This is a list of languages in the Indo-European language family. It contains a large number of individual languages, together spoken by roughly half the world's population.
Numbers of languages and language groups
The Indo-European languages include some 449 (SIL estimate, 2018 edition) languages spoken by about 3.5 billion people or more (roughly half of the world population). Most of the major languages belonging to language branches and groups in Europe, and western and southern Asia, belong to the Indo-European language family. This is thus the biggest language family in the world by number of mother tongue speakers (but not by number of languages: by this measure it is only the 3rd or 5th biggest). Eight of the top ten biggest languages, by number of native speakers, are Indo-European. One of these languages, English, is the de facto world lingua franca, with an estimate of over one billion second language speakers.
Indo-European language family has 10 known branches or subfamilies, of which eight are living and two are extinct. Most of the subfamilies or linguistic branches in this list contain many subgroups and individual languages. The relationships between these branches (how they are related to one another and branched from the ancestral proto-language) are a matter of further research and not yet fully known. There are some individual Indo-European languages that are unclassified within the language family; they are not yet classified in a branch and could constitute a separate branch.
The 449 Indo-European languages identified in the SIL estimate, 2018 edition, are mostly living languages. If all the known extinct Indo-European languages are added, they number more than 800 or close to one thousand. This list includes all known Indo-European languages, living and extinct.
What constitutes a language?
The distinction between a language and a dialect is not clear-cut and simple: in many areas there is a dialect continuum, with transitional dialects and languages. Further, there is no agreed standard criterion for what amount of differences in vocabulary, grammar, pronunciation and prosody are required to constitute a separate language, as opposed to a mere dialect. (Mutual intelligibility can be considered, but there are closely related languages that are also mutual intelligible to some degree, even if it is an asymmetric intelligibility.) Because of this, in this list, several dialect groups and some individual dialects of languages are shown (in italics), especially if a language is or was spoken by a large number of people and over a large land area, but also if it has or had divergent dialects.
Summary of historical development
The ancestral population and language, Proto-Indo-Europeans that spoke Proto-Indo-European, are estimated to have lived about 4500 BCE (6500 BP). At some point in time, starting about 4000 BCE (6000 BP), this population expanded through migration and cultural influence. This started a complex process of population blend or population replacement, acculturation and language change of peoples in many regions of western and southern Eurasia. This process gave origin to many languages and branches of this language family.
By around 1000 BCE, there were many millions of Indo-European speakers, and they lived in a vast geographical area which covered most of western and southern Eurasia (including western Central Asia).
In the following two millennia the number of speakers of Indo-European languages increased even further.
Indo-European languages continued to be spoken in large land areas, although most of western Central Asia and Asia Minor were lost to other language families (mainly Turkic) due to Turkic expansion, conquests and settlement (after the middle of the first millennium AD and the beginning and middle of the second millennium AD respectively) and also to Mongol invasions and conquests (which changed Central Asia ethnolinguistic composition). Another land area lost to non-Indo-European languages was today's Hungary, due to Magyar/Hungarian (Uralic language speakers) conquest and settlement.
The contact between different peoples and languages, especially as a result of European colonization, also gave origin to the many pidgins, creoles and mixed languages that are mainly based in Indo-European languages (many of which are spoken in island groups and coastal regions).
Late Proto-Indo-European (Last phase of indo-European as spoken language before splitting into several languages that originated in the regional dialects that diverged in time, and in space with Indo-European migrations, these languages were the direct ancestors of today's subfamilies or "branches" of descendant languages) (larger clades of Indo-European than the individual subfamilies or the way individual subfamilies are related to each other is still an unresolved issue)
Dating the split-offs of the main branches
Although all Indo-European languages descend from a common ancestor called Proto-Indo-European, the kinship between the subfamilies or branches (large groups of more closely related languages within the language family), that descend from other more recent proto-languages, is not the same because there are subfamilies that are closer or further, and they did not split-off at the same time, the affinity or kinship of Indo-European subfamilies or branches between themselves is still an unresolved and controversial issue and being investigated.
However, there is some consensus that Anatolian was the first group of Indo-European (branch) to split-off from all the others and Tocharian was the second in which that happened.
