History of Vietnam
(by names of Vietnam)
Map of Vietnam showing the conquest of the south (the Nam tiến, 1069-1757).
~2879–2524 BC Xích Quỷ (mythological)
~2524–258 BC Văn Lang
257–179 BC Âu Lạc
204–111 BC Nam Việt
111 BC – 40 AD Giao Chỉ
40–43 Lĩnh Nam
43–299 Giao Chỉ
299–544 Giao Châu
544–602 Vạn Xuân
602–679 Giao Châu
679–757 An Nam
757–766 Trấn Nam
766–866 An Nam
866–968 Tĩnh Hải quân
968–1054 Đại Cồ Việt
1054–1400 Đại Việt
1400–1407 Đại Ngu
1407–1427 Giao Chỉ
1428–1804 Đại Việt
1804–1839 Việt Nam
1839–1945 Đại Nam
1887–1954 Đông Dương
1945– Việt Nam
Main template
History of Vietnam

Throughout the history of Vietnam, many names were used in reference to Vietnam.


The endonym Vietnam was supposedly coined by 16th century poet Nguyễn Bỉnh Khiêm.

Throughout the history of Vietnam, official and unofficial names have been used in reference to the territory of Vietnam. Vietnam was called Văn Lang during the Hồng Bàng dynasty, Âu Lạc under Thục dynasty, Nam Việt during the Triệu dynasty, Vạn Xuân during the Early Lý dynasty, Đại Cồ Việt during the Đinh dynasty and Early Lê dynasty. Starting in 1054, Vietnam was called Đại Việt (Great Việt).[1] During the Hồ dynasty, Vietnam was called Đại Ngu.[2]

Việt Nam (listen in Vietnamese) is a variation of Nam Việt (Southern Việt), a name that can be traced back to the Triệu dynasty (2nd century BC, also known as Nanyue Kingdom).[3] The word Việt originated as a shortened form of Bách Việt, a word used to refer to a people who lived in what is now southern China in ancient times. The name Việt Nam, with the syllables in the modern order, first appears in the 16th century in a poem attributed to Nguyễn Bỉnh Khiêm. Vietnam was mentioned in Josiah Conder's 1834 Dictionary of Geography, Ancient and Modern as the other name to refer to Annam. Annam, which originated as a Chinese name in the seventh century, was the common name of the country during the colonial period. Nationalist writer Phan Bội Châu revived the name "Vietnam" in the early 20th century. When rival communist and anti-communist governments were set up in 1945, both immediately adopted this as the country's official name. In English, the two syllables are usually combined into one word, Vietnam. However, Viet Nam was once common usage and is still used by the United Nations and by the Vietnamese government.

Origin of Vietnam

10th century brick with Chữ Hán inscription: "Brick to build the great Viet state"
Scholar consensus believes that the exonym of Yue, Yueh, and Viet peoples are related to their notorious axes. A bronze ax from Dong Son burial site, Thanh Hoa, North-central Vietnam, dated 500 BC.
Courtesy seal of Nguyễn lord, gift of emperor Lê Hy Tông, dated 1709, inscribed with Chinese characters meaning Đại Việt quốc Nguyễn chúa vĩnh trấn chi bảo

The term "Việt" (Yue) (Chinese: ; pinyin: Yuè; Cantonese Yale: Yuht; Wade–Giles: Yüeh4; Vietnamese: Việt) in Early Middle Chinese was first written using the logograph "戉" for an axe (a homophone), in oracle bone and bronze inscriptions of the late Shang dynasty (c. 1200 BC), and later as "越".[4] At that time it referred to a people or chieftain to the northwest of the Shang.[5][6] In the early 8th century BC, a tribe on the middle Yangtze were called the Yangyue, a term later used for peoples further south.[5] Between the 7th and 4th centuries BC Yue/Việt referred to the State of Yue in the lower Yangtze basin and its people.[4][5]

From the 3rd century BC the term was used for the non-Chinese populations of south and southwest China and northern Vietnam, with particular states or groups called Minyue, Ouyue (Vietnamese: Âu Việt), Luoyue (Vietnamese: Lạc Việt), etc., collectively called the Baiyue (Bách Việt, Chinese: 百越; pinyin: Bǎiyuè; Cantonese Yale: Baak Yuet; Vietnamese: Bách Việt; "Hundred Yue/Viet"; ).[4][5] The term Baiyue/Bách Việt first appeared in the book Lüshi Chunqiu compiled around 239 BC.[7]

