Kumaoni
कुमाऊँनी
Kumaoni written in kumaoni language2019.png
'Kumauni' written in Devanagari script.
PronunciationIPA: [kuːmɑːʊni]
Native toIndia
RegionKumaon (India)
Doti[1][2] (Nepal)
EthnicityKumaoni
Native speakers
2.2 million (2011 census)[3]
Devanagari
Language codes
ISO 639-3kfy
Glottologkuma1273
Kumaoni Language Speakers in India (2011 Census).png
Kumaoni Language Speakers in India (2011 Census)
This article contains Indic text. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks or boxes, misplaced vowels or missing conjuncts instead of Indic text.

Kumaoni (कुमाऊँनी; pronounced [kuːmɑːʊni]) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by over two million people of the Kumaon region of the state of Uttarakhand in northern India and parts of Doti region in Western Nepal.[1] As per 1961 survey there were 1,030,254 Kumaoni speakers in India.[4] The number of speakers increased to 2.2 million in 2011.

Kumaoni is not endangered but UNESCO's Atlas of the World's Languages in Danger designates it as a language in the unsafe category, meaning it requires consistent conservation efforts.[5]

Script

Kumaoni uses the Devanagari script. [6]

Geographic distribution and dialects

There are several dialects spoken in the Kumaon region. There is not single accepted method of dividing up the dialects of Kumaoni. Broadly speaking, Kali (or Central) Kumaoni is spoken in Almora and northern Nainital. North-eastern Kumaoni is spoken in Pithoragarh. South-eastern Kumaoni is spoken in South-eastern Nainital. Western Kumaoni is spoken west of Almora and Nainital.

More specifically:[7]

Some Kumaoni speakers are also reportedly found in Western Nepal.[9]

History

Flag of Kumaon Kingdom
Flag of Kumaon Kingdom
Kumaoni written on an old copper inscription from 989CE. using Devanagari script.
Kumaoni written on an old copper inscription from 989CE. using Devanagari script.

Various Kumaoni text founded from the katyuri and chand era on temple stones and as copper plate inscriptions.[10][11] Kumaoni was official language of Kumaon Kingdom.[citation needed]

Grammar

Being part of the Indo-Aryan dialect continuum Kumauni shares its grammar with other Indo-Aryan languages like Dotyali, Nepali, Hindi, Rajasthani, Kashmiri and Gujarati. It shares much of its grammar with the other language of the Central Pahari group like Garhwali. The peculiarities of grammar in Kumaoni and other Central Pahari languages exist due to the influence of the now extinct language of the Khasas, the first inhabitants of the region. In Kumauni the verb substantive is formed from the root ach, as in both Rajasthani and Kashmiri. In Rajasthani its present tense, being derived from the Sanskrit present rcchami, I go, does not change for gender. But in Pahari and Kashmiri it must be derived from the rare Sanskrit particle *rcchitas, gone, for in these languages it is a participial tense and does change according to the gender of the subject. Thus, in the singular we have: - Here we have a relic of the old Khasa language, which, as has been said, seems to have been related to Kashmiri. Other relics of Khasa, again agreeing with north-western India, are the tendency to shorten long vowels, the practice of epenthesis, or the modification of a vowel by the one which follows in the next syllable, and the frequent occurrence of disaspiration. Thus, Khas siknu, Kumauni sikhno, but Hindi sikhna, to learn; Kumauni yeso, plural yasa, of this kind.

Language Comparison
  Khas-kura Kumauni Kashmiri
  Masc Fem Masc Fem Masc Fem
I am chu chu chic chu thus ches
You are chas ches chai chi chukh chekh
He is cha che ch chi chuh cheh

Verb conjugation

Conjugation of the verb Lekh (लेख) to write, in all three tenses in Kumaoni.

