The Indo-European languages include some 449 (SIL estimate, 2018 edition) languages spoken by about or more than 3.5 billion people (roughly half of the world population). Most of the major languages belonging to language branches and groups of Europe, and western and southern Asia, belong to the Indo-European language family. Therefore, Indo-European is the biggest language family in the world by number of mother tongue speakers (but not by number of languages in which it is the 3rd or 5th biggest). Eight of the top ten biggest languages, by number of native speakers, are Indo-European. One of these languages, English, is the de facto World Lingua Franca with an estimate of over one billion second language speakers.
Each subfamily or linguistic branch in this list contains many subgroups and individual languages. Indo-European language family has 10 known branches or subfamilies, of which eight are living and two are extinct. The relation of Indo-European branches, how they are related to one another and branched from the ancestral proto-language is a matter of further research and not yet well known. There are some individual Indo-European languages that are unclassified within the language family, they are not yet classified in a branch and could be members of their own branch.
The 449 Indo-European languages identified in the SIL estimate, 2018 edition, are mostly living languages, however, if all the known extinct Indo-European languages are added, they number more than 800 or close to one thousand. This list includes all known Indo-European languages, living and extinct.
A distinction between a language and a dialect is not clear-cut and simple because there is, in many cases, several dialect continuums, transitional dialects and languages and also because there is no consensual standard to what amount of vocabulary, grammar, pronunciation and prosody differences there is a language or there is a dialect. (Mutual intelligibility can be a standard but there are closely related languages that are also mutual intelligible to some degree, even if it is an asymmetric intelligibility.) Because of this, in this list, several dialect groups and some individual dialects of languages are shown (in italics), especially if a language is or was spoken by a large number of people and over a big land area, but also if it has or had divergent dialects.
At the end of the second millennium BC Indo-European speakers were many millions and lived in a vast geographical area in most of western and southern Eurasia (including western Central Asia).
In the following two millennia the number of speakers of Indo-European languages increased even further.
By geographical area, Indo-European languages remained spoken in big land areas, although most of western Central Asia and Asia Minor was lost to another language family (mainly Turkic) due to Turkic expansion, conquests and settlement (after the middle of the first millennium AD and the beginning and middle of the second millennium AD respectively) and also to Mongol invasions and conquests (that changed Central Asia ethnolinguistic composition). Another land area lost to non-Indo-European languages was today's Hungary due to Magyar/Hungarian (Uralic language speakers) conquest and settlement.
However, in the second half of the second millennium AD, Indo-European languages expanded their territories to North Asia (Siberia), through Russian expansion, and North America, South America, Australia and New Zealand as the result of the age of European discoveries and European conquests through the expansions of the Portuguese, Spanish, French, English and the Dutch. (These peoples had the biggest continental or maritime empires in the world and their countries were major powers.)
The contact between different peoples and languages, especially as a result of European colonization, also gave origin to the many pidgins, creoles and mixed languages that are mainly based in Indo-European languages (many of which are spoken in island groups and coastal regions).
Late Proto-Indo-European (Last phase of indo-European as spoken language before splitting into several languages that originated in the regional dialects that diverged in time, and in space with Indo-European migrations, these languages were the direct ancestors of today's subfamilies or "branches" of descendant languages) (larger clades of Indo-European than the individual subfamilies or the way individual subfamilies are related to each other is still an unresolved issue)
Although all Indo-European languages descend from a common ancestor called Proto-Indo-European, the kinship between the subfamilies or branches (large groups of more closely related languages within the language family), that descend from other more recent proto-languages, is not the same because there are subfamilies that are closer or further, and they did not split-off at the same time, the affinity or kinship of Indo-European subfamilies or branches between themselves is still an unresolved and controversial issue and being investigated.
However, there is some consensus that Anatolian was the first group of Indo-European (branch) to split-off from all the others and Tocharian was the second in which that happened.
Using a mathematical analysis borrowed from evolutionary biology, Donald Ringe and Tandy Warnow propose the following tree of Indo-European branches:
Tocharian languagesA (blue), B (red) and C (green) in the Tarim Basin. Tarim oasis towns are given as listed in the Book of Han (c. 2nd century BC). The areas of the squares are proportional to population.
North-Tocharian (it was originally spoken in many areas of the Tarim Basin and Turpan Depression) (according to several linguists the languages are inaccurately called "Tocharian" in a misnomer because they view "Tocharian" as a name synonymous with Bactrian, an Iranian language, however there are other linguists who think that the name was correctly applied and only later would Tocharians replace their original language with an Iranian one.)