According to Ye Wenxian (1990), apud Wan (2013), the ethnonym of the Yuefang in northwestern China is not associated with that of the Baiyue in southeastern China.[8]

In 207 BC, former Qin dynasty general Zhao Tuo/Triệu Đà founded the kingdom of Nanyue/Nam Việt (Chinese: 南越; "Southern Yue/Việt") with its capital at Panyu (modern Guangzhou). This kingdom was "southern" in the sense that it was located south of other Baiyue kingdoms such as Minyue and Ouyue, located in modern Fujian and Zhejiang. Several later Vietnamese dynasties followed this nomenclature even after these more northern peoples were absorbed into China.

In 968, the Vietnamese leader Đinh Bộ Lĩnh established the independent kingdom of Đại Cồ Việt (大瞿越) (possibly meaning "Great Gautama's Viet", as Gautama's Chữ Hán transcription 曇 is pronounced Cồ Đàm in Sino-Vietnamese);[9][10] however, 瞿's homophone cồ, 𡚝 in Chữ Nôm script, (means "great") over the former Jinghai state.[11] In 1054, Emperor Lý Thánh Tông shortened the country's name to Đại Việt ("Great Viet").[12] However, the names Giao Chỉ and An Nam were still the widely known names that foreigners used to refer the state of Đại Việt during medieval and early modern periods,. For examples, Caugigu (Italian); Kafjih-Guh (Arabic: كوة ك); Koci (Malay);[13] Cauchy (Portuguese); Cochinchina (English); Annam (Dutch, Portuguese, Spanish and French). In 1787, US politician Thomas Jefferson referred to Vietnam as Cochinchina for the purpose of trading for rice.[14]

"Sấm Trạng Trình" (The Prophecies of Principal Graduate Trình), which are attributed to Vietnamese official and poet Nguyễn Bỉnh Khiêm (1491–1585), reversed the traditional order of the syllables and put the name in its modern form "Việt Nam" as in Việt Nam khởi tổ xây nền "Vietnam's founding ancestor lays its basis"[15] or Việt Nam khởi tổ gây nên "Vietnam's founding ancestor builds it up".[16] At this time, the country was divided between the Trịnh lords of Đông Kinh and the Nguyễn lords of Thừa Thiên. By combining several existing names, Nam Việt, Annam (Pacified South), Đại Việt (Great Việt), and "Nam quốc" (southern nation), the oracles' author[s] created a new name that referred to an aspirational unified state. The word "Nam" no longer implies Southern Việt, but rather that Vietnam is "the South" in contrast to China, "the North".[17] This sentiment had already been in the poem "Nam quốc sơn hà" (1077)'s first line: 南國山河南帝居 Nam quốc sơn hà Nam đế cư "The Southern country's mountains and rivers the Southern Emperor inhabits".[18] Researcher Nguyễn Phúc Giác Hải found the word 越南 "Việt Nam" on 12 steles carved in the 16th and 17th centuries, including one at Bảo Lâm Pagoda, Haiphong (1558).[17] Lord Nguyễn Phúc Chu (1675–1725), when describing Hải Vân Pass (then called Ải Lĩnh, lit. "Mountain-Pass's Saddle-Point"), apparently used "Việt Nam" as a national name in his poem's first line Việt Nam ải hiểm thử sơn điên,[a] which was translated as Núi này ải hiểm đất Việt Nam "This mountain's pass is the most dangerous in Vietnam".[19] Việt Nam was used as an official national name by Emperor Gia Long in 1804–1813.[20] The Vietnamese asked permission from the Qing dynasty to change the name of their country. Originally, Gia Long had wanted the name Nam Việt and asked for his country to be recognized as such, but the Jiaqing Emperor refused since the ancient state of the same name had ruled territory that was part of the Qing dynasty.[21] The Jiaqing Emperor refused Gia Long's request to change his country's name to Nam Việt, and changed the name instead to Việt Nam in 1804.[22][23] Gia Long's Đại Nam thực lục contains the diplomatic correspondence over the naming.[24]

In his account about the meeting with Vietnamese officials in Hue on January 17, 1832, Edmund Roberts, American embassy in Vietnam, wrote :

"...The country, they said, is not now called Annam, as formerly, but Wietnam (Vietnam), and it is ruled, not by a king, but by an emperor,..."[25]

