National Emblem of the Socialist Republic of Viet Nam
ArmigerSocialist Republic of Vietnam
Adopted30 November 1955
2 July 1976
MottoCộng hòa Xã hội chủ nghĩa Việt Nam
("Socialist Republic of Vietnam")
Order(s)Cog and crops

The emblem of Vietnam (Vietnamese: Quốc huy Việt Nam) is circular, has a red background and a yellow star in the middle which represent the five main classes in Vietnamese society—intellectuals, farmers, workers, business people and military personnel; the revolutionary history and bright future of Vietnam. The cog and crops represent the cooperation of agriculture and industrial labor.[1]

According to the Constitution of Vietnam:

The National Emblem is circular in shape; in the middle of a red background is a fivepointed gold star framed by rice ears below which is half a cog wheel and the inscription "Socialist Republic of Vietnam".

— Constitution of Vietnam, Chapter I, Article 13, Section 2.[2]

History

The Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam) adopted its emblem on 30 November 1955.[citation needed] The coat of arms was designed by artist Bùi Trang Chước and was edited by artist Trần Văn Cẩn.[3][4] Usage went nationwide following reunification with South Vietnam on 2 July 1976.[5]

The coat of arms of the State of Vietnam (South Vietnam) featured a blue dragon on an escutcheon (shield) of yellow and red stripes of the imperial Nguyễn dynasty, this was the first coat of arms of Vietnam as it would use several in its history.[6]

The design closely resembles the emblem of the People's Republic of China and the entire emblem is based on the coat of arms of the Soviet Union. In 2007 a representative of the National Assembly of Vietnam, the artist Trần Khánh Chương, commented that the printing process of Vietnam's national emblems featured too many errors and problems,[7] resulting in many inaccurate "versions". Notable errors included: the rice corn is too big (just like the wheat corn), the gear only has 6 teeth instead of 10, the circles inside the gear are not accurate, and the space between the rice corn appears uneven.[8]