Iron Age Italy (c.500 B.C.). Italic languages in green colours.
Length of the Roman rule and the Romance Languages
Romance languages in Europe (major dialect groups are also shown).
European extent of Romance languages in the 20th century
Eastern and Western Romance areas split by the La Spezia–Rimini Line; Southern Romance is represented by Sardinian as an outlier.
Romance languages in the World. Countries and sub-national entities where one or more Romance languages are spoken. Dark colours: First language, Light colours: Official or Co-Official language; Very Light colours: Spoken by a significant minority as first or second language. Blue: French; Green: Spanish; Orange: Portuguese; Yellow: Italian; Red: Romanian.
Southern Latin(retention of archaic features in the periphery of the Latin speaking world)
Insular Latin(Not Insular Romance)(Latin that was spoken by the insular populations of Corsica and Sardinia)
African Latin(Not African Romance)(West North Africa, in many regions of today's Maghreb)(Latin that was spoken by the Roman Africans in North Africa, especially in the Africa province, the origin of the name "Africa" that was later applied to the whole continent)
Latin Sociolects(most provinces)
Imperial Latin(Sociolect used by ruling class Romans)
Reggino(in the Metropolitan City of Reggio Calabria, especially on the Scilla–Bova line, and excluding the areas of Locri and Rosarno which represent the first isogloss which divide Sicilian from the continental varieties)
Modenese(spoken in the Province of Modena, although Bolognese is more widespread in the Castelfranco area. In the northern part of the province of Modena, the lowlands around the town of Mirandola, a Mirandolese sub-dialect of Modenese is spoken)
Reggiano(spoken in the Province of Reggio Emilia, although the northern parts, such as Guastalla, Luzzara and Reggiolo, of the province are not part of this group and closer to Mantovano)
Parmigiano(spoken in the Province of Parma. Those from the area refer to the Parmigiano spoken outside of Parma as Arioso or Parmense, although today's urban and rural dialects are so mixed that only a few speak the original. The language spoken in Casalmaggiore in the Province of Cremona to the north of Parma is closely related to Parmigiano)
Piacentino(spoken west of the River Taro in the Province of Piacenza and on the border with the province of Parma. The variants of Piacentino are strongly influenced by Lombard, Piedmontese, and Ligurian)
Oïl (Northern Gallo-Romance) (Langues d'Oïl) (dialect continuum) (Gallo-Roman people of today's Northern France, who called their own language simply as "Latin" or "Roman"/"Romans" or even "Langue d'Oïl", later adopted the adjective "French" – "François"/"Français" for the language based on the name of most of their ruling elite – the Franks, a Germanic people that conquered most of the ancient Roman province called Gallia and founded the Frankish Empire)
Western Waloon/Wallo-Picard (Walo-Picård) – the dialect closest to French proper and with a strong Picard influence, spoken in Charleroi (Tchårlerwè), Nivelles (Nivele), and Philippeville (Flipvile)
Central Waloon/Namurois (Walon do Mitan) – spoken in Namur (Nameur), the Wallon capital, and the cities of Wavre (Åve) and Dinant
Eastern Waloon/Liégeois (Walon do Levant) – in many respects the most conservative and idiosyncratic of the dialects, spoken in Liège (Lidje), Verviers (Vervî), Malmedy (Måmdi), Huy (Hu), and Waremme (Wareme)
Southern Waloon/Wallo-Lorrain (Walon Nonnrece) – close to the Lorrain and to a lesser extent Champenois languages, spoken in Bastogne, Marche-en-Famenne (Måtche-el-Fåmene), and Neufchâteau (Li Tchestea), all in the Ardennes region.
