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The Eighth Schedule to the Constitution of India lists nationally recognised regional languages of the Republic of India. At the time when the Constitution was enacted, inclusion in this list meant that the language was entitled to representation on the Official Languages Commission,[1] and that the language would be one of the bases that would be drawn upon to enrich Hindi and English, the official languages of the Union.[2] The list has since, however, acquired further significance. The Government of India is now under an obligation to take measures for the development of these languages, such that "they grow rapidly in richness and become effective means of communicating modern knowledge."[3] In addition, candidates sitting for an examination conducted for public service are entitled to use any of these languages as a medium to answer the paper.[4]

Scheduled languages

As per Articles 344(1) and 351 of the Constitution of India, the eighth schedule includes the recognition of 22 languages.[5][6]

  1. Assamese
  2. Bengali
  3. Bodo
  4. Dogri
  5. Gujarati
  6. Hindi[note 1]
  7. Kannada
  8. Kashmiri
  9. Konkani
  10. Maithili
  11. Malayalam
  12. Manipuri
  13. Marathi
  14. Nepali
  15. Odia
  16. Punjabi
  17. Sanskrit
  18. Santali
  19. Sindhi
  20. Tamil
  21. Telugu
  22. Urdu[note 1]

Chronology

Demands for expansion

At present, as per the Ministry of Home Affairs,[7][11] there are demands for inclusion of 39 more languages in the Eighth Schedule to the Constitution. These are:

  1. Angika
  2. Awadhi
  3. Banjara
  4. Bajjika
  5. Bhojpuri
  6. Bhoti
  7. Bhotia
  8. Bundelkhandi
  9. Chhattisgarhi
  10. Dhatki
  11. English
  12. Garhwali
  13. Gondi
  14. Gujjari
  15. Ho
  16. Kachhi
  17. Kamtapuri
  18. Karbi
  19. Khasi
  20. Kodava
  21. Kokborok
  22. Kurmali
  23. Kumaoni
  24. Kurukh
  25. Lepcha
  26. Limbu
  27. Mizo
  28. Magahi
  29. Mundari
  30. Nagpuri
  31. Nicobarese
  32. Pahari
  33. Pali
  34. Rajasthani
  35. Sambalpuri
  36. Shauraseni Prakrit
  37. Saraiki
  38. Tenyidi
  39. Tulu

Notes

  1. ^ a b Although linguistically Hindi and Urdu together are classified as a single language called Hindustani, the government classifies them as separate languages instead of different standard registers of the same language for socio-political reasons. See Hindi–Urdu controversy for further information.

References

  1. ^ Constitution of India, Article 344(1).
  2. ^ Constitution of India, Article 351.
  3. ^ Official Languages Resolution, 1968, para. 2. Archived March 18, 2010, at the Wayback Machine
  4. ^ Official Languages Resolution, 1968, para. 4. Archived March 18, 2010, at the Wayback Machine
  5. ^ Josh, Jagran (4 January 2019). Current Affairs January 2019 eBook: by Jagran Josh. Jagran Josh. pp. 97–.
  6. ^ Arihant Experts (5 March 2022). LLB Bachelor of Laws 12 Solved Papers (2021-2010) For 2022 Exams. Arihant Publications India limited. pp. 320–. ISBN 9789326191210.
  7. ^ a b c "Constitutional provisions relating to Eighth Schedule" (PDF). Ministry Of Home Affairs. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 March 2016. Retrieved 4 October 2016.
  8. ^ "The Constitution (Twenty-first Amendment) Act, 1967". Archived from the original on 30 January 2012. Retrieved 5 December 2013.
  9. ^ "The Constitution (Seventy-first Amendment) Act, 1992| National Portal of India". www.india.gov.in. Retrieved 19 March 2023.
  10. ^ "Orissa becomes 'Odisha', Oriya is 'Odia'". The Indian Express. 6 September 2011. Retrieved 2 May 2023.
  11. ^ "Demands to include Awadhi as Scheduled Language".