Using a mathematical analysis borrowed from evolutionary biology, Donald Ringe and Tandy Warnow propose the following tree of Indo-European branches:
The list below follows Donald Ringe, Tandy Warnow and Ann Taylor classification tree for Indo-European branches. quoted in Anthony, David W. (2007), The Horse, the Wheel and Language: How Bronze-Age Riders from the Eurasian Steppes Shaped the Modern World, Princeton University Press.
North-Tocharian (it was originally spoken in many areas of the Tarim Basin and Turpan Depression) (according to several linguists the languages are inaccurately called "Tocharian" in a misnomer because they view "Tocharian" as a name synonymous with Bactrian, an Iranian language, however there are other linguists who think that the name was correctly applied and only later would Tocharians replace their original language with an Iranian one.)
Southern Latin(retention of archaic features in the periphery of the Latin speaking world)
Insular Latin(Not Insular Romance)(Latin that was spoken by the insular populations of Corsica and Sardinia)
African Latin(Not African Romance)(West North Africa, in many regions of today's Maghreb)(Latin that was spoken by the Roman Africans in North Africa, especially in the Africa province, the origin of the name "Africa" that was later applied to the whole continent)
Latin Sociolects(most provinces)
Imperial Latin(Sociolect used by ruling class Romans)
Late Vulgar Latin (Sermo Vulgaris / Lingua Romanica – "Roman language" / "Romanic language", the origin of the term "Romance" applied to the languages) (Vulgar Latin, especially Late Vulgar Latin is synonymous with Proto-Romance or Common Romance, Latin through its variant Vulgar Latin, is the Proto-language or common ancestor language of Romance sometimes known as New Latin languages or Neo-Latin languages especially in the nineteenth century)(Latin, mainly including its variant, Vulgar Latin, had several regional dialects that over time developed towards separate but closely related Romance languages)(extinct)
Romance, or Neo- / New Latin languages (languages that evolved from Latin regional dialects that over time developed towards separate but closely related languages)
Reggino(in the Metropolitan City of Reggio Calabria, especially on the Scilla–Bova line, and excluding the areas of Locri and Rosarno which represent the first isogloss which divide Sicilian from the continental varieties)
Sicilian / Sicilian Proper (Sicilianu / Lu Sicilianu)
Pontine Marshes Venetian(in parts of the Pontine Marshes, or Agro Pontino, southern Lazio, formed by migration of Venetian speakers to the Pontine Marshes in the middle 20th Century, different from native Southern Laziale)
Modenese(spoken in the Province of Modena, although Bolognese is more widespread in the Castelfranco area. In the northern part of the province of Modena, the lowlands around the town of Mirandola, a Mirandolese sub-dialect of Modenese is spoken)
Reggiano(spoken in the Province of Reggio Emilia, although the northern parts, such as Guastalla, Luzzara and Reggiolo, of the province are not part of this group and closer to Mantovano)
Parmigiano(spoken in the Province of Parma. Those from the area refer to the Parmigiano spoken outside of Parma as Arioso or Parmense, although today's urban and rural dialects are so mixed that only a few speak the original. The language spoken in Casalmaggiore in the Province of Cremona to the north of Parma is closely related to Parmigiano)
Piacentino(spoken west of the River Taro in the Province of Piacenza and on the border with the province of Parma. The variants of Piacentino are strongly influenced by Lombard, Piedmontese, and Ligurian)
Vogherese(Pavese-Vogherese)(spoken in the Province of Pavia in Lombardy, it is closely related phonetically and morphologically to Piacentino, it is also akin to Tortonese)
Lombard (Romance Lombard) (Lombard / Lumbaart) (Italo-Roman people of today's Northern Italy, who called their own language simply as "Latin" or "Roman" / "Romance", later adopted the adjective "Lombard" – "Lombard" / "Lumbaart" for the language based on the name of most of their ruling elite – the Lombards, a Germanic people that conquered most of the ancient Roman province called Gallia Cisalpina, most of today's Northern Italy and after that most of Italy, and founded the Lombard Kingdom)
