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Government of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam

Chính phủ nước Cộng hoà Xã hội chủ nghĩa Việt Nam
Polity typeUnitary one-party socialist republic
ConstitutionConstitution of Vietnam (2013)
Formation2 September 1945; 78 years ago (1945-09-02) (original)
2 July 1976; 47 years ago (1976-07-02) (current form)
Legislative branch
NameNational Assembly
TypeUnicameral
Meeting placeNational Assembly Building (Dien Hong Hall) at Ba Đình District, Hanoi
Presiding officerChairperson of the National Assembly
Executive branch
Supreme leader
TitleGeneral Secretary
CurrentlyNguyễn Phú Trọng
AppointerCentral Committee
Head of State
TitlePresident
AppointerNational Assembly
Head of Government
TitlePrime Minister
AppointerNational Assembly
Cabinet
NameGovernment
AppointerPrime Minister
HeadquartersGovernment Office at Ba Đình District, Hanoi
Judicial branch
Supreme People's Court
SeatSupreme People's Court at Hoàn Kiếm District, Hanoi

The Government of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (Vietnamese: Chính phủ nước Cộng hoà xã hội chủ nghĩa Việt Nam; less formally the Vietnamese Government or the Government of Vietnam, Vietnamese: Chính phủ Việt Nam) is the executive branch and body of the state administration of Vietnam (nhà nước). The members of the Government are appointed by the president of Vietnam on the advice of the prime minister of Vietnam and approved by the National Assembly. The government is led by the Communist Party of Vietnam (CPV), which is headed by the CPV general secretary, often seen as the highest political post in Vietnam.

Names

After the establishment of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam on 2 September 1945, based on the 1946 Constitution, the executive branch was called the Government (Chính phủ). The Government was headed by the president, which was the second highest position in Vietnam. Under the president was the Cabinet, which was headed by the prime minister (Thủ tướng).

From 1959 to 1980, based on the 1959 Constitution, the executive branch was named as the Council of Government (Hội đồng Chính phủ). The Council of Government was headed by the prime minister.

From 1980 to 1992, based on the 1980 Constitution, the executive branch was called the Council of Ministers (Hội đồng Bộ trưởng). The Council of Ministers was headed by the chairman (equivalent to the prime minister).

From 1992 onwards, based on the 1992 Constitution the executive branch was renamed as the Government (Chính phủ). The Government is headed by the prime minister.

History

Council of Ministers (1980–1992)

The Vietnamese Council of Ministers (Hội đồng Bộ trưởng) was entrusted by the 1980 Constitution with managing and implementing the governmental activities of the state.[1] It is described in that document as "the Government of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, the highest executive state body of the highest body of state authority." It is accountable to the National Assembly of Vietnam, and, more directly, to the Vietnamese Council of State when the National Assembly is not in session. Its duties include submitting draft laws, decrees, and other bills to the National Assembly and the Council of State; drafting state plans and budgets and implementing them following the National Assembly's approval; managing the development of the national economy; organising national defence activities and assuring the preparedness of the armed forces; and organising and managing the state's foreign relations. Its membership includes a chairman, vice-chairman, cabinet ministers, and the heads of state committees, whose terms of office coincide with that of the National Assembly. The Council of Ministers includes its own standing committee, which serves to co-ordinate and mobilise the council's activities. In 1986 the standing committee was expanded from ten to thirteen members.

Each ministry is headed by a minister, who is assisted by two to twelve deputy ministers. The number and functions of the ministries are not prescribed in the Constitution, but in 1987 there were twenty-three ministries and a number of other specialised commissions and departments. In an apparent response to the call by the Sixth National Party Congress in 1986 for a streamlined bureaucracy, several ministries were merged. The former ministries of agriculture, food, and food industry were joined in a newly created Ministry of Agriculture and Food Industry. The ministries of power and mines were merged to form the Ministry of Energy, and a newly created Ministry of Labour, War Invalids, and Social Welfare consolidated the duties of three former ministries. The addition of two new ministerial bodies also resulted from the 6th National Party Congress: a Ministry of Information to replace the Vietnam Radio and Television Commission, and a mission for Economic Relations with Foreign Countries to act as a co-ordinating body for foreign aid.

Government (since 1992)

Since 1992 the executive branch of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam is officially named the Government (Chính phủ). The current Government of Vietnam consists of 18 ministries, 4 ministry-level agencies and 8 other government-dependent agencies.

Composition

The Government is headed by a prime minister (Thủ tướng) and four deputy prime ministers (Phó Thủ tướng).

