tax through boycott and condemnation of tax officials.[9] While they were subject to the authority of the Parliament of Great Britain (as the monarchy was a limited monarchy since 1660), the North American citizens increasingly clashed with the Parliament that did not provide seats for parliamentary representatives from North America. With the Declaration of Independence in 1776, anti-monarchical propaganda resulted in violent protests that systematically removed symbols of monarchy. For instance, an equestrian statue of George III in New York City was toppled. Parliamentary loyalists were particularly affected by partisan attacks, with tens of thousands leaving for British Canada.[10] Property that remained was confiscated by each of thirteen newly created States through newly passed laws.[11] Artifacts from the colonial period depicting the British monarchy are seldom found in the United States. However, not all sentiment equated to anti-monarchism. A normality of a monarchy at the head of a polity remained, that some Americans saw a presidency in monarchical terms, a Caesar of the republic, was an early debate in the new republic.[12]

Haitian

See also: Haitian Revolution

French

Further information: French Revolution, Revolutions of 1830, and Revolutions of 1848

One of the most significant abolitions of monarchy in history – along with the Dutch Republic of 1581–1795 – involved the French monarchy in 1792 in the French Revolution.[13] The French monarchy was later restored several times with differing levels of authority. Napoleon, initially a hero of the Republican revolution, crowned himself emperor in 1804, only to be replaced by the Bourbon Restoration in 1815, which in turn was replaced by the more liberal July Monarchy in 1830. The 1848 Revolution was a clearer anti-monarchic uprising that replaced the succession of royal leaders with the short-lived Second French Republic. Louis Napoleon Bonaparte established the Second French Empire (1852–1870), retaining republican aspects while placing himself in the center of the state until the losses in the Franco-Prussian War led to his fall, resulting in the French Third Republic and the definitive end of the monarchy in France. Monarchism, which had held a majority in the National Assembly after the 1871 election, slowly fizzled out over the course of the rest of the century.[14]

19th century

Africa

Madagascar

The monarchy of Madagascar, known as the Merina Kingdom, came to an end in 1897 when France made it a colony and overthrew Queen Ranavalona III.

Zimbabwe

In 1629, the Mwenemutapa attempted to throw out the Portuguese. He failed and in turn he himself was overthrown, leading to the Portuguese installation of Mavura Mhande Felipe on the throne. In 1917, Mambo Chioko, the last king of the dynasty, was killed in battle against the Portuguese.

Americas

Mexico

The First Mexican Empire existed from the September 1821 Declaration of Independence until the emperor's abdication in March 1823. The Provisional Government took power and the First Mexican Republic was proclaimed in 1824. Due to French intervention under Napoleon III, the Second Mexican Empire lasted from 1864 to 1867, when it collapsed and its Emperor, Maximilian I of Mexico, was executed.

Brazil

In Brazil, the monarchy was formally established in 1815 through the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves (of which the Kingdom of Brazil was a constituent state), it evolved into the Empire of Brazil in 1822, and was abolished in 1889, when Emperor Pedro II was overthrown by a republican military coup (the status of the republic was confirmed by a plebiscite in 1993 that resulted in 86% of the votes to the republican government).

Asia

Burma

The monarchy of Burma was abolished in 1885 when the last king, Thibaw Min, lost his throne and the country was annexed by Britain.

South Asia

In 1858 the Mughal Empire came to an end after losing a war against Britain, and its Emperor, Bahadur Shah II, lost his throne.

Europe

Italy

Between 1859 and 1861, four monarchies in Southern Europe ceased to exist (Parma, Modena, Tuscany and the Two Sicilies) when they all became part of the new Kingdom of Italy.

Spain

In Spain monarchy was abolished from 1873 to 1874 by the First Spanish Republic, but then restored until 1931.

Pacific

Hawaii

In 1893 foreign business leaders overthrew Queen Liliʻuokalani of the Kingdom of Hawaii. They established a republic, which was annexed by the United States in 1898.

Tahiti

The monarchy of Tahiti came to an end in 1880 when France made it a colony and overthrew King Pōmare V.

Manu'a

After ceding sovereignty of the Manu'a islands of modern-day American Samoa to the United States in 1904, the last King of Manu'a, Tui Manu'a Elisara, died on 2 July 1909. All attempts to revive the position since his death have been met with opposition by the United States Government.[15]

20th century

Nationalism

China

The monarchy of China ceased to exist in 1912 when the Xinhai Revolution led by Sun Yat-sen succeeded in overthrowing the young Xuantong Emperor; this marked the end of the Qing dynasty and the start of the Republic of China. In 1915, Yuan Shikai briefly proclaimed the Empire of China with himself as the emperor; the regime failed to gain legitimacy and collapsed three months later. In 1917, the Qing loyalist Zhang Xun sought to revive the Qing dynasty and briefly reinstalled the Xuantong Emperor to the Chinese throne; this attempt is known as the "Manchu Restoration" in historiography. The monarchy in parts of China was restored through the Japanese-sponsored client state known as Manchukuo with the former Qing emperor as its leader until the final abolition in 1945.

The area of Tibet was ruled by the Ganden Phodrang government which continued through the annexation of Tibet by the People's Republic of China until the Tibetan rebellion in 1959 where the monarchy in Tibet was dissolved although it continued in exile as the Central Tibetan Administration in India.

During the Xinhai Revolution, Outer Mongolia declared independence from the Qing dynasty of China in the Mongolian Revolution of 1911. The Bogd Khanate of Mongolia was subsequently proclaimed, although the Republic of China laid claims to Outer Mongolia and was widely recognized by the international community as having sovereignty over it. In 1924, the Mongolian People's Republic was established, bringing an end to the monarchy in Mongolia.

World War I and aftermath

Russian Empire

World War I led to perhaps the greatest number of abolition of monarchies in history. The conditions inside the Russian Empire and the poor performance in the war gave rise to a revolution which toppled the entire institution of the monarchy, followed by a second revolution against that government in October of the same year that executed Tsar (Imperator (Императоръ)) Nicholas II and implemented a Marxist-Leninist government. The Russian civil war saw various monarchist, Republican, anarchist, nationalist and socialist factions fight each other with bourgeois independence movements winning in the Baltic States, Poland and Finland and the Bolsheviks winning everywhere else.

Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire, Montenegro

The defeated German, Austro-Hungarian and Ottoman empires saw the abolition of their monarchies in the close aftermath of the war, ending the reigns of Wilhelm II, Charles I and Mehmed VI respectively. The monarchs of the constituent states within the German Empire, most importantly Ludwig III of Bavaria, Frederick Augustus III of Saxony and Wilhelm II of Württemberg, soon abdicated. During the war, monarchies were planned for Poland (Kingdom of Poland), the Grand Duchy of Finland (to have a Finnish King), and Lithuania (Mindaugas II of Lithuania), with a protectorate-like suzerainty exercised by the German Empire. Both intended kings renounced their thrones after Germany's defeat in November 1918. King Nicholas I of Montenegro lost his throne when the country became a part of Yugoslavia in 1918.

World War II and aftermath

Italy, Albania, Bulgaria, Hungary, Romania, Yugoslavia, Croatia

World War II saw another increased number of abolition of monarchies. In 1922, Benito Mussolini's March on Rome led to King Victor Emmanuel III appointing Mussolini Prime Minister. In 1939 Italy invaded Albania and removed the reigning self-proclaimed King Zog and instated their own King Victor Emmanuel III as its new monarch. Italy, along with the eastern European monarchies of Bulgaria, Hungary and Romania were forced to join with Germany by their dictators in World War II against the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, the Western allies and the Soviet Union. When Yugoslavia fell in 1941 the Independent State of Croatia was established under a nominal monarchy, but it was in fact a one party state under Ante Pavelić and a puppet state of Nazi Germany. With the fall of Mussolini in July 1943, the monarchy in Croatia was abolished. As the Axis powers were defeated in the war, communist partisans in occupied Yugoslavia and occupied Albania seized power and ended the monarchies. Communists in Bulgaria, Hungary, and Romania removed their monarchies with strong backing by the Soviet Union, which had many troops and supporters placed there during the course of the war. Through this, Peter II of Yugoslavia, Simeon II of Bulgaria and Michael I of Romania all lost their thrones. King Victor Emmanuel III of Italy had remained King after the Fall of the Fascist regime in Italy but transferred most of his powers to his son after the Armistice of Cassibile. After Victor Emmanuel abdicated to save the monarchy, a narrow referendum in 1946 ended the short reign of his son King Umberto II and the Italian monarchy ceased to exist.

Republicanism

Australia (monarchy kept after referendum)

In a 1999 referendum, the voters of Australia rejected a proposal to replace the constitutional monarchy with a republic with a president appointed by Parliament. The proposal was rejected in all states, with only the Australian Capital Territory voting in favor. Though polling consistently showed a majority in favour of a republic, the result of the referendum was attributed to a split among republicans between those who supported the presented model and those who supported a directly elected president.[16][17][18][19]

Greece

In the modern history of Greece, the monarchy was toppled in 1924, as a result of the National Schism and the Asia Minor Disaster. The resulting Second Hellenic Republic led a troubled existence, until a coup restored the monarchy in 1935. The subsequent dictatorial 4th of August Regime was established with the support of King George II of Greece, further delegitimizing the monarchy.

During the Axis occupation of Greece, George II nominally led the Greek government in exile, but the post-war fate of the monarchy was a major dividing issue for Greeks, especially with the rise of the pro-communist National Liberation Front (EAM) as the country's largest resistance movement. As a compromise, the issue was to be determined by a referendum after the war. In the end, the threat of a post-war communist takeover led the Venizelist republicans to ally with the monarchists; with the defeat of EAM in the Dekemvriana, the subsequent White Terror, and the outbreak of the Greek Civil War in 1946 resulted in a monarchist victory in the 1946 referendum and the return of George II to the country.

The last king, Constantine II, interfered in politics during the Apostasia of 1965. The resulting political crisis led to a military coup in April 1967. Constantine II reluctantly accepted the fait accompli and lent it legitimacy, but when he tried to stage a counter-coup later that year, he was defeated and forced into exile. Greece formally remained a monarchy until a republic was proclaimed in 1973 by the military dictatorship. The final abolition of the monarchy was confirmed overwhelmingly after constitutional legality was restored, by free referendum in 1974.

Spain

In Spain, the monarchy was again abolished in 1931 by the Second Spanish Republic (1931–1939). In 1947, Francisco Franco declared Spain a Monarchy but kept himself as regent for life with the constitutional setup essentially unchanged. Per the right the 1947 law granted him to decide who would be the future Spanish monarch, he appointed Juan Carlos of Bourbon his successor in 1969. The "Prince of Spain" became king at Franco's death in 1975, and during the Spanish transition to democracy, the Spanish constitution of 1978 put the monarchy on a new constitutional basis. The existence of monarchy in Spain is an entrenched clause with much stricter rules for constitutional amendment than other constitutional provisions.[20]

Portugal

The monarchy of Portugal was also overthrown in 1910 (5 October), two years after the assassination of King Carlos I, ending the reign of Manuel II, who died in exile in England (1932), without issue.

Communism, socialism, and Islamism

Afghanistan

In 1973, the monarchy of King Mohammed Zahir Shah of Afghanistan was abolished after a socialist-supported coup d'état led by Mohammad Daoud Khan, from the same Musahiban royal family, who declared himself the first President of Afghanistan.

Ethiopia

Emperor Haile Selassie I was overthrown in 1974 as a result of the Ethiopian Revolution, ending almost 3000 years of monarchical rule in Ethiopia.

Indochina

In 1945, during the August Revolution, Bảo Đại abdicated under the pressure of the Việt Minh led by Ho Chi Minh. This marked the end of the Nguyễn dynasty and the Vietnamese monarchy. From 1949 to 1955, Bảo Đại served as the Quốc Trưởng (lit. "Chief of State") of the State of Vietnam and did not receive the title of Hoàng Đế (lit. "Emperor").