Oïl (Northern Gallo-Romance) (Langues d'Oïl) (dialect continuum) (Gallo-Roman people of today's Northern France, who called their own language simply as "Latin" or "Roman"/"Romans" or even "Langue d'Oïl", later adopted the adjective "French" – "François"/"Français" for the language based on the name of most of their ruling elite – the Franks, a Germanic people that conquered most of the ancient Roman province called Gallia and founded the Frankish Empire)
Old French (Franceis / François / Romanz) (extinct) (Gallo-Roman people of today's Northern France, who called their own language simply as "Latin" or "Roman"/"Romance" or even "Langue d'Oïl", later adopted the adjective "French" – "François"/"Français" for the language based on the name of most of their ruling elite – the Franks, a Germanic people that conquered most of the ancient Roman province called Gallia and founded the Frankish Empire)
Western Waloon / Wallo-Picard (Walo-Picård) – the dialect closest to French proper and with a strong Picard influence, spoken in Charleroi (Tchårlerwè), Nivelles (Nivele), and Philippeville (Flipvile)
Central Waloon / Namurois (Walon do Mitan) – spoken in Namur (Nameur), the Wallon capital, and the cities of Wavre (Åve) and Dinant
Eastern Waloon / Liégeois (Walon do Levant) – in many respects the most conservative and idiosyncratic of the dialects, spoken in Liège (Lidje), Verviers (Vervî), Malmedy (Måmdi), Huy (Hu), and Waremme (Wareme)
Southern Waloon / Wallo-Lorrain (Walon Nonnrece) – close to the Lorrain and to a lesser extent Champenois languages, spoken in Bastogne, Marche-en-Famenne (Måtche-el-Fåmene), and Neufchâteau (Li Tchestea), all in the Ardennes region.
Southern-Western Andalusi Romance(roughly matching the territory where Hispanic Ulterior Latin had been spoken, that is, part of the ancient Roman province of Hispania Ulterior, later the ancient Roman provinces of Baetica and Lusitania, South and West of the Iberian Peninsula) (it had several analogies and similarities with the languages or dialects of the western part of the Northern Iberian Peninsula, mainly Galician-Portuguese and Asturian-Leonese)
Northern Iberian Late Latin / Northern Iberian Proto-Romance(it became more differentiated after the fall of the Western Roman Empire and the formation of the Suebian and Visigothic Kingdoms)(the northern varieties, already in the form of languages, expanded to the south with the Christian Reconquest)
Central Aragonese (roughly in the original area where the Romance language called "Navarro-Aragonese" originated) (extinct)(people shifted to an Aragonese Castilian variety with an Aragonese substrate)
Far-Eastern Leonese (Leonese of Palencia-Valladolid-Salamanca) (extinct) (in the past it was spoken in most of Palencia, Valladolid and Salamanca provinces but there people shifted to a Leonese Castilian variety)
Old Extremaduran (extinct)
Old Northern Extremaduran(Artu Estremeñu)(extinct)
Astur-Leonese (Asturllionés / Astur-Llionés / Llengua Astur-Llionesa) (at the present time it is spoken in Asturias and Northwestern León, however, in the past, until late 17th and 18th centuries, it was spoken in a wider area, including almost all of Leon region) (Astur-Leonese dialects have eastern, central and western dialect strips from north towards south with Asturian and Leonese subdialects or variants, although there is no clear linguistic division between both because the east, central and west dialect strips have more importance than an Asturian versus Leonese or vice versa distinction, that is, a North versus South dialectal distinction)
Riba Douro Leonese(people in the lands east of Sabor River and west of Douro River although, by the political border, were in far eastern Trás-os-Montes historic province of Portugal, they were Leonese and not Galaico-Portuguese speakers until the 13th and 14th centuries, after which they were bilingual until the 17th and 18th centuries, in the 18th century Portuguese replaced most of Leonese save for Mirandese, Mirandese is a surviving dialect of these Ribadouro Leonese dialects)
Lower Limia Western Galician (Lobios municipality) (Lower Limia regarding Galicia, regarding Limia river total course, most it is in Portugal, it is Upper Limia)
Fala / Fala de Xálima / Xalimego / Lagarteiru (in Eljas), Manhegu / Mañegu (in San Martín de Trevejo) and Valverdeiru (in Valverde del Fresno) (no common self name or autonym for the language) (closely related to Galician and to Portuguese but closer to Galician, although bordering Portuguese to the west, it is Galician-like, a related language enclave to Galician more than two hundred kilometers to the south) (in far northwestern Extremadura, southern slopes and valleys of Xálima / Jálama Mountain)
