The word "Angika" written in Devanagari script
Native toIndia and Nepal
RegionBihar and Jharkhand (India), Terai (Nepal)[1]
Native speakers
Around 15 Million[2]
Official status
Official language in
Language codes
ISO 639-2anp
ISO 639-3anp

Angika (also known as Anga, Angikar or Chhika-Chhiki)[1] is an Eastern Indo-Aryan language spoken in some parts of the Indian states of Bihar and Jharkhand, as well as in parts of Nepal.[1][4]

Angika is closely related to neighbouring Indic languages such as Maithili, Bengali, Bhojpuri and Magahi. Historically it was written in a separate script known as 'Anga Lipi'.[5] Later writers shifted to Kaithi Script and eventually to Devanagari Script.[5]

Relationship to Maithili

Angika was classified as a dialect of Maithili by George Abraham Grierson in the Linguistic Survey of India (1903).[6] However, the Angika speakers now assert its status as an independent language. When the proponents of the Maithili language in Bihar demanded use of Maithili-medium primary education in the early 20th century, the people of the Angika-speaking region did not support them, and instead favoured Hindi-medium education.[7] In the 1960s and the 1970s, when the Maithili speakers demanded a separate Mithila state, the Angika and Bajjika speakers made counter-demands for recognition of their languages.[8]

Maithili proponents believe that the Government of Bihar and the pro-Hindi Bihar Rashtrabhasha Parishad promoted Angika and Bajjika as distinct languages to weaken the Maithili language movement; many of them still consider Angika to be a dialect of Maithili.[7] People from mainly Maithil Brahmins and Karan Kayasthas castes have supported the Maithili movement, while people from various other castes in the Mithila region have projected Angika and Bajjika as their mother tongues, attempting to break away from the Maithili-based regional identity.[9]

Official status

Angika is not listed in the 8th schedule of the constitution of India.[10]

Angika has the status of "Second State language" in the Indian state of Jharkhand since 2018. It shares this status with 15 other languages, including Maithili.[3][11]

Anga region

Angika is mainly spoken in south-eastern Bihar, including most of Munger, the whole of Bhagalpur division and some south eastern parts of Purnia division along with the Santhal Pargana division of Jharkhand.[12][13][5] [13] Its speakers number around 15 million people.[2] The region where Angika is spoken is popularly known as Anga, Ang Pradesh and Angika-Belt.[14][15] Apart from Bihar and Jharkhand states of India, it is also spoken in the Morang district of Nepalese Terai as a minority language. 1.9% people of Morang returned Angika as their mother tongue during the 2011 Nepal census.[16]

Angika culture


Mansa Puja(Vishari Puja),the folk festival of Anga Region, celebration in Deepnagar Chowk, Bhagalpur.

Festivals are the core part cultural part of the community. Anga celebrates the festivals of all daith with great enthusiasm and zeal. However, Manasa Puja[17] (Based on Behula Vishahari folklore) and Kali Puja are the two intangible cultural heritage of the region. Apart from these, Durga Puja, Saraswati Puja, Chhath Puja, Biswakarma Puja, Basanti Puja, Holi, Guru Poornima and Eid too hold a great significance for the region.[citation needed]

Manasa Puja is the folk festival In Bihar's Ang region. It is the biggest festival of Anga. Champapuri the capital of Ang Pradesh is the main temple of Maa Vishari.[19] Maa Manasa is regarded as Goddess of Serpants.[20] Even today, the tradition of Manasa (Bihula-Vishhari) Puja, which has been going on since mythological times, continues. Mata Mansa is worshiped in Bihula-Vishhari. Maa Mansa is said to be the daughter of Shiva and the sister of Vasuki sitting as a garland around Mahadev's neck. Mythological beliefs of Bihula Vishhari story of Champanagar of Ang Pradesh are spread everywhere. Its facts are also found in the remains of Vikramshila even two historical idols of Maa Manasa have been found from the ruins.[21]

Anga is famous for the way of its Kali Puja Celebration which is one of the most celebrated festivals of the whole region. Together with Manasa Puja, it is intangible cultural heritage festival of Anga.[22]