Poitevin-Saintongeais (Southwest Oïl) (South Gallo-Romance Occitan substrate)
Southern-Western Andalusi Romance(roughly matching the territory where Hispanic Ulterior Latin had been spoken, that is, part of the ancient Roman province of Hispania Ulterior, later the ancient Roman provinces of Baetica and Lusitania, South and West of the Iberian Peninsula) (it had several analogies and similarities with the languages or dialects of the western part of the Northern Iberian Peninsula, mainly Galician-Portuguese and Asturian-Leonese)
Northern Iberian Late Latin / Northern Iberian Proto-Romance(it became more differentiated after the fall of the Western Roman Empire and the formation of the Suebian and Visigothic Kingdoms)(the northern varieties, already in the form of languages, expanded to the south with the Christian Reconquest)
Central Aragonese (roughly in the original area where the Romance language called "Navarro-Aragonese" originated) (extinct)(people shifted to an Aragonese Castilian variety with an Aragonese substrate)
Far-Eastern Leonese (Leonese of Palencia-Valladolid-Salamanca) (extinct) (in the past it was spoken in most of Palencia, Valladolid and Salamanca provinces but there people shifted to a Leonese Castilian variety)
Old Extremaduran (extinct)
Old Northern Extremaduran(Artu Estremeñu)(extinct)
Astur-Leonese (Asturllionés/Astur-Llionés/Llengua Astur-Llionesa) (at the present time it is spoken in Asturias and Northwestern León, however, in the past, until late 17th and 18th centuries, it was spoken in a wider area, including almost all of Leon region) (Astur-Leonese dialects have eastern, central and western dialect strips from north towards south with Asturian and Leonese subdialects or variants, although there is no clear linguistic division between both because the east, central and west dialect strips have more importance than an Asturian versus Leonese or vice versa distinction, that is, a North versus South dialectal distinction)
Riba Douro Leonese(people in the lands east of Sabor River and west of Douro River although, by the political border, were in far eastern Trás-os-Montes historic province of Portugal, they were Leonese and not Galaico-Portuguese speakers until the 13th and 14th centuries, after which they were bilingual until the 17th and 18th centuries, in the 18th century Portuguese replaced most of Leonese save for Mirandese, Mirandese is a surviving dialect of these Ribadouro Leonese dialects)
Northern(some features are transitional to Galician)(a typical feature of the Northern Portuguese dialects is that they have betacism, i.e. they don't distinguish between b [b or β] and v [v] phonemes, i.e v [v] phoneme is absent)
Beira Serra or Beira Transmontana dialect(in the Beira Serra or Beira Transmontana Province, which was included in the Beira Alta Province, roughly matches Guarda District)(more features in common with Northern dialects, but in the phonetics distinguishes between b [b] and v [v] phonemes, a typical feature of the Central and Southern dialects)
Central-Southern(a typical feature of the Central and Southern Portuguese dialects is that in the phonetics they don't have betacism, i.e. they distinguish between b [b] and v [v] phonemes, i.e. v [v] phoneme is clearly pronounced)
Coastal Central(Extremaduran Portuguese)(Português Estremenho)(Transitional Northern-Southern)(basis of Modern Standard European Portuguese but not identical)(although in the 20th century a province in the Central Coastal Lowlands region was called Beira Litoral, i.e. Litoral/Coastal Beira, older and traditional Beira Province was an inland province in the Highlands, while all Central Coastal Lowlands region of Mainland Portugal, from south of the Douro river, in the north, till the northern banks of the Tagus river, in the south, was the province of Estremadura until the middle of the 18th century) ("Beira" name means edge, slope, mountain slope, or border, with the specific meaning of "Mountainous Borderland" or "Edge Borderland") (until the 14th century the broad or collective name for all the portuguese territories south of Douro river was "Extremadura", i.e. "Far Border Land", the name derives from "Extrema", "Extremada" – extreme in the sense of extreme borderland, far borderland)(this name is cognate and has equivalents with the Leonese, Castilian and Aragonese Extremaduras, that were also old Borderlands at the beginning of the Christian Reconquista)(therefore "Estremadura" and "Beira" names had the meaning of "Borderland" in the context of the Christian Reconquista)
Northern Coastal Central(more features in common with Central and Southern dialects, but in the phonetics, some areas, mainly in Aveiro District, don't distinguish between b [b] and v [v] phonemes, i.e. they don't have v [v] phoneme, a typical feature of the Northern dialects)
Aveiro dialect(in most of the Aveiro District)(Portuguese District = County)
Southern Coastal Central(Standard European Portuguese is mainly based on this dialect with also important contribution from Coimbra, i.e. the coastal central region, the ancient and traditional Portuguese Extremadura, from north till south – Aveiro, Coimbra, Leiria, Santarem and Lisbon, is the main basis of Modern Standard European Portuguese)