Northern(some features are transitional to Galician)(a typical feature of the Northern Portuguese dialects is that they have betacism, i.e. they don't distinguish between b [b or β] and v [v] phonemes, i.e v [v] phoneme is absent)
Beira Serra or Beira Transmontana dialect(in the Beira Serra or Beira Transmontana Province, which was included in the Beira Alta Province, roughly matches Guarda District)(more features in common with Northern dialects, but in the phonetics distinguishes between b [b] and v [v] phonemes, a typical feature of the Central and Southern dialects)
Central-Southern(a typical feature of the Central and Southern Portuguese dialects is that in the phonetics they don't have betacism, i.e. they distinguish between b [b] and v [v] phonemes, i.e. v [v] phoneme is clearly pronounced)
Coastal Central(Extremaduran Portuguese)(Português Estremenho)(Transitional Northern-Southern)(basis of Modern Standard European Portuguese but not identical)(although in the 20th century a province in the Central Coastal Lowlands region was called Beira Litoral, i.e. Litoral/Coastal Beira, older and traditional Beira Province was an inland province in the Highlands, while all Central Coastal Lowlands region of Mainland Portugal, from south of the Douro river, in the north, till the northern banks of the Tagus river, in the south, was the province of Estremadura until the middle of the 18th century) ("Beira" name means edge, slope, mountain slope, or border, with the specific meaning of "Mountainous Borderland" or "Edge Borderland") (until the 14th century the broad or collective name for all the portuguese territories south of Douro river was "Extremadura", i.e. "Far Border Land", the name derives from "Extrema", "Extremada" – extreme in the sense of extreme borderland, far borderland)(this name is cognate and has equivalents with the Leonese, Castilian and Aragonese Extremaduras, that were also old Borderlands at the beginning of the Christian Reconquista)(therefore "Estremadura" and "Beira" names had the meaning of "Borderland" in the context of the Christian Reconquista)
Northern Coastal Central(more features in common with Central and Southern dialects, but in the phonetics, some areas, mainly in Aveiro District, don't distinguish between b [b] and v [v] phonemes, i.e. they don't have v [v] phoneme, a typical feature of the Northern dialects)
Aveiro dialect(in most of the Aveiro District)(Portuguese District = County)
Southern Coastal Central(Standard European Portuguese is mainly based on this dialect with also important contribution from Coimbra, i.e. the coastal central region, the ancient and traditional Portuguese Extremadura, from north till south – Aveiro, Coimbra, Leiria, Santarem and Lisbon, is the main basis of Modern Standard European Portuguese)
Lisbon dialect(early Lisbon dialect, Lisboeta, was only spoken in Lisbon itself and was an enclave, however today it is spoken in Lisbon metropolitan area, and is a very widespread dialect, many dialects are under pressure and being replaced by the standard language that closely resembles Lisbon dialect)
Far Northern Alto-Alentejo(South of Tagus river, geographically in Alentejo but closely related to the Beira Baixa dialect and not to the Alentejo dialect)
Far Western Algarvian(geographically in the Algarve but is more related to the Beira Baixa dialect and not to the Algarvian dialect, it is an Inland Southern Central dialect enclave in Far Southwestern Mainland Portugal)(has the ü [y] phoneme but doesn't have the ö [ø] phoneme)
Setubalense(in the Setubal Peninsula)(its more typical phonetic feature is that it doesn't distinguish between trilled r [r] and guttural r [ʁ] i.e. r is always pronounced as guttural r [ʁ])(overlaps and under pressure of the modern Lisbon metropolitan area dialect)
Alentejano(its more typical phonetic feature is the pronunciation of more open vowels than in Standard European Portuguese, final vowel e [e] is generally pronounced as i [i] or the [i] vowel is added after a final consonant where Standard European Portuguese doesn't have a final vowel after a consonant, and has a distinct prosody)(in South Alto Alentejo and Baixo Alentejo Provinces) ("Alentejo – Além Tejo" name means "Beyond Tagus")(roughly matches south Portalegre District and Évora and Beja Districts)