Political upheaval and Communist insurrection put an end to the monarchies of Indochina after World War II: a short-lived attempt to leave a monarchical form of government in post-colonial South Vietnam came to naught in a fraudulent 1955 referendum, a military coup overthrew the kingless monarchy in Cambodia in 1970 and a Communist takeover ended the monarchy in Laos in 1975. Cambodia's monarchy later saw an unexpected rebirth under an internationally mediated peace settlement with a former king Norodom Sihanouk being restored as a figurehead in 1993.

Iran

The monarchy of Iran was abolished by the Islamic revolution of 1979 overthrowing Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi though his son Reza Pahlavi, Crown Prince of Iran continued to function the monarchy in exile.

Sikkim

King Palden Thondup Namgyal of Sikkim lost his throne in 1975 when the country became a state of India following a referendum.

Dictatorship

Egypt

The monarchy of Egypt was abolished in 1953, after the revolution of 1952, which caused King Farouk I to abdicate in favor of his infant son Fuad II.

Tunisia

The monarchy of Tunisia ended in 1957 when Muhammad VIII al-Amin lost his throne by decision of the Tunisian Parliament controlled by Habib Bourguiba

Iraq

The monarchy of Iraq ended in 1958 when King Faisal II was killed and a republic proclaimed.

Yemen

The monarchy of Yemen was abolished in 1962 when King Muhammad al-Badr was overthrown in a coup, although he continued to resist his opponents until 1970.

Libya

Main article: 1969 Libyan coup d'état

King Idris of Libya was overthrown by a military coup led by Muammar Gaddafi in 1969.

Imperialism expansion and decolonisation

Commonwealth of Nations

Many monarchies were abolished in the middle of the 20th century or later as part of the process of decolonization. The monarchies of India, Ghana, Nigeria, Kenya, Tanganyika, Uganda, Guyana, and Malawi were abolished shortly after they became independent of the United Kingdom, while remaining within the Commonwealth. The monarchy of Ireland was not abolished following the Irish war of independence in the 1920s. The Irish Free State was nominally a monarchy but transitioned towards more and more republican forms of government throughout its existence. The Irish Constitution that came into force in 1937 left the question of Republic or monarchy vague, but established a President of Ireland, an office usually absent in monarchies. The monarchy was officially abolished by the Republic of Ireland Act of 1948, which came into force in 1949. Some Commonwealth realms waited a little longer before abolishing their monarchies: Pakistan became a republic in 1956 and South Africa in 1961. Gambia abolished its monarchy in 1970 after a referendum in favour, while Sierra Leone became a republic in 1971, as did Sri Lanka in 1972, Malta in 1974, Trinidad and Tobago in 1976, and Fiji became a republic in 1987, thanks to two military coups by Sitiveni Rabuka. The latest country to become a republic within the Commonwealth was Barbados in 2021. With the exceptions of Ireland and India, in each case the deposed monarch was Elizabeth II.

Korea

In 1910 the last emperor of Korea, Sunjong, lost his throne when the country was annexed by Japan. However, the Korean royal family was mediatized as a puppet family within the Japanese imperial family. Many of the Korean royals were forcibly re-educated in Japan and forced to marry Japanese royalty and aristocrats to meld the ruling families of the two empires. With the abolition of the Japanese aristocracy and cadet branches of the imperial family, the Korean royals officially lost their remaining status.[citation needed]

South Asia

The independence of India from the United Kingdom in 1947 posed a unique problem. From 1858, when the British government replaced Company rule with direct Crown rule, it had been governed as a quasi-federation, with much of the country under the direct rule of the British monarch, who was styled as the Emperor of India. The remainder of the country, however, was under a form of indirect rule under him through its division into over 500 subnational monarchies, known as princely states; each was ruled by a prince who acknowledged the suzerainty of the Indian Emperor. The princely states ranged from powerful and largely independent principalities such as Hyderabad or Mysore, with a high level of autonomy, to tiny fiefdoms a few dozen acres (in the low tens of hectares) in size.

In 1947, it was agreed that India would be partitioned into the independent British dominions of India and Pakistan, with the princely states acceding to one nation or the other. The accession process proceeded smoothly, with the notable exception of four of the most influential principalities. The Muslim ruler of the Hindu-majority state of Junagadh acceded to Pakistan, but his decision was overruled by the Indian government, while Hyderabad chose to be independent, but was forcibly annexed to India in 1948. The Hindu ruler of Jammu and Kashmir, among the largest and most powerful of the principalities, but with a Muslim-majority population, initially held off on a decision. In the autumn of 1947, an invading force from Pakistan frightened the ruler into acceding to India. The ruler of Kalat, in Baluchistan, declared his independence in 1947, after which the state was forcibly merged with Pakistan, resulting in an insurgency persisting to this day. With the promulgation of the Indian constitution in 1950, India abolished its monarchy under the British crown and became a Republic within the Commonwealth of Nations, followed by Pakistan in 1956; as a result of both developments, the majority of the princes formally lost their sovereign rights. A few remaining principalities in Pakistan retained their autonomy until 1969 when they finally acceded to Pakistan. The Indian government formally derecognized its princely families in 1971, followed by Pakistan in 1972.

21st century

Nepal

The Kingdom of Nepal was transformed into a Republic by the 1st Nepalese Constituent Assembly in 2008.[21][22]

Barbados

Barbados abolished the Monarchy of Barbados and became a republic on November 30, 2021 via constitutional amendment by the Parliament.[23]

Monarchism in former monarchies

In a referendum in Brazil in 1993, voters rejected an attempt to restore the country's monarchy. Unsuccessful efforts to restore the monarchies of some of the Balkan states in the former Eastern Bloc continue. Former King Michael of Romania and Prince Alexander of Serbia had been allowed to return, gained some popularity, played largely apolitical public roles, but never came close to being restored to their ancestral thrones. However, in Bulgaria, Simeon Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, who was deposed from the Bulgarian throne in 1946, was elected and recently served as the Prime Minister of his country from 2001 to 2005. The only formerly socialist country to have held a referendum on the monarchy was Albania where the claimant to his father's throne, the self-styled Leka I, lost by a 2/3 majority, though it was later revealed upon Leka's death in 2011 by the Albanian government that the referendum had been rigged in favour of the republic.