— Edmund Roberts

"Trung Quốc" 中國, (literally "Middle Country" or "Central Country"), was also used as a name for Vietnam by Gia Long in 1805.[22] Minh Mang used the name "Trung Quốc" 中國 to call Vietnam.[26] Vietnamese Nguyen Emperor Minh Mạng sinicized ethnic minorities such as Cambodians, claimed the legacy of Confucianism and China's Han dynasty for Vietnam, and used the term Han people 漢人 to refer to the Vietnamese.[27] Minh Mang declared that "We must hope that their barbarian habits will be subconsciously dissipated, and that they will daily become more infected by Han [Sino-Vietnamese] customs."[28] This policies were directed at the Khmer and hill tribes.[29] The Nguyen lord Nguyen Phuc Chu had referred to Vietnamese as "Han people" in 1712 when differentiating between Vietnamese and Chams;[30] meanwhile, ethnic Chinese were referred to as Thanh nhân 清人 or Đường nhân 唐人.[31]

The use of "Vietnam" was revived in modern times by nationalists including Phan Bội Châu, whose book Việt Nam vong quốc sử (History of the Loss of Vietnam) was published in 1906. Chau also founded the Việt Nam Quang Phục Hội (Vietnam Restoration League) in 1912. However, the general public continued to use Annam and the name "Vietnam" remained virtually unknown until the Yên Bái mutiny of 1930, organized by the Việt Nam Quốc Dân Đảng (Vietnamese Nationalist Party).[32] By the early 1940s, the use of "Việt Nam" was widespread. It appeared in the name of Ho Chi Minh's Việt Nam Độc lập Đồng minh Hội (Viet Minh), founded 1941, and was even used by the governor of French Indochina in 1942.[33] The name "Vietnam" has been official since 1945. It was adopted in June by Bảo Đại's imperial government in Huế, and in September by Ho's rival communist government in Hanoi.[34]

Other names

1. Legendary

Time Name Polity
2879 – 2524 BC Xích Quỷ
Hồng Bàng dynastyKinh Dương Vương
2524 – 258 BC Văn Lang
Hồng Bàng dynastyHùng king
257 – 207 BC Âu Lạc
Thục dynasty – An Dương Vương
Đại Nam nhất thống toàn đồ (大南ー統全圖 "Comprehensive Map of United Đại Nam") by Nguyễn dynasty in 1838.
2a. Official pre-1945
Time Name Polity
204 BC – 111 BC Nam Việt [quốc]
Triệu dynasty
111 BC - 938
1407 - 1427
Giao Chỉ [quận]
, ,
Chinese domination
203 – 544
602 – 607
Giao châu
Chinese domination
544–602 Vạn Xuân [quốc]
Anterior Lý dynasty
679 – 757
766 – 866
Annam [phủ]
Chinese domination
757–766 Trấn Nam [phủ]
Chinese domination
866–968 Tĩnh Hải [quân]
Chinese domination
Ngô dynasty
Anarchy of the 12 Warlords
968–1054 Đại Cồ-việt [quốc]
Đinh dynasty
Early Lê dynasty
Lý dynasty
1054 – 1400
1428 – 1804
Đại Việt [quốc]
Lý dynasty
Trần dynasty
Hồ dynasty
Lê dynasty
Mạc dynasty
Tây Sơn dynasty
Nguyễn dynasty
1400–1407 Đại Ngu [quốc]
Hồ dynasty
1804–1839 Việt Nam [quốc]
Nguyễn dynasty
1839–1945 Đại Nam [quốc]
Nguyễn dynasty
2b. Official since 1945
3. Non-official


  1. ^ Another translation: This mountain pass is the most dangerous in the south(ern part) of Việt
  2. ^ According to Vietnamese historian Đào Duy Anh, this location named Jiaozhi in the classical texts was located no farther than modern Anhui province, China,[38] i.e. not the same place as the Jiaozhi commandery established in the Red River Delta during the Han dynasty.
  3. ^ ĐVSKTT asserted that An Dương Vương built Cổ Loa in Việt Thường.[40] Cổ Loa citadel's supposed ruins are now in Đông Anh District, Hanoi, Vietnam.[41] Meanwhile, Sinologist Alfred Forke located the "people" 越裳 Yüeh-shang "in the southern part of Kuang-tung province, near the Annamese frontier",[42] not inside modern Vietnam