Islander(Geographical Grouping and not a Linguistic Genealogical one)(a divergent group of Portuguese dialects in phonetics and some vocabulary, several linguistic archaisms from Middle Portuguese when the islands were settled)(Azores and Madeira didn't have native Pre-European people)
Azorean(nine dialects in the nine islands of the Azores Archipelago, an areal grouping of dialects)
Micaelense(São Miguel Island dialect)(its more typical phonetic feature is the presence of the vowels ö [ø] and ü [y] in its phonemes, a common phonetic feature with Inland Southern Central dialects, mainly Baixo Beirão dialect, and with the more distant Gallo-Romance languages and dialects, it has more vowels than Standard European Portuguese and several long vowels, and it has a "French-like" prosody)
Terceirense(Terceira Island dialect)(its more typical phonetic feature is the presence of the semivowels [j] and [w] before a vowel in many words where Standard European Portuguese only has one vowel and a "singing-like" prosody)
Faialense(Faial Island dialect)(Faial island dialect is closer to Standard European Portuguese than the dialects of other islands, initial Flemish settlers, that spoke the germanic Flemish dialect of Dutch, some years later were rapidly surpassed and assimilated by a big majority of Portuguese settlers that came from Coastal Central Portugal, whose dialect is the basis of European Standard Portuguese, and did not influenced Faial Island dialect)
Madeirense(Madeira Island dialect)(its more typical phonetic feature is the pronunciation of the vowels u [u] and i [i], in many cases, as a Schwa [ə] or as [ɐ], where Micaelense and Baixo-Beirão dialects have ü [y] and the palatalization of l [l] to [λ] before i [i])
Amazonic Range(Serra Amazônica)/Deforestation Arc(Arco do Desflorestamento)
Southern / Broad Southern(one of its earlier centers, in the 16th century, was São Vicente, in the western half of the island with the same name, closely offshore of São Paulo State coast, in the eastern half of the island is Santos city)
Modern Athenian / Metropolitan Athenian Greek (close to Standard Modern Greek) (not quite a Southern or Northern Greek dialect, although Standard Modern Greek is based predominantly on the southern dialects, especially those of the Peloponnese)
Northern-Central Anatolian Greek/Northern-Central Asia Minor Greek (more divergent than Western and Southern Anatolian Greek, that were more in contact with other Greek dialects, divergent enough to be considered separate languages although closely related to Modern Greek, they descend from Medieval or Byzantine Greek)
Transitional Lower East Franconian - Upper East Franconian - Area between Lower East Franconian(Unterostfränkisch) and Upper East Franconian(Oberostfränkisch): Ansbacher-, Neustädter- und Coburger Raum(in Ansbach, Neustdt am Main and Coburg)
Heanzen / Burgenlandish (Burgenländisch) (spoken in Burgenland, formerly known as Heizenland, which was also the name of a short-lived republic – the Republic of Heizenland, the border region between Austria and Hungary was mostly ethnic Austrian German, part of the land of the West Hungary Germans – Westungarn Deutsche)
Pennsylvania German (Pennsylvania "Dutch") (Deitsch / Pennsilfaanisch Deitsch) (Pennsilfaanisch Deitsch is the self name or autonym of the language, "Deitsch" and "Dutch" are cognates but now have different meanings: one for Germanic language in a broad sense, not only for German in a narrow sense, and the other for specifically the Dutch or Nederlandic language, leading to the name Pennsylvania Dutch for the language in English due to the similarity of names)
Ripuarian / Ripuarian Franconian (Ripoarisch Platt / Ripoarėsch Sprooche) (descends from the language spoken by the Ripuarian Franks) (part of the set of isoglosses called the "Rhenish fan" in linguistics because of its shape on language maps)
Middle Pommeranian /Neo-Brandenburgisch / Neo-Margravian(Middle Pommeranian, Mittelpommersch)(dialect formed by the expansion of Brandenburgisch into an older Pomeranian land)(Pomeranian substrate)(included Stettin, today's Szczecin, in Poland)
Latgalian (Upper Latgalian) (Upper Latvian) (Latgalīšu) (Augšzemnieku dialekts) (divergent enough to be considered a separate language from Latvian but closely related to it) (initially Latvian developed from the language of the Latgalians)