New monarchies in the 20th century

The 20th century also saw the formation of a number of new monarchies that still exist to this day such as Bhutan (1907), Jordan (1921), Saudi Arabia (1932), and Malaysia (1957).

Summary table since the 20th century

Country Last monarch Year Notes
1900s
Songhai Askia Malla 1901 Ousted by the French, the country became a part of French West Africa.
Flag of the Kingdom of Rimatara 1856-1891.svg
Rimatara Tamaeva V Ousted by the French.
Flag of Nuku Hiva.svg
Nuku Hiva Ousted by the French.
Gumma Firisa 1902 Annexed by Ethiopian Empire
Flag of the Aceh Sultanate.png
Aceh Alauddin Muhammad Da'ud Syah II 1903 Aceh War
Flag of Ghezo of Dahomey.svg
Dahomey Agoli-agbo 1904 In 1904 the area became part of a French colony, French Dahomey.
Oyo Adeyemi I Alowolodu 1905 Last monarch died, the country became a part of British Southern Nigeria Protectorate.
Habr Yunis Nur Ahmed Aman 1907 Incorporation into British Somaliland.
Old Flag of Bali.svg
Bali Dewa Agung Jambe II 1908 Incorporation into Dutch East Indies.
Flag of the Mwali Sultanate.svg
Mwali 1909 The country was incorporated into French Third Republic.
1910s
Flag of Portugal (1830–1910).svg
Portugal Manuel II 1910 Republican Coup d'État.
Flag of Korea (1882–1910).svg
Korea Sunjong Native monarchy abolished; replaced by rule by Japan, a monarchy, through 1945.
Angoche Ousted by the Portuguese, the country was incorporated into Portugal.
Nri Eze Nri Òbalíke 1911 Ousted by the British, the country became a part of Southern Nigeria Protectorate.
Kasanje The country was incorporated into Portuguese West Africa.
Flag of Riau-Lingga Sultanate.svg
Riau-Lingga Abdul Rahman II Abolished by the Dutch.
Flag of China (1889–1912).svg
China Xuantong 1912 Xinhai Revolution – Emperor ousted by warlords and republicans. (Briefly restored in 1917)
Wadai Dud Murra of Wadai French annexation of Wadai Empire.
Ndzuwani Saidi Mohamed bin Saidi Omar The country was incorporated into French Third Republic.
Flag of the Principality of Samos (1834–1912).svg
Samos Grigorios Vegleris The country was incorporated into Greece.
Flag of the Kingdom of Kongo.svg
Kongo Manuel III of Kongo 1914 Position abolished by Portuguese after an unsuccessful revolt.
Mbunda Mwene Mbandu Kapova I of Mbunda Position abolished by Portuguese after an unsuccessful revolt.
Late 19th Century Flag of Sulu.svg
Sultanate of Sulu Sultan Jamalul-Kiram II 1915 Split into American Insular Government over the Philippine islands, British North Borneo and the Dutch East Indies.
Flag of Darfur.svg
Darfur Ali Dinar 1916 Darfur formally re-incorporated into Anglo-Egyptian Sudan.
Flag of the Empire of China (1915–1916).svg
China Hongxian Monarchy dropped, shortly after the outbreak of the National Protection War.
Flag of Russia.svg
Russia Nicholas II 1917 Russian Revolution of 1917.
Flag of Russia.svg
Finland Finnish Declaration of Independence.
Flag of Montenegro (1905–1918).svg
Montenegro Nicholas I 1918 Referendum deposed King and united Montenegro with Serbia.
Flag of Germany (1867–1918).svg
Germany William II All on account of German defeat in World War I and the following German Revolution.
Flag of Prussia (1892-1918).svg
Prussia
Flag of Bavaria (striped).svg
Bavaria Ludwig III
Flagge Königreich Württemberg.svg
Württemberg William II
Flagge Königreich Sachsen (1815-1918).svg
Saxony Frederick Augustus III
Flagge Großherzogtum Hessen ohne Wappen.svg
Hesse Ernest Louis
Flagge Großherzogtum Baden (1891–1918).svg
Baden Frederick II
Flagge Großherzogtum Sachsen-Weimar-Eisenach (1897-1920).svg
Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach William Ernest
Flagge Großherzogtümer Mecklenburg.svg
Mecklenburg-Schwerin Frederick Francis IV
Flagge Großherzogtümer Mecklenburg.svg
Mecklenburg-Strelitz Adolphus Frederick VI
Civil flag of Oldenburg.svg
Oldenburg Frederick Augustus II
Flagge Herzogtum Braunschweig.svg
Brunswick Ernst Augustus
Flagge Herzogtum Anhalt.svg
Anhalt Joachim Ernst
Flagge Herzogtum Sachsen-Coburg-Gotha (1911-1920).svg
Saxe-Coburg and Gotha Charles Edward
Flagge Herzogtum Sachsen-Coburg-Gotha (1826-1911).svg
Saxe-Meiningen Bernhard III
Flagge Herzogtum Sachsen-Coburg-Gotha (1826-1911).svg
Saxe-Altenburg Ernst II
Flag of Germany (3-2 aspect ratio).svg
Waldeck-Pyrmont Friedrich
Flagge Fürstentum Lippe.svg
Lippe Leopold IV
Flagge Fürstentum Schaumburg-Lippe.svg
Schaumburg-Lippe Adolf II
Flagge Fürstentümer Schwarzburg.svg
Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt Günther Victor
Schwarzburg-Sondershausen
Flagge Fürstentum Reuß ältere Linie.svg
Reuss Elder Line Heinrich XXIV
Flagge Fürstentum Reuß jüngere Linie.svg
Reuss Younger Line Heinrich XXVII
Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy.svg
Austria Charles I Charles I "renounced participation" in state affairs, but did not abdicate. Monarchy officially abolished by the Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye, on 10 September 1919.
Flag of Finland 1918 (state).svg
Finland Frederick Charles I Monarchy never in effect.
Flag of Lithuania (1918–1940).svg
Lithuania Mindaugas II