List

Historical heraldry
Symbol Use Duration Description
Ancient period
Bronze drum of Văn Lang (Đông Sơn culture), attributed to the mythical Hồng Bàng dynasty. 600 BCE or earlier–258 BCE The patterns on the Đông Sơn drums bear a realistic style and show stilted houses, dancing people, people pounding rice, beating drums, and sailing, together with animals and birds. The scenes depict daily life of ancient Việt and reflect the contemporary artistic talent and mind.[a]
Imperial seal of Emperor Văn of Nam Việt. 137 BCE–124 BCE The inscription Văn đế hành tỉ (文帝行璽) written in seal script.
Imperial Vietnam
Seal of the Nguyễn lords, later imperial seal of the Nguyễn dynasty. 1709—1777, 1780—1802
(Nguyễn lords)
1802—1846
(Nguyễn dynasty)[9]
The inscription Đại Việt quốc Nguyễn Chúa vĩnh trấn chi bảo (大越國阮𪐴永鎮之寶, "Seal of the eternal government of the Nguyễn Lords of the Kingdom of Great(er) Viêt") written in seal script.[9][10]
Imperial seal of the Tây Sơn dynasty. The inscription Triều đường chi ấn (朝堂之印 "Seal of the Court") written in seal script.
Imperial seal of the Nguyễn dynasty. 1846—1945 The inscription Đại Nam thụ thiên vĩnh mệnh truyền quốc tỷ (大南受天永命傳國璽, "The Great South has the eternal Mandate of Heaven, jade seal for the transmission of the legacy of the Empire") written in seal script.[9][11]
Colonial Vietnam
Seal of French Cochinchina and later French Indochina.[12] 1879–1954 The Great Seal of France with minor localisations. On the colonial seal a sheaf of rice replaces the traditional French symbols for agriculture (a sheaf of wheat), the arts (painter's tools), and science (burning lamp). On the right side of the seal the branches of oak were replaced by an anchor,[b] and the removal of the Gallic cock on the rudder. Furthermore, and of symbolic importance, the urn symbolising universal suffrage on the French Great Seal was omitted from the colonial seal.
Influences:
Coat of arms of French Cochinchina.[13] A blazon shield with many blue triangles, resembling a serrated ribbon typically found on Imperial Chinese and Vietnamese flags, surrounding a black interior.
Influences:
Great seal of the viceroy of the French protectorate of Tonkin.[14] 1886–1897
Coat of arms of the French protectorate of Annam.[15] A sword per fess charged with the ramparts of the Purple Forbidden City in Huế, inscribed with two Traditional Chinese characters (大南) and supported by a single Vietnamese dragon.
Variant coat of arms of the French protectorate of Annam. A golden five-clawed dragon positioned affronté.
Personal coat of arms of Emperor Bảo Đại.[16] A sword per fess charged with the ramparts of the Purple Forbidden City in Huế, inscribed with two Traditional Chinese characters (保大) and supported by a single Vietnamese dragon.
Influences:
Emblem of the Government-General of French Indochina. The letters GGI standing for "Gouvernement général de l'Indochine".
The Vietnamese-style seal of the Government-General of French Indochina. The inscription Đại Pháp Quốc Khâm mệnh Tổng thống Đông Dương Toàn quyền đại thần quan nho (大法國欽命總統東洋全權大臣關伩) written in seal script.
North Vietnam
Emblem of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam. 30 November 1955 – 2 July 1976 Circular in shape; in the middle of a red background is a five-pointed gold star framed by rice ears below which is half a cog wheel and the inscription "Việt Nam Dân chủ Cộng hòa" (Democratic Republic of Vietnam).
Autonomous Republic of Cochinchina
Coat of arms of the Autonomous Republic of Cochinchina.[citation needed] 1946–1948 Or, a pale Azure charged with two pallets Argent.
Provisional Central Government of Vietnam
Coat of arms of the Provisional Central Government of Vietnam.[17] 1948–1949 The pale and pallets of the South Vietnamese flag (Cờ vàng ba sọc đỏ), arranged vertically in an escutcheon.
State of Vietnam
The seal of the chief of state of Vietnam, Bảo Đại 1949–1954 A seal with the inscription "Quốc-gia Việt-Nam - Đức Bảo Đại - Quốc-trưởng" written in Latin script and "保大國長" (top-to-bottom, right-to-left) in seal script.
Coat of arms of the State of Vietnam. 1954 – 26 October 1955 The pale and pallets of the South Vietnamese flag (Cờ vàng ba sọc đỏ), arranged vertically in an escutcheon and charged with a blue Vietnamese dragon passant.[6]
