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Government of Nepal
नेपाल सरकार
Emblem of Nepal

Flag of Nepal
Government overview
JurisdictionFederal Democratic Republic of Nepal
HeadquartersSingha Durbar, Kathmandu
Minister responsible
Government executive
Websitenepal.gov.np

The Government of Nepal (Nepali: नेपाल सरकार) is the federal executive authority of Nepal. Prior to the abolition of the Nepali monarchy in 2006 (Nepal became a republic in 2008), it was officially known as His Majesty's Government.

The head of state is the president and the prime minister holds the position of the head of executive. The role of president is largely ceremonial as the functioning of the government is managed entirely by the prime minister, who is appointed by the Parliament. The heads of constitutional bodies are appointed by the president on the recommendation of Constitutional Council, with the exception of the attorney general, who is appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister.

History

Old Bharadari governmentship

The character of government in Kingdom of Nepal was driven from consultative state capacity of the previous Gorkha hill principality, known as Bharadar.[note 1][1] These Bharadars were not drawn from high caste and politically influential families. For instance; Thar Ghan aristocratic group in the earlier Gorkha hill principality. Bharadars formed a consultative body in the kingdom for the most important functions of the state as councillors, ministers and diplomats.[1] There was no one single successful coalition government as court politics were driven from large factional rivalries, consecutive conspiracies and ostracization of opponent Bharadar families through assassination rather than legal expulsion.[1] Another reason was the minority of the reigning King between 1777 and 1847 that led to establishment of anarchial rule.[2] The government was stated to have been controlled by regents, Mukhtiyars and alliance of political faction with strong fundamental support.[2] In the end of the 18th century, the central politics was regularly dominated by two notable political factions: Thapas and Pandes.[2] As per historians and contemporary writer Francis Hamilton, the government of Nepal[note 2] comprised

As for Regmi states, the government of Nepal comprised

In 1794, King Rana Bahadur Shah came of age and his first act was to re-constitute the government such that his uncle, Prince Bahadur Shah of Nepal, had no official part to play.[3][4] Rana Bahadur appointed Kirtiman Singh Basnyat as Chief (Mul) Kaji among the newly appointed four Kajis though Damodar Pande was the most influential Kaji.[4] Kirtiman had succeeded Abhiman Singh Basnyat as Chief Kaji[5] while Prince Bahadur Shah was succeeded as Chief (Mul) Chautariya by Prince Ranodyot Shah, then heir apparent of King Rana Bahadur Shah by a Chhetri Queen Subarna Prabha Devi.[4] Kajis had held the administrative and executive powers of nation after the fall of Chief Chautariya Prince Bahadur Shah in 1794. Later, Kirtiman Singh was secretly assassinated on 28 September 1801, by the supporters of Raj Rajeshwari Devi[6] and his brother Bakhtawar Singh Basnyat, was then given the post of Chief (Mul) Kaji.[7] Later Damodar Pande was appointed by Queen Rajrajeshwari as Chief Kaji.[8] When the exiled abdicated King Rana Bahadur Shah prepared his return in 1804, he arrested many government officials including then Chief Kaji Damodar Pande and sacked the reigning government. He took over the administration of Nepal by assuming the position of Mukhtiyar (chief authority).[9][10][11] A new government was constituted with favoring officials. Bhimsen Thapa was made a second kaji; Ranajit Pande, who was the father-in-law of Bhimsen's brother, was made the Mul (Chief) Kaji; Sher Bahadur Shah, Rana Bahadur's half-brother, was made the Mul (Chief) Chautariya; while Rangnath Paudel was made the Raj Guru (royal spiritual preceptor).[12][13] Later in April 1806, tensions arose between Chief Chautariya Sher Bahadur Shah and Mukhtiyar Rana Bahadur Shah on the night of 25 April 1806 during a meeting at Tribhuvan Khawas's house[14][15] where around 10 pm, Sher Bahadur in desperation drew a sword and killed Rana Bahadur Shah before being cut down by nearby courtiers, Bam Shah and Bal Narsingh Kunwar, also allies of Bhimsen.[16][17] The assassination of Rana Bahadur Shah triggered a great massacre in Bhandarkhal (a royal garden east of Kathmandu Durbar) and at the bank of Bishnumati river[18][19] after which Kaji Bhimsen killed 55 senior officials to benefit from the chaos.[20] He was declared Mukhtiyar (Chief Authority) of Nepal and led the new government from a royal mandate of minor King Girvan Yuddha Bikram Shah.[21]