Rusyn / Carpathian Rusyn (also known as Ruthenian, Rusinian) (Pусиньскый язык / Pуски язи – Rusîn'skyj Jazyk / Ruski Jazik / Pуснацькый язык – Rusnac'kyj jazyk / Πо-Hашому – Po Nashomu) (spoken by the Rusyns mainly in Carpathian Ruthenia, most in Transcarpathia, far southeastern Poland and far northeastern Slovakia and also in enclaves in Bačka, Vojvodina, northern Serbia; Slavonia, eastern Croatia; the Banat, southwestern Romania; and northern Bosnia) (divergent enough to be considered its own language, not a simple Ukrainian dialect, although it has some mutual intelligibility with Ukrainian)
Russian (Pусский язык – Russkij / Russkiy Yazyk) (an older name was великорусский - Velikorusskiy - Great Russian or Great Russian language) (distinction between russian dialects of primary formation and russian dialects of second formation is mainly chronological and geographical not genealogical) (dialects of primary formation correspond to Old Russia, mainly settled before 16th century, the Russian Core dialects in the central area of European Russia) (dialects of secondary formation correspond to the new territories where Russians expanded, mainly and especially after the Russian expansion and conquests from the 16th century until 19th centuries and the formation of a Russian diaspora outside Russia proper)
Central Russian / Middle Russian(Transitional Northern-Southern Russian, has characteristics with both southern and northern dialects)(this dialectal area forms a big arc strip or bow-shaped strip, from northwest towards southeast, between southern and northern dialects, including both dialects of primary and second formation, from Saint Petersburg, passing by Veliky Novgorod, Tver, Moscow, Penza, Saratov and Volgograd, to Astrakhan)
West Central Russian / West Middle Russian(Novgorodskiy – Novgorodian)(Old Novgorodian substrate)
Siberian Russian dialects(a group of dialects in a very big landmass language area, in Siberia, in the broadsense also including the Russian Far East)(the dialects of the Siberian Russians and other Starozhily Russians were formed mainly on the basis of Northern Russian dialects although there was also contribution from the dialects of Russian settlers speaking dialects of Middle and Southern groups)
Western Central Moravian(Západní středomoravská okrajová podskupina)
Eastern Central Moravian(Východní středomoravská podskupina)
New Mixed dialects / Peripheral Czech dialects(in former ethnic and linguistic German majority territories of the Sudeten Germans, Sudetenland, that where annexed to Czechoslovakia in 1945, border region of what is today the Czech Republic with Germany, Austria and Poland)
Transitional Slovene-Serbo-Croatian / Transitional Slovene-Kajkavian-Chakavian-Shtokavian (dialects do not follow a border defined by ethnic groups, people from the same ethnic group could speak different dialects with different dialect group affiliation)
Kajkavian (Kajkavica / Kajkavština) (divergent enough from Standard Croatian, which is Shtokavian based, to be considered its own language)
Northwestern Kajkavian(Closed Ekavian)(several similarities with Slovene)
Southwestern Kajkavian(Closed Ekavian, transitional to Shtokavian)
Prigorje(Closed Ekavian, Kajkavised Chakavian and Shtokavian speakers)
Gorski Kotar(Ikavian, transitional to Slovenian as well)
Kajkavian diaspora dialects
Kajkavian Burgenland Croatian(Gradišćanskohrvatski jezik)("Burgenland Croatian" is an umbrella word for different dialects with different group affiliation)(spoken in Burgenland state, far eastern Austria, west of Hungary, between Slovenia to the south and Slovakia to the north, it does not border Croatia directly)(spoken by the Burgenland Croats, which originally came from the river Una valley)
Kajkavian Croatian Neusiedl dialect(some Croats speak a Kajkavian dialect near Lake Neusiedl)
Chakavian Burgenland CroatianGradišćanskohrvatski jezik("Burgenland Croatian" is an umbrella word for different dialects with different group affiliation)(spoken in Burgenland state, far eastern Austria, west of Hungary, between Slovenia to the south and Slovakia to the north, it does not border Croatia directly)(spoken by the Burgenland Croats, which originally came from the river Una valley)
Dolinci dialect(dialect of the Dolinci in Unterpullendorf, Frankenau, Kleinmutschen, etc. is a (middle) Chakavian dialect)
Poljan dialect(dialect of the Poljanci near Lake Neusiedl, is a (middle) Chakavian dialect)
Hac dialect(Chakavian dialect of Haci near Neusiedl)
