Halbi
हलबी
The word "Halbi" written in Devanagari script
Native toIndia
RegionChhattisgarh, Odisha, Andhra Pradesh, and Maharashtra
EthnicityHalba
Native speakers
766,297 (2011 census)[1]
Odia, Devanagari
Language codes
ISO 639-3hlb
Glottologhalb1244  Halbi
Linguasphere59-AAF-tb
Halbi-speaking region

Halbi (also Bastari, Halba, Halvas, Halabi, Halvi) is an Eastern Indo-Aryan language, transitional between Odia and Marathi.[2] It is spoken by at least 766,297 people across the central part of India.

The Mehari (or Mahari) dialect is mutually intelligible with the other dialects only with difficulty. There are an estimated 200,000 second-language speakers (as of 2001). In Chhattisgarh educated people are fluent in Hindi. Some first language speakers use Bhatri as second language.

Halbi is often used as a trade language, but there is a low literacy rate. It is written in the Odia and Devanagari scripts.[citation needed] It uses SOV word order (subject-object-verb), makes strong use of affixes, and places adjectives before nouns.

Phonology

Vowels

Halbi has 6 vowels: /i, e, ə, a, o, u/. All vowels show contrastive vowel nasalization.[3]

Consonants

Labial Alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal voiced m n (ɳ) (ɲ) ŋ
breathy
Stop/
Affricate
voiceless p t ʈ k
aspirated ʈʰ tʃʰ
voiced b d ɖ g
breathy ɖʱ dʒʱ
Fricative s h
Approximant voiced ʋ l j
breathy
Rhotic voiced r (ɽ)
breathy (ɽʱ)

References

  1. ^ "Statement 1: Abstract of speakers' strength of languages and mother tongues - 2011". www.censusindia.gov.in. Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 2018-07-07.
  2. ^ Masica (1991)
  3. ^ Kaushikkar, Chitra Vijay (1972). A descriptive analysis of Halbi: An Indo-Aryan language. Poona: Deccan College.