Mukhtiyars ruled over the executive and administrative functions of the state until its replacement by British conventional prime minister in 1843 conferred upon then ruling Mukhtiyar Mathabar Singh Thapa.[22]

Ideals of the old Bharadari governmentship

The policies of the old Bharadari governments were derived from ancient Hindu texts as Dharmashastra and Manusmriti.[23] The King was considered as an incarnation of Lord Vishnu and was the chief authority over legislative, judiciary and executive functions.[23] The judiciary functions were decided on the principles of Hindu Dharma codes of conduct.[23] The king had full rights to expel any person who offended the country and also pardon the offenders and grant return to the country.[23] The government on practicality was not an absolute monarchy due to the dominance of Nepalese political clans making the Shah monarch a puppet ruler.[23] These basic Hindu templates provide the evidence that Nepal was administered as a Hindu state.

Structure

Main articles: President of Nepal, Vice President of Nepal, Council of Ministers of Nepal, and Federal Parliament of Nepal

Head of State

Executive

Legislative

Judiciary

Government agencies in Nepal

Ministries

Current cabinet : Dahal cabinet, 2022
Date of formation
: 26 December 2022[26]

S.N. Ministry Minister responsible Website
English Nepali
1 Office of the Prime Minister and Council of Ministers प्रधानमन्त्री तथा मन्त्रिपरिषद्को कार्यालय Pushpa Kamal Dahal Official website
2 Ministry of Defence उप-प्रधान एवं रक्षा मन्त्रालय Purna Bahadur Khadka Official website
3 Ministry of Home Affairs उप- प्रधान एवं गृह मन्त्रालय Rabi Lamichhane Official website
4 Ministry of Finance अर्थ मन्त्रालय BarsamanPun (Magar) Official website
5 Ministry of Health and Population स्वास्थ्य तथा जनसङ्ख्या मन्त्रालय Mohan Bahadur Basnet Official website
6 Ministry of Physical Infrastructure and Transportation भौतिक पूर्वाधार तथा यातायात मन्त्रालय Prakash Jwala Official website
7 Ministry of Information and Communications सञ्‍चार तथा सूचना प्रविधि मन्त्रालय Rekha Sharma Official website Archived 2023-04-13 at the Wayback Machine
8 Ministry of Urban Development सहरी विकास मन्त्रालय Sita Gurung Official website
9 Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock Development कृषि तथा पशुपंक्षी विकास मन्त्रालय Dr. Beduram Bhusal Official website
10 Ministry of Industry, Commerce and Supplies उद्योग, वाणिज्य तथा आपूर्ति मन्त्रालय Ramesh Rijal Official website
11 Ministry of Land Management, Cooperatives and Poverty Alleviation भूमि व्यवस्था, सहकारी तथा गरिबी निवारण मन्त्रालय Ranjita Shrestha Official website
12 Ministry of Water Supply खानेपानी मन्त्रालय Mahendra Raya Yadav Official website Archived 2023-01-17 at the Wayback Machine
13 Ministry of Foreign Affairs परराष्ट्र मन्त्रालय Narayan kaji shreshtha Official website
14 Ministry of Women, Children and Senior Citizen महिला, बालबालिका तथा ज्येष्ठ नागरिक मन्त्रालय Surendra Raj Acharya Official website
15 Ministry of Energy, Water Resources and Irrigatio उर्जा, जलश्रोत तथा सिँचाइ मन्त्रालय Sakti Bahadur Basnet Official website
16 Ministry of Culture, Tourism and Civil Aviation संस्कृति, पर्यटन तथा नागरिक उड्डयन मन्त्रालय Hit Bahadur Tamang Official website
17 Ministry of Federal Affairs and General Administration सङ्घीय मामिला तथा सामान्य प्रशासन मन्त्रालय Anita Devi Official website
18 Ministry of Law, Justice and Parliamentary Affairs कानुन, न्याय तथा संसदीय मामिला मन्त्रालय Dhanraj Gurung Official website
19 Ministry of Forests and Environment वन तथा वातावरण मन्त्रालय Birendra Prasad Mahatho Official website
20 Ministry of Youth and Sports युवा तथा खेलकुद मन्त्रालय Dig Bahadur Limbu Official website
21 Ministry of Education, Science and Technology शिक्षा, विज्ञान तथा प्रविधि मन्त्रालय Sumana Shrestha Official website
22 Ministry of Labour, Employment and Social Security श्रम, रोजगार तथा सामाजिक सुरक्षा मन्त्रालय Sarad Singh Bhandari Official website