Other spellings

In English, the spellings Vietnam, Viet-Nam, Viet Nam and Việt Nam have all been used. Josiah Conder in his 1824 descriptive gazetteer The Modern Traveller: Birmah, Siam, and Anam (Burma, Siam, and Annam) spells Viet-nam with a hyphen placed between Viet and Nam. The 1954 edition of Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary gave both the unspaced and hyphenated forms; in response to a letter from a reader, the editors indicated that the spaced form Viet Nam was also acceptable, though they stated that because Anglophones did not know the meaning of the two words making up the name Vietnam, "it is not surprising" that there was a tendency to drop the space.[49] In 1966, the U.S. government was known to use all three renderings, with the State Department preferring the hyphenated version.[50] By 1981, the hyphenated form was regarded as "dated", according to Scottish writer Gilbert Adair, and he titled his book about depictions of the country in film using the unhyphenated and unspaced form "Vietnam".[51] Currently "Vietnam" is most commonly used as the official name in English, leading to the adjective Vietnamese (instead of Viet, Vietic or Viet Namese) and 3-letter code VIE in IOC and FIFA (instead of VNM). In all other languages mainly written in Latin script, the name of Vietnam is also commonly written without a space.[52] Meanwhile, the spelling of "Viet Nam" is formally recognized by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), the United Nations (UN) and the Vietnamese Government itself as the official, standardized and "accurate" country name, resulting in the systematic prioritization in the usage of this spelling by the Vietnamese state-powered agencies and official documents such as the nationwide-issued citizen identity cards and the passports.[53][54][55]

Both Japanese and Korean formerly referred to Vietnam by their respective Sino-Xenic pronunciations of the Chinese characters for its names, but later switched to using direct phonetic transcriptions. In Japanese, following the independence of Vietnam, the names Annan (安南) and Etsunan (越南) were largely replaced by the phonetic transcription Betonamu (ベトナム), written in katakana script; however, the old form is still seen in compound words (e.g. , "a visit to Vietnam").[56][57] Japan's Ministry of Foreign Affairs sometimes used an alternative spelling Vietonamu (ヴィエトナム).[57] Similarly, in the Korean language, in line with the trend towards decreasing usage of hanja, the Sino-Korean-derived name Wollam (월남, the Korean reading of 越南) has been replaced by Beteunam (베트남) in South Korea and Wennam (윁남) in North Korea.[58][59]