Shtokavian–(south)Chakavian Burgenland Croatian (Gradišćanskohrvatski jezik) ("Burgenland Croatian" is an umbrella word for different dialects with different group affiliation)(spoken in Burgenland state, Gradišće in Croatian, far eastern Austria, west of Hungary, between Slovenia to the south and Slovakia to the north, it does not border Croatia directly)(spoken by the Burgenland Croats, which originally came from the river Una valley)
Štoj dialect(dialect of the Croatian group Štoji – Güttenbach, Stinatz, Neuberg, is a Shtokavian–(south)Chakavian mixed dialect)
Shtokavian (Štokavski) (basis of Serbo-Croatian but not identical) (dialects do not follow a border defined by ethnic groups, people from the same ethnic group could speak different dialects with different dialect group affiliation)
Schakavian Burgenland Croatian(Gradišćanskohrvatski jezik)("Burgenland Croatian" is an umbrella word for different dialects with different group affiliation)(spoken in Burgenland state, Gradišće in Croatian, far eastern Austria, west of Hungary, between Slovenia to the south and Slovakia to the north, it does not border Croatia directly)(spoken by the Burgenland Croats, which originally came from the river Una valley)
Vlah dialect(dialect of the Vlahi, is a Shtokavian dialect in Weiden bei Rechnitz, Zuberbach, Althodis, Schandorf, Dürnbach, Allersdorf, etc., is Shtokavian (schacavian) ikavian dialect similar to Slavonian)
Dalmatian / Shtokavian Dalmatian(Shtakavian, Ikavian)(Croatian Dalmatian)(not to be confused with the extinct Romance Dalmatian language)
Bunjevac(Shtakavian, Ikavian)(in far northwestern Vojvodina)(an enclave of New Western Shtokavian)
New Southern Shtokavian
Eastern Herzegovinian (Istočnohercegovački / источнохерцеговачки) (in a broad sense)(Ijekavian)(it is the most widespread subdialect of the Shtokavian dialect of Serbo-Croatian, both by territory and the number of speakers)(it is the dialectal basis for all modern literary Serbo-Croatian standards: Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian, and Montenegrin, the latter only partially codified)(originated roughly in Eastern Herzegovina, has spread over a large area out of its initial home region)
Janjevo-Letnica(traditionally in the southeastern part of Kosovo)(spoken by the Kosovo Croats that form Slavic language enclaves in Kosovo the same way as Kosovo Serbians)
Janjevo dialect(was spoken in Janjevo by the Janjevci, Kosovo Croats, a Croatian subgroup that speaks a Torlakian dialect)
Letnica dialect(spoken in several settlements historically inhabited by the Letničani, Kosovo Croats; they were Laramans, that is, crypto-Christians, specifically crypto-Catholics in their case, in the municipality of Viti, Kosovo; a Croatian subgroup that speaks a Torlakian dialect)
Bulgarian (Slavic Bulgarian / Seven Tribes Slavic) (български – Bălgarski / языкъ словяньскъ – Jazykŭ Slovyanĭskŭ) (old east south Slavic people, the Seven Slavic tribes and other Slavic tribes, who called their own language simply as "Slavic", later adopted the adjective "Bulgarian" for the language based on the name of most of their ruling elite – the Bulgars, which were of Turkic non-Indo-European origin and founded the Bulgarian Empire)
Macedonian (Slavic Macedonian / Vardar Slavic) (македонски / македонски Jазик – Makedonski / Makedonski Jazik) (often included in the Western Bulgarian dialects of the Eastern South Slavicdialect continuum) (old east south Slavic people, composed of several Slavic tribes, who called their own language simply as "Slavic", later adopted the adjective "Macedonian" for the language based on the name of the former East Roman Empire Province called Macedonia that had this name by reference of the ancient Hellenic people – the Macedonians, although most of the territory of Modern North Macedonia was Paeonia) (not to be confused with the Macedonian Greek dialect spoken by the Macedonian Greeks)
Central Pashto (GhiljiPakhto) (or Northwestern dialect) (منځنۍ پښتو – Manźanəi Pax̌to) (divergent enough to be considered a separate language with its own dialects, although closely related to the other Pakhto or Pashto languages) (Basis of Standard Pakhto/Pashto but not identical)
Wanetsi (Tarīnō / Chalgarī) (وڼېڅي – Waṇētsī; ترينو – Tarīnō; څلګري – Tsalgarī) (an archaic and divergent Pakhto/Pashto variety) (divergent enough to be considered a separate language with its own dialects, although closely related to the other Pakhto or Pashto languages)