Constitutional bodies

Constitutional body Head of constitutional body
Position/Title Name
Commission for the Investigation of Abuse of Authority Chief Commissioner Prem Kumar Rai
Office of The Attorney General Attorney General Dinmani Pokharel
Office of the Auditor General Auditor General Tanka Mani Sharma (Dangal)
Election Commission Chief Election Commission Dinesh Thapaliya
Public Service Commission Chairman Madhav Prasad Regmi
National Women Commission Chairperson Kamala Kumari Parajuli
National Human Rights Commission Chairman Top Bahadur Magar
National Natural Resources and Fiscal Commission Chairman Balananda Poudel

Security services

Security Service Head of agency
Position/Title Current Head
Nepal Army Chief of Army Staff (प्रधान सेनापति) Gen. Prabhu Ram Sharma
Nepal Police Inspector General (प्रहरी महानिरीक्षक) Basanta Bahadur Kunwar
Armed Police Force Inspector General (सशस्त्र प्रहरी महानिरीक्षक) Raju Aryal
National Investigation Department Chief Investigation Director Hutaraj Thapa

International organisation participation

United Nations, UNDP Nepal, SAARC, ESCAP, FAO, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IMF, IMO, Interpol, UNCTAD, UNESCO, WHO, WTO.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Bharadar translates as 'bearers of burden of state'.
  2. ^ Here the government of Nepal can simply be called Bharadari Sabha or Council of Bharadars.

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g Pradhan 2012, p. 8.
  2. ^ a b c Pradhan 2012, p. 9.
  3. ^ Acharya 2012, p. 14.
  4. ^ a b c Pradhan 2012, p. 12.
  5. ^ Karmacharya 2005, p. 56.
  6. ^ Acharya 2012, p. 34.
  7. ^ Acharya 2012, p. 35.
  8. ^ Pradhan 2012, p. 14.
  9. ^ Acharya 2012, p. 54.
  10. ^ Nepal 2007, p. 57.
  11. ^ Pradhan 2012, p. 15.
  12. ^ Nepal 2007, p. 58.
  13. ^ Acharya 2012, p. 55.
  14. ^ Acharya 2012, pp. 64–66.
  15. ^ Nepal 2007, p. 62.
  16. ^ Acharya 2012, p. 67.
  17. ^ Nepal 2007, pp. 62–63.
  18. ^ Acharya 2012, pp. 68–71.
  19. ^ Nepal 2007, pp. 63–64.
  20. ^ Pradhan 2012, p. 16.
  21. ^ Acharya 2012, p. 71.
  22. ^ Kandel, Devi Prasad (2011). Pre-Rana Administrative System. Chitwan: Siddhababa Offset Press. p. 95.
  23. ^ a b c d e Pradhan 2012, p. 7.
  24. ^ "Ghimire elected Speaker of the House of Representatives". The Kathmandu Post. January 19, 2023. Archived from the original on Jan 22, 2023. Retrieved 2023-02-11.
  25. ^ "Timilsina officially elected as NA chairperson". The Kathmandu Post. Mar 14, 2018. Archived from the original on Jul 30, 2018. Retrieved 9 September 2018.
  26. ^ "Dahal sworn in as prime minister". The Kathmandu Post. Dec 26, 2022. Retrieved 26 December 2022.

Works cited