See also


  1. ^ Nicholas Tarling (2000). The Cambridge History of Southeast Asia: From Early Times C. 1500. Cambridge University Press. p. 139. ISBN 0521663695.
  2. ^ Ring, Trudy; Salkin, Robert M.; La Boda, Sharon (1994). International Dictionary of Historic Places: Asia and Oceania. Taylor & Francis. p. 399. ISBN 1884964044.
  3. ^ L. Shelton Woods (2002). Vietnam: a global studies handbook. ABC-CLIO. p. 38. ISBN 1576074161.
  4. ^ a b c Norman, Jerry; Mei, Tsu-lin (1976). "The Austroasiatics in Ancient South China: Some Lexical Evidence". Monumenta Serica. 32: 274–301. doi:10.1080/02549948.1976.11731121.
  5. ^ a b c d Meacham, William (1996). "Defining the Hundred Yue". Bulletin of the Indo-Pacific Prehistory Association. 15: 93–100. doi:10.7152/bippa.v15i0.11537 (inactive 2024-04-14). Archived from the original on 2014-02-28.((cite journal)): CS1 maint: DOI inactive as of April 2024 (link)
  6. ^ Theobald, Ulrich (2018) "Shang Dynasty - Political History" in ChinaKnowledge.de - An Encyclopaedia on Chinese History, Literature and Art. quote: "Enemies of the Shang state were called fang 方 "regions", like the Tufang 土方, which roamed the northern region of Shanxi, the Guifang 鬼方 and Gongfang 𢀛方 in the northwest, the Qiangfang 羌方, Suifang 繐方, Yuefang 戉方, Xuanfang 亘方 and Zhoufang 周方 in the west, as well as the Yifang 夷方 and Renfang 人方 in the southeast."
  7. ^ The Annals of Lü Buwei, translated by John Knoblock and Jeffrey Riegel, Stanford University Press (2000), p. 510. ISBN 978-0-8047-3354-0. "For the most part, there are no rulers to the south of the Yang and Han Rivers, in the confederation of the Hundred Yue tribes."
  8. ^ Wan, Xiang (2013) "A Reevaluation of Early Chinese Script: The Case of Yuè 戉 and Its Cultural Connotations: Speech at The First Annual Conference of Society for the Study of Early China" Slide 36 of 70
  9. ^ Trần, Trọng Dương. (2009) "Investigation on 'Đại Cồ Việt' (Việt nation - Buddhist nation)" originally published in Hán Nôm, 2 (93) p. 53–75. online version (in Vietnamese)
  10. ^ Pozner P.V. (1994) История Вьетнама эпохи древности и раннего средневековья до Х века н.э. Издательство Наука, Москва. p. 98, cited in Polyakov, A.B. (2016) "On the Existence of the Dai Co Viet State in Vietnam in the 10th - the Beginning of 11th Centuries" Vietnam National University, Hanoi's Journal of Science Vol 32. Issue 1S. p. 53 (in Vietnamese)
  11. ^ Kiernan 2019, p. 141.
  12. ^ Lieberman 2003, p. 353.
  13. ^ Miksic 2019, p. 9.
  14. ^ Miller 1990, p. xi.
  15. ^ Nguyễn Bỉnh Khiêm (attributed), Sấm Trạng Trình "1939 Mai Lĩnh version", line 7
  16. ^ Nguyễn Bỉnh Khiêm (attributed), Sấm Trạng Trình "1930 Sở Cuồng version", line 7
  17. ^ a b Thành Lân, "Ai đặt quốc hiệu Việt Nam đầu tiên? Archived 2011-07-27 at the Wayback Machine", Báo Đại đoàn kết, March 14, 2003.
  18. ^ Vuving, A.L. "The References of Vietnamese States and the Mechanisms of World Formation" ASIEN, 79. p. 65. Archived from the original
  19. ^ Nguyễn Phúc Chu, "Ải lĩnh xuân vân" (Spring Clouds on the Mountain Pass's Saddle-Point). cited in Đại Nam Nhất Thống Chí 2nd Edition (2006). Translated by Phạm Trọng Điềm. Rectified by Đào Duy Anh. Huế: Thuận Hóa Publishing House. p. 154-155.
  20. ^ L. Shelton Woods (2002). Vietnam: a global studies handbook. ABC-CLIO. p. 38. ISBN 1576074161.
  21. ^ Moses, Dirk (2008). Empire, colony, genocide: conquest, occupation, and subaltern resistance in world history. Berghahn Books. p. 207. ISBN 9781845454524.
  22. ^ a b Alexander Woodside (1971). Vietnam and the Chinese Model: A Comparative Study of Vietnamese and Chinese Government in the First Half of the Nineteenth Century. Harvard Univ Asia Center. pp. 120–. ISBN 978-0-674-93721-5.
  23. ^ Kang, David C. (2012). East Asia Before the West: Five Centuries of Trade and Tribute. Columbia University Press. pp. 101–102.
  24. ^ Jeff Kyong-McClain; Yongtao Du (2013). Chinese History in Geographical Perspective. Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 67–. ISBN 978-0-7391-7230-8.
  25. ^ Miller 1990, p. 25.
  26. ^ "H-Net Discussion Networks – FW: H-ASIA: Vietnam as "Zhongguo" (2 REPLIES)".
