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Elections in the Socialist Republic of Vietnam occur under a one-party political system led by the Communist Party of Vietnam (CPV). Direct elections occurred at both the local and national levels to elect members of the People's Councils and the National Assembly, with all candidate nominations pre-approved by the CPV-led Vietnamese Fatherland Front.[1] Elections serve the purposes of information acquisition and cooptation rather than popularity contest but still remain of significance to the political life and legitimacy of the Vietnamese party-state.[2]


The President of Vietnam (Chủ tịch nước) is elected by the National Assembly. The Prime Minister of Vietnam (Thủ tướng) and Chief Justice (Chánh án Tối cao) of Vietnam are appointed by the president and approved by the national Assembly. The ministers are then appointed by the prime Minister and also approved by the national Assembly.[3]

In the May 20th 2007 election, the Vietnamese Fatherland Front, consisting of the Communist Party of Vietnam, participated alongside affiliated groups and organizations; The 875 candidates for 500 seats included 150 who are not Communist Party members, but have party approval to run. Thirty candidates were allowed to enter on their own, their nominations approved by colleagues and neighbors.[4][5][6] In March 2023, the National Assembly elected Võ Văn Thưởng as the country's president, which is a mostly ceremonial role.[7]

Electoral system

The deputies of the National Assembly are elected using a block voting system from multi-member electoral units.[8][9] The National Election Council is the authority which puts rules and guidelines into effect, as well as overseeing general elections in the country.[10] The nomination process is controlled by the Vietnam Fatherland Front, who holds consultative conferences to narrow down a field of candidates for election. The selection process takes into account factors such as proportional representation from the major regions of the country, gender balance, and the inclusion of ethnic minorities as well as representation of mass organizations.[10][11] Generally, 90% of seats are directly reserved for the Communist Party of Vietnam, with the remaining 10% reserved for non-party members approved by the Fatherland Front.[10]

Local election

The people's Council (Hội đồng Nhân dân) is the local legislature of provinces and municipalities of Vietnam. The people's councils represent the local authority of the state and are the top supervisory bodies at each level. They do not govern directly but instead elect and oversee people's committees that act as executive bodies and carry out local administrative duties;[12] council members are elected via a direct system for a five-year term. The number of representatives depends on the population of that province or municipality. One councilor is elected chairman.

The People's Council elects the People's Committee (Ủy ban Nhân dân,) the executive power. The People's Committee consists of a Chairman and a number of commissioners.

The Judge of the People's Court (Tòa án Nhân dân) of each province or municipality is appointed by the Chief Justice of the Supreme People's Court of Vietnam.[13]

Latest elections

Legislative election

Main article: 2021 Vietnamese legislative election

Communist Party of Vietnam485+10
Non-party members14–5
Total votes69,243,604
Registered voters/turnout69,523,13399.60
Source: National Election Council, Vietnamplus

See also


  1. ^ "Vietnam Goes to The Polls With State-Approved Candidates Offering Little Choice". Radio Free Asia. Retrieved 2023-11-28.
  2. ^ Bui, Thiem (22 May 2014). "Elections in a Communist Party Regime: Vietnam's Electoral Integrity Reforms and Challenges". The Australian Political Studies Association Annual Conference, University of Sydney.
  3. ^ "National Elections in Vietnam". Hans Seidel Stiftung. May 21, 2021.
  4. ^ "Vietnam elects National Assembly in new trade era". Reuters. May 19, 2007.
  5. ^ "Vietnam elections plagued by biased vetting, intimidation". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 20 May 2016.
  6. ^ Bui, Thiem (2014). "Elections in a Communist Party Regime: Vietnam's Electoral Integrity Reforms and Challenges". SSRN Electronic Journal. doi:10.2139/ssrn.2440088. ISSN 1556-5068. S2CID 152364538.
  7. ^ "Vietnam parliament elects Vo Van Thuong as new state president". Reuters. March 1, 2023.
  8. ^ "Two How Elections Work in Vietnam". United Front. 2021. pp. 49–66. doi:10.1515/9781503614758-005. ISBN 9781503614758. S2CID 240967678.
  9. ^ University, © Stanford; Stanford; California 94305. "A Balance of Power: The Role of Vietnam's Electoral and Legislative Institutions". Retrieved 2022-07-10.((cite web)): CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  10. ^ a b c "National Elections in Vietnam". Hanns-Seidel-Stiftung Foundation. Retrieved 26 August 2022.
  11. ^ "ON ELECTION OF THE DEPUTIES TO THE NATIONAL ASSEMBLY". ace project - the electoral knowledge network. April 15, 1997.
  12. ^ "Government Structure - The National Assembly". Country Studies.Public Domain This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  13. ^ "Chief justice". The Supreme People’s Court of The Socialist Republic of Vietnam.