Present tense

Singular Plural

मैं

main

लेखनू

lekhnu

मैं लेखनू

main lekhnu

I write

हम

hum

लेखनु

lekhnu

हम लेखनु

hum lekhnu

we write

तू

tu

लेख

lekh

छे

chhe

तू लेख छे

tu lekh chhe

you write

तुम

tum

लेख

lekh

छो

chho

तुम लेख छो

tum lekh chho

you write

U

लिखनो

likhno

उ लिखनो

U likhno

he writes

ऊँ

un

लेखन

lekhan

छन

chhan

ऊँ लेखन छन

un lekhan chhan

they write

Past tense

Singular Plural

मेल

maile

लिखौ

lekho

मेल लिखौ

maile lekho

I wrote

हमुल

humul

लेखौ

lekho

हमुल लेखौ

humul lekho

we wrote

त्वील

tveel

लिखौ

lekho

त्वील लिखौ

tveel lekho

you wrote

तुमुल

tumule

लेखौ

lekho

तुमुल लेखौ

tumule lekho

you wrote

वील

veel

लिखौ

lekho

वील लिखौ

veel lekho

he wrote

उनुले

unule

लेखौ

lekho

उनुले लेखौ

unule lekho

they wrote

Future tense

Singular Plural

मैं

main

लिखूंलो

lekhulo

मैं लिखूंलो

main lekhulo

I will write

हम

hum

लेखुंला

lekhula

हम लेखुंला

hum lekhula

we will write

तू

tum

लेखले

lekhle

तू लेखले

tum lekhle

you will write

तुम

tum

लेखला

lekhla

तुम लेखला

tum lekhla

you will write

u

लेखल

lekhal

उ लेखल

u lekhal

he will write

ऊँ

un

लेखल

lekhal

ऊँ लेखल

un lekhal

they will write

Example short phrases

Words/phrases Transliteration Meaning
जै देव Jai Dev Hello Formal.
पैलाग Pailaag Hi/Hello (lit. touch your feet as a sign of respect used by younger members to greet older members)
कस हेरे छे? Kas hare chhe? How are you? Informal
कस हेरो छा? Kas haro cha How are you? Formal
भल हेरो Bhal hero I am fine
काँ जाण छा? kaa jaan chha? Where are you going
होए Hoye. Yes.
ना Nā. No.
कतु? Katu? How much?/How many?
काँ? Kajāh? Where?
कसिक? Kasik? How?
कैक? Kaik? Whose?
को? Ko? Who?
किला Kila? Why?
के? Ke? What?
के हेगो? Ke hego. What happened?
तुमऱ नौ के छ? Tumar nau ke che? What is your name?
बेरे घर (ध्याव ) अजया Baere ghyav ajayaa Come home early
आपूं कां बटे आछा? Aapoun kan bate aachcha? From where do you come?
को जाल बजार? Ko jal Baazar Who will go to market?
ओ बबो O babo Oh my god!

Official Status

There have been demands to include Kumaoni along with Garhwali in the 8th schedule of the Constitution of India so that it could be made one of the Scheduled Language of India. In 2010, a private member's bill was introduced for discussion in the Lok Sabha whose aim was to include Garhwali and Kumaoni in the Eighth Schedule of the Constitution.[12][13]

However In a step to promote and protect indigenous languages in December 2019 Government of the state introduced Official Kumaoni Books for Classes 1-5 students of kumaon division Schools.[14]

Kumaoni literature

Kumaoni language has had many noteworthy writers, prominent among them are

Media and art

Films

Theatre

Kumaoni theatre which developed through its 'Ramleela' plays,[20] later evolved into a modern theatre form with the efforts of theatre stalwarts like Mohan Upreti, Naima Khan Upreti and Dinesh Pandey, and groups like 'Parvatiya Kala Kendra' (started by Mohan Upreti) and 'Parvatiya Lok Kala Manch'. "Ankhar" of Lucknow did a very good work in the field of kumaoni theater. Ankhar played a number of kumauni plays like "mee yo gayun, mee yo satkyun" writer Nand Kumar Upreti, "Punturi" by Charu Chandra Pandey, "Motor Road" by Govind Ballabh Pant, "Labh Ribhadi" writer Nand Kumar Upreti, "Kagare Aag" and "Tumhare Liye" by Himanshu Joshi, Kumauni translation Naveeen Joshi and कुमाउनी नाटक-जैल थै, वील पै.[21]

Folk music

Folk song genres include ceremonial mandals, martial panwaras and melancholy khuded, thadya, and jhoda.

Musical instruments used in Kumaon music include thedhol, damoun, turri, ransingha, dholki, daur, thali, bhankora, andmasakbhaja. Tabla and harmonium are also used, but to a lesser extent.