Lisbon dialect(early Lisbon dialect, Lisboeta, was only spoken in Lisbon itself and was an enclave, however today it is spoken in Lisbon metropolitan area, and is a very widespread dialect, many dialects are under pressure and being replaced by the standard language that closely resembles Lisbon dialect)
Far Northern Alto-Alentejo(South of Tagus river, geographically in Alentejo but closely related to the Beira Baixa dialect and not to the Alentejo dialect)
Far Western Algarvian(geographically in the Algarve but is more related to the Beira Baixa dialect and not to the Algarvian dialect, it is an Inland Southern Central dialect enclave in Far Southwestern Mainland Portugal)(has the ü [y] phoneme but doesn't have the ö [ø] phoneme)
Setubalense(in the Setubal Peninsula)(its more typical phonetic feature is that it doesn't distinguish between trilled r [r] and guttural r [ʁ] i.e. r is always pronounced as guttural r [ʁ])(overlaps and under pressure of the modern Lisbon metropolitan area dialect)
Alentejano(its more typical phonetic feature is the pronunciation of more open vowels than in Standard European Portuguese, final vowel e [e] is generally pronounced as i [i] or the [i] vowel is added after a final consonant where Standard European Portuguese doesn't have a final vowel after a consonant, and has a distinct prosody)(in South Alto Alentejo and Baixo Alentejo Provinces) ("Alentejo – Além Tejo" name means "Beyond Tagus")(roughly matches south Portalegre District and Évora and Beja Districts)
Islander(Geographical Grouping and not a Linguistic Genealogical one)(a divergent group of Portuguese dialects in phonetics and some vocabulary, several linguistic archaisms from Middle Portuguese when the islands were settled)(Azores and Madeira didn't have native Pre-European peoples)
Azorean(nine dialects in the nine islands of the Azores Archipelago, it's not only a single dialect)
Micaelense(São Miguel Island dialect)(its more typical phonetic feature is the presence of the vowels ö [ø] and ü [y] in its phonemes, a common phonetic feature with Inland Southern Central dialects, mainly Baixo Beirão dialect, and with the more distant Gallo-Romance languages and dialects, it has more vowels than Standard European Portuguese and several long vowels, and it has a "French-like" prosody)
Terceirense(Terceira Island dialect)(its more typical phonetic feature is the presence of the semivowels [j] and [w] before a vowel in many words where Standard European Portuguese only has one vowel and a "singing-like" prosody)
Faialense(Faial Island dialect)(Faial island dialect is closer to Standard European Portuguese than the dialects of other islands, initial Flemish settlers, that spoke the germanic Flemish dialect of Dutch, some years later were rapidly surpassed and assimilated by a big majority of Portuguese settlers that came from Coastal Central Portugal, whose dialect is the basis of European Standard Portuguese, and did not influenced Faial Island dialect)
Madeirense(Madeira Island dialect)(its more typical phonetic feature is the pronunciation of the vowels u [u] and i [i], in many cases, as a Schwa [ə] or as [ɐ], where Micaelense and Baixo-Beirão dialects have ü [y] and the palatalization of l [l] to [λ] before i [i])
Amazonic Range(Serra Amazônica)/Deforestation Arc(Arco do Desflorestamento)
Southern/Broad Southern(one of its earlier centers, in the 16th century, was São Vicente, in the western half of the island with the same name, closely offshore of São Paulo State coast, in the eastern half of the island is Santos city)
Goidelic language and culture would eventually become dominant in the Pictish area and far northern Brittonic area.
A map of the modern distribution of the Celtic languages. Red: Welsh; Purple: Cornish; Black: Breton; Green: Irish; Blue: Scottish Gaelic: Yellow: Manx. Areas where languages overlap are shown in stripes.
Armenian dialects, according to Adjarian (1909) (before 1st World War and Armenian Genocide). In many regions of the contiguous area shown in the map, Armenian speakers were the majority or a significant minority.
Modern geographical distribution of the Armenian language.
Modern Athenian/Metropolitan Athenian Greek (close to Standard Modern Greek) (not quite a Southern or Northern Greek dialect, although Standard Modern Greek is based predominantly on the southern dialects, especially those of the Peloponnese)
Northern-Central Anatolian Greek/Northern-Central Asia Minor Greek (more divergent than Western and Southern Anatolian Greek, that were more in contact with other Greek dialects, divergent enough to be considered separate languages although closely related to Modern Greek, they descend from Medieval or Byzantine Greek)
Geographic distribution of modern Indo-Iranian languages. Blue, dark purple and green colour shades: Iranic languages. Dark pink: Nuristani languages. Red, light purple and orange colour shades: Indo-Aryan languages. Areas where languages overlap are shown in stripes.