Flag of Poland.svg
Poland Ruled by Regency Council
United Baltic Duchy flag.svg
United Baltic Duchy Duke Adolf Friedrich of Mecklenburg
Flag of Courland (state).svg
Courland and Semigallia Nobody, it was supposed to be a descendant of Ernst Johann von Biron[clarification needed]
Flag of Hungary (1915-1918; angels; 3-2 aspect ratio).svg
Hungary Charles IV Monarchy restored in 1920, although the throne remained vacant with a Regent.
Flag of Serbia (1882–1918).svg
Serbia Peter I Country transformed to Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, then Kingdom of Yugoslavia.
Flag of Ukraine.svg
Ukraine Pavlo Skoropadskyi Removed from power, following an uprising led by Symon Petliura and the withdrawal of German forces from Kiev.
1920s
Flag of the Emirate of Bukhara.svg
Bukhara (Uzbekistan) Mohammed Alim Khan 1920 Monarchy deposed by an invasion by the Red Army (Bukhara operation).
Flag of the Khanate of Khiva.svg
Khiva (Uzbekistan) Abdallah Khan of Khiva Monarchy deposed by a communist uprising aided by the Red Army (Khivan Revolution).
Flag of North Caucasian Emirate.svg
North Caucasian Emirate Uzun Hajji Saltinsky Abolished by the Bolsheviks.
Flag of Kingdom of Syria (1920-03-08 to 1920-07-24).svg
Syria Faisal I Monarchy deposed, following the Siege of Damascus.
Flag of Upper Asir.svg
Upper Asir Al-Hasan Bin Ayad Incorporation into Nejd.
Flag of the Emirate of Ha
Jabal Shammar Muhammad bin Talal Al Rashid 1921
Ottoman flag.svg
Ottoman Empire Mehmed VI 1922 Sultanate abolished in 1922.
Flag of the Witu Protectorate (1893-1920).svg
Wituland Fumo 'Umar ibn Ahmad 1923 Sultanate abolished by British, the country was incorporated into Kenya Colony.
Hellenic Kingdom Flag 1935.svg
Greece George II 1924 Restored 1935 and later abolished again in 1973 (see below).
Flag of Bogd Khaanate Mongolia.svg
Mongolia Bogd Khan Communist People's Republic proclaimed after the Bogd Khan's death.
Flag of Albania (1914–1920).svg
Albania William I 1925 Monarchy restored in 1928 (Albanian Kingdom).
Mohammerah Khaz'al al-Ka'bi Sheikhdom abolished by Persia
Flag of Hejaz 1920.svg
Hejaz Ali bin Hussein, King of Hejaz Conquered by the Nejd
Flag of Kingdom of Kurdistan (1922-1924).svg
Kurdistan Mahmud Barzanji Kingdom of Kurdistan reconquered by the British.
Orungu Rogombé-Nwèntchandi 1927 Position abolished by French.
Red Red.svg
Hobyo Ali Yusuf Kenadid Incorporated into Italian Somaliland.
Flag of Afghanistan (1929).svg
Afghanistan Habibullāh Kalakāni 1929 After the fall of Kalakani on 13 October 1929, the Emirate ended, and was replaced by the revived Kingdom of Afghanistan.
1930s
Beda 1930 The country was incorporated into the Mutawakkilite Kingdom of Yemen.
Flag of the Idrisid Emirate of Asir (1927-1930).svg
Asir Sayyid al-Hasan ibn Ali al-Idrisi al-Hasani The country was incorporated into Saudi Arabia.
Kumul Maqsud Shah Upon Maqsud Shah's death in March 1930 Jin Shuren replaced the Khanate with three normal provincial administrative districts Hami, Yihe, and Yiwu. This set off the Kumul Rebellion, in which Yulbars Khan attempted to restore the heir Nasir to the throne.
Flag of Spain (1785–1873, 1875–1931).svg
Spain Alfonso XIII 1931 Later restored (see below).
Flag of the Principality of Najran.png
Najran Ali II ibn Muhsin ibn Husayn 1934 The country was incorporated into Saudi Arabia.
Jimma Abba Jofir 1932 Ousted by Ethiopians, Jimma incorporated into the Ethiopian Empire.
Flag of Albania (1934–1939).svg
Albania Zog I 1939 Throne usurped by Victor Emmanuel III, after Italian invasion.
1940s
Flag of Albania (1939–1943).svg
Albania Victor Emmanuel III 1943 Relinquished throne after Italian armistice in 1943.
Flag of Croatia (1941–1945).svg
Croatia Tomislav II Abdicated after withdrawal of Italian support in 1943.
Flag of Iceland (1918–1944).svg
Iceland Christian X 1944 Union with Denmark terminated and a republic declared after a referendum was held and the results was in favour of an independent republic
Flag of Montenegro (1905–1918, 1941–1944).svg
Montenegro Ruled by a Governor in the absence of a monarch Monarchy abolished after takeover by Yugoslav Partisans
Flag of Yugoslavia (1918–1941).svg
Yugoslavia Peter II 1945 Monarchy abolished by the Communist regime of Josip Broz Tito
Flag of Manchukuo.svg
Manchukuo Kangde Monarchy abolished after the Surrender of Japan. Territories returned to the Republic of China.
Flag of the Sultanate of Gowa.svg
Gowa Muhammad Tahur Muhibuddin Sultanate abolished.
Flag of the Empire of Vietnam (1945).svg
Vietnam Bảo Đại Monarchy abolished after the Surrender of Japan.
Romani bicolor (reported, 1930s).svg
Gypsy Janos I The king abdicated and no successor was elected.
Flag of Hungary (1915-1918, 1919-1946).svg
Hungary Miklós Horthy as Regent 1946 Decision of the parliament without a referendum.
Flag of Italy (1861–1946).svg
Italy Umberto II Referendum; official result: 54.3% in favour of republic.
Flag of Bulgaria.svg
Bulgaria Simeon II Referendum held to decide whether the monarchy would be retained; 95% in favour of republic. Tsar Simeon II was exiled by the Communist Fatherland Front regime.