Influences:
Variant coat of arms of the State of Vietnam as it appeared on its passports (image). This passport design was used by South Vietnam as late as 1957.[18] 1954 – 26 October 1955 The pale and pallets of the South Vietnamese flag (Cờ vàng ba sọc đỏ), arranged vertically in an escutcheon and charged with a blue Vietnamese dragon passant.[6]
Influences:
Variant coat of arms of the State of Vietnam. 1954 – 26 October 1955 The pale and pallets of the South Vietnamese flag (Cờ vàng ba sọc đỏ), arranged vertically in an escutcheon and charged with a blue Vietnamese dragon passant.[6]
Influences:
South Vietnam
First Republic of Vietnam
Seal of South Vietnam. 26 October 1955 – 1957 Bushes of bamboo growing on a hill.[6]
Coat of arms of South Vietnam.[19] 1957 – 1 November 1963 Bushes of bamboo and a scroll with the inscription "VIỆT-NAM", encompassing a paint brush and a sword. A coloured version of this coat of arms shows the background yellow, the bamboo green and the bordure red.[6]
Escutcheon of South Vietnam.[20] 1957 – 1 November 1963 Bushes of bamboo and a scroll with the inscription "VIỆT-NAM CỘNG-HÒA", encompassing a paint brush and a sword. A coloured version of this coat of arms shows the background yellow, the bamboo green and the bordure red.[6]
Influences:
Variant coat of arms of South Vietnam used on its passports (image).[c] Bushes of bamboo growing on a hill in an escutcheon with the text "Việt-Nam Cộng-Hòa" inscribed in a scroll above the bamboo and the text also appearing below the bamboo.
Influences:
and
Second Republic of Vietnam
Escutcheon of South Vietnam.[d] 1 November 1963 – 30 April 1975 The pale and pallets of the South Vietnamese flag (Cờ vàng ba sọc đỏ), arranged vertically in an escutcheon.
Influences:
Coat of arms of South Vietnam as it appeared on the presidential seal that was used between 1967 and 1975 (image). 1967 – 30 April 1975 The pale and pallets of the South Vietnamese flag (Cờ vàng ba sọc đỏ), arranged vertically in an escutcheon supported by two dragons.
Influences:
Variant coat of arms of South Vietnam. 1967 – 30 April 1975 The pale and pallets of the South Vietnamese flag (Cờ vàng ba sọc đỏ), arranged vertically in an escutcheon supported by two golden dragons.
Influences:
Việt Cộng and the Republic of South Vietnam
Emblem of the National Liberation Front of Southern Vietnam (NLF). A disc of the colours of the flag (red and blue), the five-pointed star surrounded by ears of rice and a cogwheel in base.
Influences:
Achievement of the National Liberation Front of Southern Vietnam (NLF). An achievement of the Việt Cộng consisted of a disc of the colours of the flag (red and blue), the five-pointed star surrounded by ears of rice and a cogwheel in base. The disc was supported by six Việt Cộng flags, with three flags on each side.
Influences:
Emblem of the Provisional Revolutionary Government of the Republic of South Vietnam. 30 April 1975 – 2 July 1976 Circular in shape; in the middle of a red background is a map of Vietnam (both North and South) framed by rice ears and the inscription "Cộng hòa Miền Nam Việt Nam" (Republic of South Vietnam).
Influences:
Socialist Republic of Vietnam
Emblem of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam. 2 July 1976 – present Circular in shape; in the middle of a red background is a five-pointed gold star framed by rice ears below which is half a cog wheel and the inscription "Cộng hòa Xã hội chủ nghĩa Việt Nam" (Socialist Republic of Vietnam).
Influences:
and
Other
Seal of Trấn Tây Thành, the Nguyễn dynasty occupation of Cambodia. 1838 The inscription Trấn Tây tướng quân chi ấn (鎭西將軍之印, "Seal of the general of Trấn Tây") written in seal script.
Coat of arms of the Kingdom of Sedang. 1888–1890
Seal of the Tai Principality under Nguyễn dynasty and French rule. 1889–1945
Arms of Sip Song Chau Tai. 1948–1955
Coat of arms of the Domain of the Crown. 1950–1955 A dragon surrounded by clouds.
Coat of arms of the Nùng Autonomous Territory. 1950s A shield depicting a black junk boat sailing on water. The background is coloured green and red and depicts the golden Chinese characters Trung Hiếu (忠孝, "loyalty", "Filial piety").