  27. ^ Norman G. Owen (2005). The Emergence Of Modern Southeast Asia: A New History. University of Hawaii Press. pp. 115–. ISBN 978-0-8248-2890-5.
  28. ^ A. Dirk Moses (1 January 2008). Empire, Colony, Genocide: Conquest, Occupation, and Subaltern Resistance in World History. Berghahn Books. pp. 209–. ISBN 978-1-84545-452-4.
  29. ^ Randall Peerenboom; Carole J. Petersen; Albert H.Y. Chen (27 September 2006). Human Rights in Asia: A Comparative Legal Study of Twelve Asian Jurisdictions, France and the USA. Routledge. pp. 474–. ISBN 978-1-134-23881-1.
  30. ^ "Vietnam-Champa Relations and the Malay-Islam Regional Network in the 17th–19th Centuries". kyotoreview.cseas.kyoto-u.ac.jp. Archived from the original on 17 June 2004. Retrieved 11 January 2022.
  31. ^ Choi Byung Wook (2004). Southern Vietnam Under the Reign of Minh Mạng (1820-1841): Central Policies and Local Response. SEAP Publications. pp. 137–
  32. ^ Tønnesson & Antlöv 1996, p. 117.
  33. ^ Tønnesson & Antlöv 1996, p. 125.
  34. ^ Tønnesson & Antlöv 1996, p. 126.
  35. ^ Elijah Coleman Bridgman; Samuel Wells Willaims (1847). The Chinese Repository. proprietors. pp. 584–.
  36. ^ 漢語大詞典編輯委員會,漢語大詞典編纂處,漢語大詞典,第九卷,p. 1115,上海辭書出版社,1992.
  37. ^ Esteemed Documents Great Narratives Vol. 2 Section "Great Admonitions". quote: "交阯之南,有越裳國。"
  38. ^ Đào Duy Anh, "Jiaozhi in Shujing", excerpts from Đào's book Lịch Sử Cổ Đại Việt Nam. (2005) Hanoi : Culture & Information Publisher
  39. ^ Đại Việt Sử Ký Toàn Thư Outer Annals, Vol. 1, Annal of the Hồng Bàng clan Section "Hùng king" "quote: "周成王時,我越始騁于周〈未詳第幾世〉,稱越裳氏,獻白雉。" translation: "During the time of King Cheng of Zhou, we Viets first ventured to the Zhou [realm] (it's still unclear during which generation [of the Hùng kings]); [our] appellation [was] Việt Thường clan; [we] offered white pheasants.""
  40. ^ ĐVSKTT King An Dương "王於是築城于越裳,廣千丈,盤旋如螺形故號螺城。" tr: "The King then built a citadel at Việt Thường, one-thousand-zhàng wide, whirling and swirling like the shape of a snail. Therefore, it was called Snail Citadel (Loa Thành)."
  41. ^ Kim, Nam C. (2015). The Origins of Ancient Vietnam. Oxford University Press. p. 18
  42. ^ Wang Chong (author). Lun-Hêng (1907) "Part I" p. 505, note 2. Translated & annotated by Alfred Forke.
  43. ^ Nan Mountains in Encyclopædia Britannica
  44. ^ a b c d e Guo, Jie; Zuo, Pengjun (2018). 岭南文化研究. 清華大學出版社. ISBN 9787302399476.
  45. ^ a b c d Xie, Xuanjun (2015). 辛亥革命百年透视 现代南北朝的曙光. Lulu.com. p. 527. ISBN 9781329581210.
  46. ^ One example of its use is in Jean-Louis Taberd's 1829 map of Vietnam, then under Minh Mạng's rule
  47. ^ "Sergeant Cấn's Rallying Call during Thái Nguyên soldiers' revolt", National Archive Centre N1. Translated from French by Đinh Hữu Phượng (in Vietnamese)
  48. ^ Stein Tonnesson, Hans Antlov, Asian Forms of the Nation, Routledge, 1996, pp. 117.
  49. ^ Word Study. G&C Merriam Company. 1954. p. 401.
  50. ^ "Spelling Lesson". Newsweek. Vol. 67. 1968. p. 13.
  51. ^ Adair 1981, p. 31.
  52. ^ "How to Say Vietnam in Different Languages". www.indifferentlanguages.com.
  53. ^ "VN - Viet Nam". International Organization for Standardization. Retrieved 2023-04-18.
  54. ^ "The United Nations in Viet Nam". United Nations in Viet Nam. Retrieved 2023-04-18.
  55. ^ "Introduction to the Government". Viet Nam Government Portal.
  56. ^ 山本彩加 [Yamamoto Saika] (2009). 近代日本語における外国地名の漢字表記 ――― 明治・大正期の新聞を資料として [Use of kanji for foreign placenames in modern Japanese: based on data from newspapers in the Meiji and Taishō periods] (PDF). 葉大学日本文化論叢 (in Japanese). 10. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-07-12. Retrieved 2015-09-08.
  57. ^ a b 漢字の現在 第92回 越の国の漢字 (in Japanese). Sanseidō. 22 April 2011. Retrieved 8 September 2015.
  58. ^ 김정강 [Kim Jeong-gang] (2006-06-12). 한자 폐기는 大과오… 국한 혼용으로 '東 아시아성' 살려내자 [Abolition of hanja a big mistake ... rescue 'East Asianness' with mixed hangul and hanja]. Dong-a Ilbo Magazine (in Korean). Retrieved 2015-09-09.
  59. ^ 전수태 [Jeon Su-tae] (1988). 북한 문화어의 한자어와 외래어 [Hanja words and foreign loanwords in North Korea's standard language]. North Korea Life (in Korean) (4). Retrieved 2015-09-09.