There are 18 ministries (Bộ); each is headed by a minister (Bộ trưởng):[2]

Four ministry-level agencies:[3]

Eight other government-dependent agencies:[4]

In addition, the Government of Vietnam also establishes many national committees (Ủy ban Quốc gia) when needed. The national committees are not separate political entities or ministries; instead they are composed of deputy prime ministers, ministers and deputy ministers in appropriate fields. The national committees act as advisor bodies to the prime minister on social and economic issues, and coordinate actions between many ministries and agencies. Therefore, the national committees do not have any executive powers. Currently there are nine national committees;[5] each is headed by a chairman (Chủ tịch):

Current government

Incumbent Prime Minister Phạm Minh Chính, who had replaced Nguyễn Xuân Phúc as prime minister since 5 April 2021, was re-elected on 26 July 2021 following a 484–0 vote by the National Assembly.[6]

After taking the oath of office on the same day, Chính nominated 26 people to serve in his Cabinet, including 4 deputy prime ministers (1 less than the previous term), 18 ministers, and 4 heads of ministerial-level agencies. The lineup was approved by the National Assembly on 28 July 2021. Cabinet members are expected to serve a five-year renewable term ending before the 2026 election.[7][8]

Position Portrait Name Member of Central Executive Committee of the Communist Party Politburo
of the Communist Party
Member Rank

Prime Minister
Phạm Minh Chính Yes Yes 3rd
Permanent Deputy Prime Minister Trần Lưu Quang Yes No
Deputy Prime Minister
for General Economics
Lê Minh Khái Yes No
Deputy Prime Minister
for Science, Education, Culture and Social Affairs
Trần Hồng Hà Yes No
Deputy Prime Minister
for Industry Economics
Lê Văn Thành Yes No

Minister of Defence
Phan Văn Giang Yes Yes 12th

Minister of Public Security
Tô Lâm Yes Yes 9th
Minister of Home Affairs Phạm Thị Thanh Trà Yes No

Minister of Foreign Affairs
Bùi Thanh Sơn Yes No

Minister of Justice
Lê Thành Long Yes No

Minister of Planning and Investment
Nguyễn Chí Dũng Yes No
Minister of Finance Hồ Đức Phớc Yes No
Minister of Industry and Trade Nguyễn Hồng Diên Yes No
Minister of Agriculture and Rural Development Lê Minh Hoan Yes No
Minister of Transport Nguyễn Văn Thắng Yes No
Minister of Construction Nguyễn Thanh Nghị Yes No
Minister of Natural Resources and Environment Đặng Quốc Khánh Yes No
Minister of Information and Communications Nguyễn Mạnh Hùng Yes No
Minister of Labour, Invalids and Social Affairs Đào Ngọc Dung Yes No
Minister of Culture, Sports and Tourism Nguyễn Văn Hùng Yes No
Minister of Science and Technology Huỳnh Thành Đạt Yes No
Minister of Education and Training Nguyễn Kim Sơn Yes No

Minister of Health
Nguyễn Thanh Long
(until 7 June 2022)
Yes No
Đỗ Xuân Tuyên
(from 7 June 2022 to 15 July 2022)
Yes No
Đào Hồng Lan (since 15 July 2022) Yes No

Minister, Chairman of the Government Office
Trần Văn Sơn Yes No
Minister, Chairman of the Committee for Ethnic Minority Affairs Hầu A Lềnh Yes No
Inspector-General of the Government Đoàn Hồng Phong Yes No

Governor of the State Bank of Vietnam
Nguyễn Thị Hồng Yes No

The heads of other government-dependent agencies are appointed by the Prime Minister without approval by the National Assembly. Usually there is no term limit on the leaders of those agencies. The current heads of the government-dependent agencies are:

References

  1. ^ "Vietnam – Government and society". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 5 January 2021.
  2. ^ "Cổng Thông tin điện tử Chính phủ".
  3. ^ "Bàn về cơ cấu tổ chức Chính phủ nhiệm kỳ 2021–2026".
  4. ^ "Bàn về cơ cấu tổ chức Chính phủ nhiệm kỳ 2021–2026".
  5. ^ "Cổng Thông tin điện tử Chính phủ".
  6. ^ "Pham Minh Chinh re-elected as Vietnamese prime minister for 2021–26". Tuoi Tre News. 26 July 2021. Retrieved 28 July 2021.
  7. ^ Huong Giang (28 July 2021). "National Assembly confirms Cabinet nominations". VGP News. Retrieved 28 July 2021.
  8. ^ "NA agrees to reduce one deputy prime minister in 2021–2026 term". VOV World. 28 July 2021. Retrieved 28 July 2021.