Transitional Iranian-Indo-Aryan (older name: Kafiri) (according to some scholars there is the possibility that the older name "Kapisi" that was synonymal of Kambojas, related to the ancient Kingdom of Kapisa, in modern-day Kapisa Province, changed to "Kafiri" and came to be confused and assimilated with "kafiri", meaning "infidel" in Arabic and used in Muslim religion)
Urdu / Lashkari(Persianised standard register of the Hindustani language) (اُردُو – Urdū)
Modern Standard Urdu(prestige dialect of the language spoken in Northern South Asia, especially in cities; contains more Persian and Arabic vocabulary than Dakhni but less than Rekhta; lingua franca of Pakistan)
Dakhini / Dakkhani / Deccani (دکنی – Dakkhani) (fewer Persian and Arabic loans than other Urdu dialects)(an Urdu dialect or a derived language from it)(spoken by the Dakhini Muslims in Central and Southern India)
Bodo Parja / Jharia (tribal dialect of Odia spoken mostly in Koraput district of Southern Odisha)
Desiya Odia or Koraputia Odia (spoken in Koraput, Kalahandi, Rayagada, Nabarangapur and Malkangiri Districts of Odisha and in the hilly regions of Vishakhapatnam, Vizianagaram District of Andhra Pradesh)
Sambalpuri / Western Odia (Kosali) (spoken in western Odisha, East India, in Bargarh, Bolangir, Boudh, Debagarh, Nuapada, Sambalpur, Subarnapur districts of Odisha and in Raigarh, Mahasamund, Raipur districts of Chhattisgarh state) (it is not to be confused with "Kosali", a term sometimes also used for Awadhi and related languages)
Reli / Relli (spoken in Southern Odisha and bordering areas of Andhra Pradesh)
Kupia (spoken by the Valmiki caste people in the Indian state of Telangana and Andhra Pradesh, mostly in Hyderabad, Mahabubnagar, Srikakulam, Vizianagaram, East Godavari and Visakhapatnam districts)
Tharu (थारु – Tharu) (not only one language) (pre-Indo-European, pre-Dravidian and pre-Sino-Tibetan substrate of an unknown language or languages of a possible indigenous language family) (mainly in the Terai)
Nearer Gushiean / Anterior Gushiean, in the Turpan Basin southern area
Further Gushiean / Posterior Gushiean, in the Turpan Basin northern area
Yuezhiean (it was spoken by the Yuezhi, an ancient Indo-European speaking people, in the western areas of the modern Chinese province of Gansu, during the 1st millennium BC, or in Dunhong, in the Tian Shan, later they migrated westward and southward into south Central Asia, in contact and conflict with the Sogdians and Bactrians, and they possibly were the people called by the name "Tocharians", which was possibly a Tocharian or an Iranian speaking people)
Greater-Yuezhiean (Dà Yuèzhī – 大月氏) (dialect ancestral to the hypothetical Kushanite language spoken in Kushana). Possibly this language was spoken by an Iranian or Tocharian people (possibly they were the ancestors of the Kushans)
Hunnic-Xiongnu language or languages (possibly the same or part of the same)
Hunnic (possibly part, related or descend from the older language of the Xiongnu) – there is a hypothesis that endorses the possibly that Hunnic belonged to the Scythian branch of Iranic language group (other hypotheses uphold Hunnic was a Turkic or Yenisean language) (Huns were a tribal confederation of different peoples and tribes, not necessarily of the same origin, because of that, even if not the most, there may have been an Indo-European linguistic element)
Xiongnu (Huns may have been related, part of them or descend from them) – spoken by the Xiongnu tribes in Central Mongolia and northeast China (other hypotheses uphold Xiongnu language was a Turkic or Yenisean language) (Xiongnu were a tribal confederation of different peoples and tribes, not necessarily of the same origin, because of that, even if not the most, there may have been an Indo-European linguistic element)
Euphratic – a hypothetical ancient Indo-European language spoken in the Euphrates river course that may have been the substrate language of later Semitic languages.
Ordos culture language – located in modern Inner Mongolia autonomous region, China.This culture may reflect the easternmost extension of an Indo-European ethnolinguistic group, possibly Iranian under the form of Sakans or Scythians, or Tocharian (One other possibility is that they were the Xiongnu people).
Qiang language (of the ancient Qiang people) – spoken by the historical Qiang people in parts of the northeastern and eastern Tibetan Plateau, modern China.