Jassic(extinct)(Ossetic variant, more closely related to Digor, of a nomadic tribe, the Jassic people, settled in Hungary at the 13th century, in Jaszsag)(not confuse with the language of the Iazyges, a related but separate language)
(older name: Kafiri) (according to some scholars there is the possibility that the older name "Kapisi" that was synonymal of Kambojas, related to the ancient Kingdom of Kapisa, in modern-day Kapisa Province, changed to "Kafiri" and came to be confused and assimilated with "kafiri", meaning "infidel" in Arabic and used in Muslim religion)
Present-day geographical distribution of the major Indo-Aryan language groups. Romani, Domari, Kholosi and Lomavren are outside the scope of the map. Colors indicate the branches – yellow is Eastern, purple is Dardic, blue is Northwestern, red is Southern, green is Western, brown is Northern and orange is Central. Data is from "The Indo Aryan Languages" as well as census data and previous linguistic maps. Dardic
Modern Standard Urdu(prestige dialect of the language spoken in Northern South Asia, especially in cities; contains more Persian and Arabic vocabulary than Dakhni but less than Rekhta; lingua franca of Pakistan)
Dakhini/Dakkhani/Deccani (دکنی – Dakkhani) (fewer Persian and Arabic loans than other Urdu dialects)(an Urdu dialect or a derived language from it)(spoken by the Dakhini Muslims in Central and Southern India)
Bodo Parja/Jharia (tribal dialect of Odia spoken mostly in Koraput district of Southern Odisha)
Desiya Odia or Koraputia Odia (spoken in Koraput, Kalahandi, Rayagada, Nabarangapur and Malkangiri Districts of Odisha and in the hilly regions of Vishakhapatnam, Vizianagaram District of Andhra Pradesh)
Sambalpuri/Western Odia (Kosali) (spoken in western Odisha, East India, in Bargarh, Bolangir, Boudh, Debagarh, Nuapada, Sambalpur, Subarnapur districts of Odisha and in Raigarh, Mahasamund, Raipur districts of Chhattisgarh state) (it is not to be confused with "Kosali", a term sometimes also used for Awadhi and related languages)
Reli/Relli (spoken in Southern Odisha and bordering areas of Andhra Pradesh)
Kupia (spoken by the Valmiki caste people in the Indian state of Telangana and Andhra Pradesh, mostly in Hyderabad, Mahabubnagar, Srikakulam, Vizianagaram, East Godavari and Visakhapatnam districts)
Tharu (थारु – Tharu) (not only one language) (pre-Indo-European, pre-Dravidian and pre-Sino-Tibetan substrate of an unknown language or languages of a possible indigenous language family) (mainly in the Terai)
Germanic languages and main dialect groups in Europe after 1945.
Germanic languages in the World. Countries and sub-national entities where one or more Germanic languages are spoken. Dark Red: First language; Red: Official or Co-Official language, Pink: Spoken by a significant minority as second language.
Heanzen / Burgenlandish (Burgenländisch) (spoken in Burgenland, formerly known as Heizenland, which was also the name of a short-lived republic – the Republic of Heizenland, the border region between Austria and Hungary was mostly ethnic Austrian German, part of the land of the West Hungary Germans – Westungarn Deutsche)
Pennsylvania German (Pennsylvania "Dutch") (Deitsch/Pennsilfaanisch Deitsch) (Pennsilfaanisch Deitsch is the self name or autonym of the language, "Deitsch" and "Dutch" are cognates but now have different meanings: one for Germanic language in a broad sense, not only for German in a narrow sense, and the other for specifically the Dutch or Nederlandic language, hence the name "Pennsylvania Dutch" for the language in English due to the similarity of names)
Middle PommeranianNeo-Brandenburgisch / Neo-Margravian(Middle Pommeranian, Mittelpommersch)(dialect formed by the expansion of Brandenburgisch into an older Pomeranian land)(Pomeranian substrate)(included Stettin, today's Szczecin, in Poland)
Area of Balto-Slavic dialect continuum (purple) with proposed material cultures correlating to speakers Balto-Slavic in Bronze Age (white). Red dots= archaic Slavic hydronyms.
Political map of Europe with countries where a Slavic language is a national language marked in shades of green and where a Baltic language is a national language marked in light orange. Wood green represents East Slavic languages, pale green represents West Slavic languages, and sea green represents South Slavic languages. Contemporary Baltic languages are all from the same group: Eastern Baltic
Baltic languages (extinct languages shown in stripes).