As per Legends, Chhath Puja stems from the early Vedic period, where sages would fast for days and perform the puja with mantras from Rigveda. It is believed that Chhath Puja was also performed by Karna, the son of Lord Surya and the King of Anga. It is therefore celebrated in every region of Bihar with full enthusiasm and is termed as Mahaparv for Biharis.It is very popular festival in the Anga region[23][24][25]

Chhath Celebration in Narayanpur, Bhagalpur

Angika cuisine

Angika cuisine is predominantly consumed in the Anga region, and is characterised by the use of mustard oil, fish, and bamboo shoots. The famous Bihari Fish Curry and Sarse Baingan (a mustard preparation of eggplant) are beloved Angika delicacies. Other Angika cuisines are Ghugni-Mudi, Thekua.[26]

Bihari Style Ghughni which is served with Mudi
Sarsebaigan (a unique delicious spicy Angika Cuisine of Mustard and Eggplant)
Manjusha Art

Main article: Manjusha Art


Manjusha Art is an Indian art form. They are temple-shaped boxes comprising eight pillars. They are made of bamboo, jute, and paper. They also contain paintings of Hindu gods and goddesses and other characters. These boxes are used in Bishahari puja, a festival dedicated to Goddess Bishari that is celebrated in Bhagalpur, Munger and entire Anga Region of Bihar, India.[28][29][30]

Manjusha Painting (Map of Bihar in the Manjusha Painting portraying a great message)
Music and Drama
Angika Folk Song performance during Ang Mahotsav in Anga Region

Music and drama plays a crucial role in Ang Culture,[31] although it is not so famous but is a daily part of lifestyle in Anga Region. There is also a Music Industry and film industry Angika Music Industry and Angika Film Industry which provides regional music and films based on good story-lines.[32] Sharda Sinha, a famous folk singer of Bihar has covered more than 1500 songs in all Bihari languages including Angika.[33] During The 2023 Shravani Mela visit in Sultanganj, Another Angika Folk-Singer Chhaila Bihari stated that he will fight for the rights of Angika folksingers who are not getting the respect and platform that they deserve.[34] Ang Mahotsav[35][36], a cultural festival of Music and Drama is held every year in The Anga Region and is a good platform to promote Angika.[37]