See also

Notes

  1. ^ The Đông Sơn drums were used as musical instruments in festivals, such as prayers for rain, for good harvest and rituals, such as weddings and funerals, as well as to command in an army. They were also used as funerary objects and as symbols of power of tribal leaders.
  2. ^ The anchor symbolises the fact that colony of French Cochinchina was initially under the supervision of the Ministry of the Navy and the Colonies.
  3. ^ Continued to be used during the Second Republic period.
  4. ^ Also used in military insignia during the Second Republic period.

References

  1. ^ "QUỐC HUY NƯỚC CỘNG HOÀ XÃ HỘI CHỦ NGHĨA VIỆT NAM" (in Vietnamese). Archived from the original on 7 June 2014. Retrieved 6 September 2010.
  2. ^ https://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/ELECTRONIC/94490/114946/F114201808/VNM94490%20Eng.pdf
  3. ^ "越南国徽设计诞生记". 越南画报 (in Chinese). 14 October 2020.
  4. ^ "越南国徽诞生背后故事". 越通社 (in Chinese). 31 August 2020.
  5. ^ "Mẫu Quốc huy là của HS Bùi Trang Chước và Trần Văn Cẩn". báo Tuổi trẻ (in Vietnamese). 29 September 2004. Archived from the original on 24 August 2011.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g Otto Neubecker (1969) "Neue und veränderte Staatswappen seit 1945 IIa. Die Wappen der Staaten Asiens" (Fortsetzung, Schluß und Nachtrag). Kleeblatt-Jahrbuch 1968/69, p. 37-75. (in German)
  7. ^ "Biểu tượng Quốc huy—In quá tùy tiện" (The national emblem is printed too carelessly), newspaper Thể thao & Văn hóa (newspaper) [vi], No. 36, 24 March 2007, p. 37
  8. ^ Sai trên Quốc huy: Lúa nếp thành lúa mì! (Errors in the National Emblem: Rices become wheat !) (in Vietnamese)
  9. ^ a b c Đại Nam thực lục, Quote: "The year Can Thìn, 1st year of the reign of Minh Mang (1820), February, auspicious day, the emperor put the seal in his box and sealed it with his own hands". It was not until 1837 (22nd day of the 12th lunar month in the 18th year of Minh Mang) that the emperor, with great fanfare, opened the box and showed the seal to the court before sealing it in ink. red and store it in the Can Thanh Palace. The use of the seal Đại Việt quốc Nguyễn Chúa vĩnh trấn chi bảo was replaced by the jade one Đại Nam thụ thiên vĩnh mệnh truyền quốc tỷ 大南受天永命傳國璽 ("Eternal Mandate of Heaven, transmission of the legacy of the Empire”) sculpted in 1846 during the reign of Emperor Thiệu Trị (1841-1847)."
  10. ^ VietNamNet Bridge (10 February 2016). "No royal seal left in Hue today. VietNamNet Bridge – It is a great regret that none of more than 100 seals of the Nguyen emperors are in Hue City today". VietNam Breaking News. Retrieved 8 March 2021.
  11. ^ TS. Nguyễn Đình Chiến (24 January 2018). "Bảo vật Quốc gia: Ấn ngọc Đại Nam thụ thiên vĩnh mệnh truyền quốc tỷ" (in Vietnamese). BẢO TÀNG LỊCH SỬ QUỐC GIA (VIETNAM NATIONAL MUSEUM OF HISTORY). Retrieved 8 March 2021.
  12. ^ Lecompte, Jean - Monnaies et jetons de l'Indochine Française. (Principality of Monaco, 2013) Quote: "Les légendes sont bien sûr modifiées. A gauche, les attributs de l'agriculture et des beaux-arts sont remplacés par des épis de riz et à droite figure une ancre symbolisant le ministère de la Marine et des Colonies. Hélas, Albert-Désiré Barre décède le 29 décembre 1878 et c'est alors son frère aîné Auguste-Jean Barre qui lui succède et mène à terme le projet. Les premières frappes sortent en 1879." (in French)
  13. ^ Paris, Delagrave, v. - Album Artistique de la France & de ses Colonies (1900) § Cochinchine-Algérie-Colonies orientales. (in French).
  14. ^ Government-General of French Indochina - Bulletin officiel de l'Annam et du Tonkin - Issue of July 1891, page 601. Published in Saigon, Cochinchina. (in French).
  15. ^ Hymnes et pavillons d'Indochine. Gallica (Bibliothèque nationale de France). (in French). 1941. Retrieved 9 March 2021.
  16. ^ Bảo Đại, S.M. Bao Daï, Le Dragon d'Annam (1980). Publisher: Plon. Cover page (in French).
  17. ^ Histoire et Philatélie, témoin de l'Histoire de France 1940-1981. L'Indochine Française dans la Tourmente 1939-1955+ - À LA RECHERCHE D'UN GOUVERNEMENT - PRO-OCCIDENTAL - mars 1947-octobre 1948 (Page 2/2 : mai - octobre 1948). Author: Jean Goanvic. Access date: 19 April 2021. (in French).
  18. ^ Passport-collector.com - Tom Topol - Passport History Expert & Author - State of Vietnam – Passport 1957 - Not often a collector can find such a true passport historical treasure. A red passport issued by the State of Vietnam in 1957. It is not exaggerated when I say this travel document is extremely rare. Author: Tom Topol. Published: 29 August, 2019 Last modified: 26 January, 2020. Access date: 15 December 2021.
  19. ^ The Military Assistance Institute. "Country Study and Station Report: Republic of Vietnam" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 August 2016. Retrieved 7 August 2019.
  20. ^ CHÍNH NGHĨA DÂN TỘC (National Justice) - QUỐC HUY VIỆT NAM CỘNG HOÀ. Published: 17 November 2015. Author: HOANGKYBAY. (in Vietnamese). Image of the escutcheon.