Slavic languages in Europe (2008). Areas where languages overlap are shown in stripes.
Dialects of Primary Formation(first formation of Russian dialects)(distinction between russian dialects of primary formation and russian dialects of second formation is mainly chronological and geographical not genealogical)(Old Russia, mainly settled before 16th century)(Russian Core dialects in the central area of European Russia)
Central Russian / Middle Russian(Transitional Northern-Southern Russian, has characteristics with both southern and northern dialects)(this dialectal area forms a big arc strip or bow-shaped strip, from northwest towards southeast, between southern and northern dialects, including both dialects of primary and second formation, from Saint-Petersburg, passing by Novgorod, Tver', Moscow, Penza, Saratov and Volgograd, to Astrakhan)
West Central Russian / West Middle Russian(Novgorodskiy – Novgorodian)(Old Novgorodian substrate)
Groups with okanye(Saint Petersburg dialect, in the dialectal area of second formation, has affiliation with this dialectal group)
Dialects of Second Formation(distinction between Russian dialects of primary formation and Russian dialects of second formation is mainly chronological and geographical not genealogical)(after the first formation of Russian dialects in European Russia, including dialects formed before the 16th century, but mainly and especially after the Russian expansion and conquests from the 16th century until 19th centuries and the formation of a Russian diaspora outside Russia proper)(depending on where the settlers from the core European Russia came from and migrated, they can be of Northern, Middle or Southern dialect groups kinship and origin, because of that, the dialectal geographic distribution of this language area is complex)(there was also Russian dialects mixing)
New Central Russian(Transitional Northern-Southern Russian, has characteristics with both southern and northern dialects)(this dialectal area forms a big arc, from northwest towards southeast, between southern and northern dialects, including both dialects of primary and second formation, from Saint Petersburg, passing by Tver', Moscow, Penza, Saratov and Volgograd, to Astrakhan)
New Vologda-Vyatian / New Vologda-Vyatka(includes Perm city and region)
Siberian Russian(Geographical grouping)(a very big landmass language area)(it has a complex dialectal geographic distribution where Russian settlers speaking Russian dialects of Northern, Middle and Southern groups came in migration)(there was also Russian dialects mixing)
Nearer Gushiean / Anterior Gushiean, in the Turpan Basin southern area
Further Gushiean / Posterior Gushiean, in the Turpan Basin northern area
Yuezhiean (it was spoken by the Yuezhi, an ancient Indo-European speaking people, in the western areas of the modern Chinese province of Gansu, during the 1st millennium BC, or in Dunhong, in the Tian Shan, later they migrated westward and southward into south Central Asia, in contact and conflict with the Sogdians and Bactrians, and they possibly were the people called by the name "Tocharians", which was possibly a Tocharian or an Iranian speaking people)
Greater-Yuezhiean (Dà Yuèzhī – 大月氏) (dialect ancestral to the hypothetical Kushanite language spoken in Kushana). Possibly this language was spoken by an Iranian or Tocharian people (possibly they were the ancestors of the Kushans)
Hunnic-Xiongnu language or languages (possibly the same or part of the same)
Hunnic (possibly part, related or descend from the older language of the Xiongnu) – there is a hypothesis that endorses the possibly that Hunnic belonged to the Scythian branch of Iranic language group (other hypotheses uphold Hunnic was a Turkic or Yenisean language) (Huns were a tribal confederation of different peoples and tribes, not necessarily of the same origin, because of that, even if not the most, there may have been an Indo-European linguistic element)
Xiongnu (Huns may have been related, part of them or descend from them) – spoken by the Xiongnu tribes in Central Mongolia and northeast China (other hypotheses uphold Xiongnu language was a Turkic or Yenisean language) (Xiongnu were a tribal confederation of different peoples and tribes, not necessarily of the same origin, because of that, even if not the most, there may have been an Indo-European linguistic element)
Euphratic – a hypothetical ancient Indo-European language spoken in the Euphrates river course that may have been the substrate language of later Semitic languages.
Ordos culture language – located in modern Inner Mongolia autonomous region, China.This culture may reflect the easternmost extension of an Indo-European ethnolinguistic group, possibly Iranian under the form of Sakans or Scythians, or Tocharian (One other possibility is that they were the Xiongnu people).
Qiang language (of the ancient Qiang people) – spoken by the historical Qiang people in parts of the northeastern and eastern Tibetan Plateau, modern China.