Simeon later served as Prime Minister of Bulgaria from 2001 to 2005.

Flag of the Raj of Sarawak (1870).svg
Sarawak Charles Vyner Brooke White Rajahs ceded Sarawak to the British Crown, which created the Colony of Sarawak
Flag of the Sultanate of Deli.svg
Deli Amaluddin Al Sani Perkasa Alamsyah Acts of violence against the nobility reached their peak during the bloody incident known as the Social Revolution in 1946. Many kings and members of royal families in North Sumatra were murdered and robbed of property and belongings, including Tengku Amir Hamzah, the Indonesian poet who was beheaded in Kuala Begumit. The family of the Sultanate of Deli and Serdang survived thanks to the protection of the Allied soldiers who were there to accept the surrender of the Japanese.
Flag of Asahan.svg
Asahan Shaibun Abdul Jalil Rahmad Shah
Flag of Sultanate of Langkat.svg
Langkat Mahmud Abdul Jalil Rahmad Shah
Royal Malay Banner (Yellow).svg
Serdang Sulaiman Syariful Alam Shah
Flag of Romania.svg
Romania Michael I 1947 Forced to abdicate and exiled by the Communists.
Flag of Ireland.svg
Ireland George VI 1949 Abolished the last "Monarchy of Ireland", the King of the United Kingdom under the terms of the Republic of Ireland Act 1948 as from 18 April 1949, which also saw Ireland become a republic outside the British Commonwealth. Ten days later, the London Declaration was enacted to allow republics and native monarchies to become members of the newly renamed Commonwealth of Nations
Flag of Mangkunegaran.svg
Mangkunegaran Mangkunegara VII
Flag of Sultanate of Siak Sri Indrapura.svg
Siak Kasim Abdul Jalil Syaifudin I The Sultan also handed over his property for the struggle of independence of the Republic of Indonesia.
Flag of Sunanate of Surakarta.svg
Surakarta Sunanate Pakubuwono XII After the declaration of independence of the Republic of Indonesia on 17 August 1945, followed by Indonesian National Revolution, the Surakarta Sunanate with Mangkunegaran Princedom sent a letter of confidence to Sukarno to demonstrate their support for the Indonesian Republic. As the reward the Republic awarded the status of Daerah Istimewa (Special Region, similar to today's Yogyakarta Sultanate) within the Republic of Indonesia. However, because the political agitation and opposition from Indonesian communists that led to an anti-monarchy movement and rebellion in early 1946, on 16 June 1946 the Indonesian Republic aborted the special region status; both Surakarta's and Mangkunegara's status were reduced to merely a residence and were later merged into Central Java province.
1950s
Flag of Pontianak Sultanate.svg
Pontianak Syarif Hamid II of Pontianak 1950 Integration with Indonesia.
Flag of the Kingdom of Kotawaringin.svg
Kotawaringin
Flag of India.svg
India George VI Abolished its monarchy as from 26 January 1950. India became the first republic in the Commonwealth of Nations.
Flag of Jaisalmer.svg
Jaisalmer Giridhar Singh Bhati The Kingdom of Jaisalmer merged with the Republic of India in 1950.
Flag of Mysore.svg
Mysore Jayachamaraja Wodeyar The Kingdom of Mysore merged with the Republic of India in 1950
Princely States 1947–1974 Political integration of India
Flag of Tibet.svg
Tibet Tenzin Gyatso 1951 Annexed by the People's Republic of China.
Flag of Egypt (1922–1953).svg
Egypt Fuad II 1953 Republic proclaimed one year after the 1952 Coup d'état.
Flag of Pakistan.svg
Pakistan Elizabeth II 1956 Abolished its monarchy as from March 1956.
Flag of Tunisia.svg
Tunisia Muhammad VIII 1957 Decision of the parliament controlled by Habib Bourguiba.
Flag of Ashanti.svg
Ashanti Prempeh II 1957 Entered into state union with Ghana after independence from the United Kingdom.
Flag of Iraq (1924–1959).svg
Iraq Faisal II 1958 coup d'état
Bendera Kesultanan Bima.png
Bima Muhammad Salahuddin In 1958, the Sumbawan principalities were abolished by the Indonesian republic and replaced by a modern bureaucratic structure
1960s
Flag of Lordship of Butung (Buton).svg
Buton Falihi of Buton 1960
Flag of Ghana.svg
Ghana Elizabeth II Abolished its monarchy as from 1 July 1960, following a referendum; official result: 88% in favour of republic. Kwame Nkrumah became the first President of Ghana (1960–66)
Flag of South Africa (1928–1994).svg
South Africa 1961 Abolished its monarchy as from 31 May 1961 pursuant to 1960 referendum; official result: 53% in favour of republic. South Africa temporarily withdrew from the Commonwealth – but returned to Commonwealth membership on 1 June 1994.
Flag of Rwanda (1959–1961).svg
Rwanda Kigeli V coup d'état, followed by referendum; official result: 80% in favor of abolishing monarchy.
Flag of Tanganyika (1961–1964).svg
Tanganyika Elizabeth II 1962 Abolished its monarchy in 1962. Julius Nyerere became President of Tanganyika
Flag of the Mutawakkilite Kingdom of Yemen.svg
Yemen Muhammad al-Badr coup d'état
Flag of South Kasai.svg
South Kasai Albert Kalonji Status of the head of this state was complicated, Albert Kalonji used the title of Mulopwe (God-king/Emperor).
Flag of Nigeria.svg
Nigeria Elizabeth II 1963 Abolished its monarchy as from 1 October 1963. Nnamdi Azikiwe became the first President of Nigeria (1963–66)
Flag of Uganda.svg
Uganda Abolished its monarchy in 1963. Kabaka Mutesa II of Buganda became the first President of Uganda (1963–66)
Flag of Kenya.svg
Kenya 1964 Abolished its monarchy on 12 December 1964. Jomo Kenyatta became the first President of Kenya (1964–78)
Flag of the Sultanate of Zanzibar (1963).svg
Zanzibar Jamshid bin Abdullah Zanzibar Revolution
Flag of Burundi (1962–1966).svg
Burundi Ntare V 1966 coup d'état