Some prominent singers are:

In the early 1990s songs on the turning life style mainly on the one who are heading towards town being made in which meri kumau ki gaadi, hit meri punjaban billo uttarakhand pahara, bwaari tamaaku pija etc. criticize the changing attitude in kumaoni society, the songs of mohan manral straight away criticize of the changing mindset of metropolitan kumaoni society running away from their roots.

However, in an attempt to revive the love for these songs, especially among the youth, unplugged or reprise covers of folk songs like, "Haaye Teri Rumaala", "Chhaana Bilauri", "Hit Dagadi Kamla", "Gughuti na Baasa" by several young artists like Suraj Verma, Gaurav Pandey, Priyanka Meher, etc. have been produced.[22]

Radio

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "History of Nepal". T.R.Vaidya Publications. Archived from the original on 9 February 2005. Retrieved 31 January 2008.
  2. ^ Eichentopf, Stephanie R. (2014). A Sociolinguistic Study of Dotyali (Report). Tribhuvan University and SIL International. p. 14.
  3. ^ Simons, Gary F; Fennig, Charles D, eds. (2018). Ethnologue: Languages of the World (21st ed.). Dallas, Texas: SIL International.
  4. ^ "indianmothertongues1961".
  5. ^ "UNESCO Interactive Atlas of the World's Languages in Danger". UNESCO. Retrieved 3 September 2010.
  6. ^ Grierson, George Abraham. Linguistic Survey Of India, Volume 9.4. p. 190.
  7. ^ "Uttaranchal Dialects and Languages - Uttarakhand Worldwide - Kumaoni and Garhwali - Kumaon and Garhwal Dialects -". 5 March 2012. Archived from the original on 5 March 2012. Retrieved 8 February 2021.
  8. ^ "Uttaranchal Dialects and Languages - Uttarakhand Worldwide - Kumaoni and Garhwali - Kumaon and Garhwal Dialects". Uttaranchal.org.uk. Archived from the original on 5 March 2012. Retrieved 12 July 2012.
  9. ^ Eichentopf, Stephanie R. (2014). A Sociolinguistic Study of Dotyali (Report). Tribhuvan University and SIL International. p. 14.
  10. ^ Śarmā, Devīdatta (1983). Linguistic History of Uttarākhaṇḍa. Vishveshvaranand Vedic Research Institute.
  11. ^ Miśra, Nityānanda (1994). Source Materials of Kumauni History. Shree Almora Book Depot. ISBN 978-81-85865-24-9.
  12. ^ "Members want inclusion of Kumaoni, Garhwali in 8th schedule". 27 March 2012. Archived from the original on 27 March 2012. Retrieved 11 January 2020.
  13. ^ Saxena, Shivani (22 February 2016). "Postcards demand official language status for Kumaoni, Garhwali". The Times of India. Retrieved 12 February 2020.
  14. ^ "CM releases Kumaoni books for school students". The Times of India. Retrieved 11 January 2020.
  15. ^ Kumaoni Cinema Archived 11 February 2008 at the Wayback Machine Pahari Shabdkosh.
  16. ^ "First Kumaoni Film Of Uttarakhand". Youtube. Archived from the original on 13 December 2021. Retrieved 16 April 2021.
  17. ^ The Times of India Teri Saun, 10 May 2003.
  18. ^ Film set in 1994 Uttarakhand Movement Archived 3 November 2007 at the Wayback Machine Nandadevi Campaign.
  19. ^ Maduhli[permanent dead link] Kumaoni Films at uttarakhandandbeyond.
  20. ^ Indian Traditions Theatre at iloveindia.
  21. ^ "कुमाउनी नाटक (जैल थै, वील पै)" (PDF). 7 October 2015. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 October 2015. Retrieved 29 July 2020.
  22. ^ "Best Kumaoni Songs with lyrics". lyricsnary. Retrieved 19 February 2021.
  23. ^ "Teri launches Kumaon Vani community radio service". One India. Retrieved 3 September 2010.
  24. ^ Dr. Shailesh Upreti (23 February 2011). "First e Radio of Uttarakhand". official. bedupako. Retrieved 28 June 2008.

Further reading