  1. ^ a b c "Angika". Archived from the original on 21 March 2018. Retrieved 4 May 2022.
  2. ^ a b Sevanti Ninan (2007). Headlines From the Heartland: Reinventing the Hindi Public Sphere. SAGE Publications. p. 61. ISBN 978-0-7619-3580-3. Archived from the original on 11 May 2018.
  3. ^ a b Sudhir Kumar Mishra (22 March 2018). "Bhojpuri, 3 more to get official tag". The Telegraph. Archived from the original on 22 March 2018.
  4. ^ Experts, Arihant (1 February 2022). Jharkhand Sahivalye JGGLCCE Main Exam Paper 3 (General Knowledge) 2022. Arihant Publications India limited. ISBN 978-93-257-9990-5.
  5. ^ a b c Kumari, Khusbu; Upadhyay, Ramanjaney Kumar (17 June 2020). "Socio-Cultural Aspects of Angika". Palarch's Journal of Archaeology of Egypt/Egyptology. 17 (6): 6798.
  6. ^ Grierson 1903, p. 95.
  7. ^ a b Mithilesh Kumar Jha 2017, p. 163.
  8. ^ Kathleen Kuiper 2010, p. 57.
  9. ^ Manish Kumar Thakur 2002, p. 208.
  10. ^ "Languages in the Eighth Schedule". Ministry of Home Affairs. 22 December 2004. Archived from the original on 30 April 2013. Retrieved 5 May 2011.
  11. ^ "Jharkhand gives 2nd language status to Magahi, Angika, Bhojpuri and Maithali". United News of India. 21 March 2018. Archived from the original on 24 March 2018.
  12. ^ Experts, Arihant (1 February 2022). Jharkhand Sahivalye JGGLCCE Main Exam Paper 3 (General Knowledge) 2022. Arihant Publications India limited. ISBN 978-93-257-9990-5.
  13. ^ a b Masica 1993, p. 12.
  14. ^ Pandey, Mithila Sharan (1963). The Historical Geography and Topography of Bihar. Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 978-81-208-2657-1.
  15. ^ Kapur, Veena; Ghose, Sudipta (14 August 2018). Dynamic Learning Spaces in Education. Springer. ISBN 978-981-10-8521-5.
  16. ^ "2011 Nepal Census, Social Characteristics Tables" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 March 2023. Retrieved 15 September 2019.
  17. ^ "Behula Bisahari". 17 August 2020.
  18. ^ "Bihula Vishhari: जानिए बिहुला-विषहरी की पूरी कहानी, क्या है बारी कलश की मान्यता". Zee News (in Hindi). Retrieved 6 August 2023.
  19. ^ "अंग की लोकगाथा है बाला-बिहुला-विषहरी पूजा, ...जानें क्या है मान्यता?". Prabhat Khabar (in Hindi). 17 August 2020. Retrieved 6 August 2023.
  20. ^ "Story of Goddess Manasa". Google Arts & Culture. Retrieved 6 August 2023.
  21. ^ "मां विषहरी पूजा: बिहुला विषहरी की गाथा का साक्षी है अंग का इतिहास". Hindustan (in Hindi). Retrieved 6 August 2023.
  22. ^ "PHOTOS: बिहार के भागलपुर में 32 फीट की काली प्रतिमा, देखें जिले में स्थापित देवी की और भी तस्वीरें". Prabhat Khabar (in Hindi). 26 October 2022. Retrieved 6 August 2023.
  23. ^ "जानिए छठ पर्व का महत्व, कर्ण ने सबसे पहले की थी सूर्य देव की पूजा". Amar Ujala (in Hindi). Retrieved 6 August 2023.
  24. ^ "Chhath Puja 2019: History, significance, and why it is celebrated". Hindustan Times. 1 November 2019. Retrieved 6 August 2023.
  25. ^ "नगरपारा दह में छठ पर्व का दिखा उत्साह". Hindustan (in Hindi). Retrieved 6 August 2023.
  26. ^ "Bihari Cuisines- 4 regions,4 cuisines". Arts and Museum: 1.
  27. ^ Sinha, MR Ashok Kumar (1 August 2018). Bihar K Kaljai Shilpkar (in Hindi). Upendra Maharathi Shilp Anusandhan Sansthan.
  28. ^ Indian court painting, 16th-19th century.. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art. 1997. ISBN 0870997831.
  29. ^ Sinha, Rajiv Kumar; Pandey, O.P. Manjusha Art: Reflections in Folk-Lore, Trade, and Regional History. Shivalik Prakashan. OCLC 811492081.
  30. ^ "Manjusha Art of Eastern Bihar". Sahapedia. Retrieved 4 August 2023.
  31. ^ "पीजी संगीत व नाट्य विभाग में अंगिका सह मिथिला लोकपर्व का आयोजन". Hindustan (in Hindi). Retrieved 5 August 2023.
  32. ^ "Samdhi Kahiya Jaibho Angika Comedy 2023". FilmFreeway. Retrieved 4 August 2023.
  33. ^ "Sharda Sinha has more than 1500 folk songs in Angika, Bajjika, Maithili, Magahi and Bhojpuri languages". The Indian Express. 5 January 2022. Retrieved 5 August 2023.
  34. ^ "अंगिका कलाकारों के लिए संघर्ष करेंगे: छैला बिहारी". Hindustan (in Hindi). Retrieved 5 August 2023.
  35. ^ "मुंगेर में बिहार दिवस सह अंग महोत्सव का हो रहा आयोजन, जानें 4 दिवसीय कार्यक्रम का शेड्यूल". News18 हिंदी (in Hindi). 21 March 2023. Retrieved 7 August 2023.
  36. ^ "Bihar Diwas-cum-Anga Mahotsav 2023 | Munger District, Government of Bihar | India". Retrieved 7 August 2023.
  37. ^ "VIDEO: अंग महोत्सव में सुनील छैला बिहारी के गीतों पर जमकर झूमे लोग". News18 हिंदी (in Hindi). 21 March 2018. Retrieved 5 August 2023.