Flag of Malawi.svg
Malawi Elizabeth II Abolished its monarchy as from July 1966. Hastings Banda became the first President of Malawi (1966–94)
Flag of the Sultanate of Fadhli.svg
Fadhli Sultanate Nasser bin Abdullah bin Hussein bin Ahmed Alfadhli 1967 The countries were incorporated into newly created People's Republic of South Yemen.
Flag of Quaiti Hadramaut.svg
Qu'aiti Sultanate in Hadhramaut Ghalib II bin Awadh bin Saleh Al Qu'aiti
Flag of the State of Upper Yafa.svg
Sultanate of Upper Yafa Muhammad ibn Salih Harharah
Flag of Lower Yafa.svg
Sultanate of Lower Yafa Mahmud ibn Aidrus Al Afifi
Muflahi Sheikhdom al Qasim ibn Abd ar Rahman
Audhali Sultanate Salih ibn al Husayn ibn Jabil Al Audhali
Flag of Beihan.svg
Emirate of Beihan Saleh al Hussein Al Habieli
Dathina Sheikhdom
Flag of Dhala.svg
Emirate of Dhala Shafaul ibn Ali Shaif Al Amiri
Flag of Wahidi Balhaf.svg
Wahidi Sultanate of Balhaf in Hadhramaut
Sheikhdom of Shaib Yahya ibn Mutahhar al-Saqladi
Alawi Sheikhdom Salih ibn Sayil Al Alawi
Aqrabi Sheikhdom Mahmud ibn Muhammad Al Aqrabi
Flag of Wahidi Haban.svg
Wahidi Sultanate of Haban in Hadhramaut Husayn ibn Abd Allah Al Wahidi
Qutaibi Sheikhdom
Hadrami Sheikhdom
Mausatta Sheikhdom
Busi Sheikhdom
Dhabi Sheikhdom
Haushabi Sultanate Faisal bin Surur Al Haushabi
Kathiri flag.svg
Kathiri Sultanate in Hadhramaut Al Husayn ibn Ali
Mahraflag.svg
Mahra Sultanate
Flag of the Sultanate of Lahej.svg
Sultanate of Lahej Ali bin Abd al Karim al Abdali
Sheikhdom of al-Hawra
Sheikhdom of al-`Irqa
Lower Aulaqi Sultanate Nasir ibn Aidrus Al Awlaqi
Upper Aulaqi Sultanate Awad ibn Salih Al Awlaqi
Upper Aulaqi Sheikhdom Amir Abd Allah ibn Muhsin al Yaslami Al Aulaqi
Flag of Ankole.svg
Ankole Gasiyonga II The kingdom was formally abolished in 1967 by the government of President Milton Obote, and since then, the kingdom has not been restored officially, as Yoweri Museveni opposes the restoration of the Kingdom of Ankole.
Tidore Zainal Abidin Syah Sultanate abolished.
Flag of Maldives.svg
Maldives Muhammad Fareed Didi 1968 Republic referendum, which found a majority in favour of a republic. Ibrahim Nasir became President of the Maldives (1968–78).
Flag of Libya (1951–1969).svg
Libya Idris I 1969 Coup d'état by Muammar Gaddafi in 1969 Libyan coup d'état.
Saloum Maad Saloum Fode N'Gouye Joof After both King's deaths, both kingdoms were incorporated into the new Republic of independent Senegal which gained its independence in 1960.
Sine Maad a Sinig Mahecor Joof
1970s
Flag of Rhodesia (1968–1979).svg
Rhodesia Elizabeth II 1970 Abolished its unrecognised monarchy. An unrecognised government of the British colony of Southern Rhodesia had unilaterally declared independence as Rhodesia in 1965, proclaiming Elizabeth II as Queen, but she did not accept the title, nor was it recognised by any other state. Following a referendum in 1969, in which 81% voted to abolish the monarchy, a republic was declared in 1970. Rhodesia was internationally recognised as a British colony right through to 1980, when Rhodesia became the independent republic of Zimbabwe, which was a member of the Commonwealth from 1980 to December 2003.
Flag of Cambodia.svg
Cambodia Norodom Sihanouk Later restored (see below).
Flag of The Gambia.svg
The Gambia Elizabeth II Abolished its monarchy after a 1970 referendum in favour. Sir Dawda Jawara became the first President of the Gambia (1970–94)
Flag of Guyana.svg
Guyana Abolished its monarchy.
Flag of Sierra Leone.svg
Sierra Leone 1971 Abolished its monarchy.
Flag of Sri Lanka.svg
Ceylon 1972 Abolished its monarchy in May 1972, state name changed into "Sri Lanka".
Flag of Afghanistan (1931–1973).svg
Afghanistan Mohammed Zahir Shah 1973 Coup d'état
Flag of Greece (1970-1975).svg
Greece Constantine II 1974 referendum; official result: 69% against monarchy
Flag of Malta.svg
Malta Elizabeth II Abolished its monarchy.
Flag of Ethiopia (1897–1974).svg
Ethiopia Haile Selassie I / Amha Selassie 1975 Abolished the monarchy following a coup d'état in 1974
Flag of Sikkim (1967-1975).svg
Sikkim Palden Thondup Namgyal Referendum; official result: 97% to become a state of India.
Flag of Laos (1952–1975).svg
Laos Savang Vatthana Communist takeover by the Pathet Lao
Flag of Trinidad and Tobago.svg
Trinidad and Tobago Elizabeth II 1976 Abolished its monarchy.
State flag of Iran (1964–1980).svg
Iran Mohammad Reza Pahlavi 1979 Iranian Revolution
Flag of the Central African Republic.svg
Central Africa Bokassa I coup d'état
1980s
Rwenzururu Flag (1962–1982).svg
Rwenzururu Charles Mumbere 1982 Forced to abdicate by the government of Uganda; declaration of independence of Rwenzururu was annulled.
Flag of Fiji.svg
Fiji Elizabeth II 1987 Abolished its monarchy as a result of two military coups by Sitiveni Rabuka. Elizabeth II remained recognized as Paramount Chief by the Great Council of Chiefs until the council's de-establishment on 14 March 2012 by Frank Bainimarama. Additionally, the Queen's portrait continued to feature on Fijian coins and banknotes until 2013.
1990s
Flag of Kuwait.svg
Kuwait Jaber Al-Ahmad Al-Sabah 1990 Dethroned due to the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait. Restored in 1991 (see below).
Flag of Mauritius.svg
Mauritius Elizabeth II 1992 Abolished its monarchy. Sir Veerasamy Ringadoo became the first President of Mauritius (1992)
2000s
Flag of Samoa.svg
Samoa Malietoa Tanumafili II 2007 Since the death of Malietoa Tanumafili II, subsequent O le Ao o le Malo have been elected for five-year terms. A proposal to elect future Heads of State for life from four Tama-a-Aiga families has been proposed.[1]

If this occurs, then Samoa would effectively become a constitutional monarchy instead of a republic.

Flag of Nepal.svg
Nepal Gyanendra 2008 Decision of the parliament and without consent of the people of Nepal, as a referendum was never held.[24]
Flag of Mustang.svg
Lo Jigme Dorje Palbar Bista Abolished by order of the Government of Nepal.[25]
2020s
Flag of Barbados.svg
Barbados Elizabeth II 2021 Abolished its monarchy through a decision by the country's politicians without a referendum being held.

Monarchies that were abolished, restored, and continue to exist in the 21st century

Country Year abolished Notes Year restored Years of republic
Flag of England.svg
Saint Patrick
England 1649 Commonwealth of England established, then Parliament reversed itself and invited the return of the monarchy. 1660 11
Flag of Scotland (1542-2003).svg
Scotland 1652 Commonwealth 1660 8
Flag of Spain.svg
Spain 1873 First Spanish Republic established. 1874 1
1931 Second Spanish Republic established; restored (de jure) under the regency of Francisco Franco. De jure: 1947
De facto: 1975
De jure: 16
De facto: 44
Flag of Kuwait.svg
Kuwait 1990 Republic of Kuwait proclaimed prior to annexation by Iraq; restored in the Gulf War. 1991 1
Flag of Cambodia.svg
Cambodia 1970 The Khmer Republic established; restored as an elective monarchy. 1993 23

Many other monarchies continue to exist in the 21st century, never having been abolished.

See also

Notes

References

  1. ^ "We need to abolish the monarchy – because it's not fair on anyone, including the royals". The Independent. 19 May 2018. Archived from the original on 19 May 2018. Retrieved 12 January 2020.
  2. ^ "'Essentially, the monarchy is corrupt' – will republicanism survive Harry and Meghan?". The Guardian. 9 May 2018. Retrieved 12 January 2020.
  3. ^ "Royal families: The countries that feel the strongest about abolishing their monarchies". QZ. 18 May 2018. Retrieved 12 January 2020.
  4. ^ "Does the monarchy have a future?". Dhaka Tribune. 11 January 2020. Retrieved 12 January 2020.
  5. ^ Aristotle, Constitution of Athens, 3
  6. ^ Matyszak 2003, p. 41.-42.
  7. ^ "The Restoration of a Limited Monarchy in England: Definition & History – Video & Lesson Transcript". study.com. Retrieved 16 November 2022.
  8. ^ Haley, K.H.D. (1985), Politics in the Reign of Charles II, Oxford: Basil Blackwell, ISBN 0-631-13928-1
  9. ^ "Stamp Act crisis and significance". Retrieved 16 November 2022.
  10. ^ Maya Jasanoff (2012). Liberty's Exiles: American Loyalists in the Revolutionary World. Random House. p. 357. ISBN 978-1-4000-7547-8.
  11. ^ "Dispossessing Loyalists and Redistributing Property in Revolutionary New York". The New York Public Library. Retrieved 16 November 2022.
  12. ^ Note for example: Breen, Timothy H. (2016). "4: Voices of the People". George Washington's Journey: The President Forges a New Nation. New York: Simon and Schuster (published 2017). p. 120. ISBN 978-1-4516-7543-6. Retrieved 24 February 2017. If most Americans saw the danger of addressing Washington as their American Caesar – he had absolutely no interest in becoming emperor – they nevertheless found it surprisingly appealing.
  13. ^ Everdell, William R. (2000). The End of Kings: A History of Republics and Republicans. Chicago: University of Chicago. ISBN 0-226-22482-1.
  14. ^ Compare the 1871 election results with those of the end of the century in which monarchist candidates barely attained any seats
  15. ^ "Tufele; Young v." American Samoa Bar Associations. Retrieved 11 March 2021.
  16. ^ Turnbull, Malcolm (1999). Fighting for the Republic. South Yarra: Hardie Grant Books. p. 250.
  17. ^ Steve Vizard (1998). Two Weeks in Lilliput: Bear Baiting and Backbiting at the Constitutional Convention. Ringwood (Vic): Penguin. ISBN 0-14-027983-0.
  18. ^ Higley, John; Case, Rhonda (July 2000). "Australia: The Politics of Becoming a Republic". Journal of Democracy. 11 (3): 136–150. doi:10.1353/jod.2000.0058. ISSN 1045-5736. S2CID 153786108.
  19. ^ Steketee, Mike (31 October 2009). "Ten years after the referendum, we are no closer to a republic". The Australian. Retrieved 6 November 2009.
  20. ^ "Título X. De la reforma constitucional – Constitución Española".
  21. ^ "Why did Nepalese people abolish monarchy?". 13 June 2008.
  22. ^ "Nepal to Abolish Monarchy". NPR. 24 December 2007.
  23. ^ Faulconbridge, Guy; Ellsworth, Brian (30 November 2022). "Barbados ditches Britain's Queen Elizabeth to become a republic". Reuters.
  24. ^ "World | South Asia | Nepal votes to abolish monarchy". BBC News. 28 May 2008. Retrieved 21 July 2011.
  25. ^ "Nepali deputy PM asks district "king" to step down_English_Xinhua". 4 March 2009. Archived from the original on 4 March 2009. Retrieved 16 November 2022.