Mandeali
maṇḍiyālī
𑚢𑚘𑚶𑚖𑚮𑚣𑚭𑚥𑚯, मण्डियाली
Mandeali written in Mandi-Suket Takri Script[1]
Native toIndia
RegionHimachal Pradesh
EthnicityMandyali People
Native speakers
623,000 (2011 Census)[2]
Devanagari
Mandiali Takri
Language codes
ISO 639-3
mjl – Mandeali
Glottologmand1409  Mandeali

Mandeali (Takri: 𑚢𑚘𑚶𑚖𑚮𑚣𑚭𑚥𑚯) is a language spoken in northern India, predominantly in the Mandi district of Himachal Pradesh by the people of the Mandi Valley and particularly in the major city of Mandi. Other spellings for the name are Mandiyali and Mandiali. UNESCO reports it is one of the highly endangered languages of India.[3] Speakers of the dialect have decreased by 21% from 1961 to 2001.

The language is distantly related to Kullvi. The Chambealic varieties are often considered separate languages, but at least some are 90–95% intelligible with Mandeali proper. Its sub-dialect are different than mandeali[4]

Dialects

A light-hearted interview about Mandeali

Preliminary survey suggests speakers have functional intelligibility of Kangri. People in southeast Mandi district may have more difficulty understanding Kangri. Standard Mandeali is spoken throughout the broad valley running north and south from Jogindernagar to Sundarnagar. Mandeali Pahari is spoken north around Barot, east of Uhl River. Intelligible with difficulty to standard Mandeali. May be intermediate variety between Mandeali and Kullui. The dialect is very close to the Kullvi spoken in neighbouring lug valley region of Kullu district and are culturally, linguistically closer to Kullu. Southeast district contains transition to Mahasui. The dialect spoken is also sometimes referrd as Suketi or dialect of Outer Seraj Area as dialect is a intermidiate variety of Kullvi and Upper Mahasuvi of neighbouring Shimla and Kullu district. In the west, Sarkaghat is also a bit different from standard Mandeali, perhaps forming a transition towards Hamirpur and Bilaspur areas. Lexical similarity: 89% with Palampuri dialect of Kangri, 83% with Chambeali.[5]

Phonology

Consonants

Labial Dental Alveolar Retroflex Post-alv./
Palatal
Velar Glottal
Plosive /
Affricate
voiceless p t ʈ k
aspriated ʈʰ tʃʰ
voiced b d ɖ ɡ
breathy ɖʱ dʒʱ
Fricative voiceless s ʃ ɦ
voiced
Nasal m n ɳ (ŋ)
Lateral l ɭ
Trill/Tap r ɽ ɽʱ
Approximant j w

Vowels

The vowels of Mandeali language are shown below.

Front Central Back
Close i iː u uː
Mid (e) eː ə əː (o) oː
Open-mid ɔː
Open

Grammar

Pronouns

The Pronouns of Mandeali for different person and number are -

1st Person Singular : हाऊँ /ɦaːũ/

1st Person Plural : आस्से /asːe/

2nd Person Singular : तू /tu/

2nd Person Plural : तुस्से /t̪usːe/

3rd Person Proximate Singular  : ए, ये /eː, jeː/

3rd Person Proximate Plural : यों /jõː/

3rd Person Distal Singular : से /seː/

3rd Person Distal Plural : स्यों /sjõː/

Noun Cases

1. घर - घर - home - Nominative

2. घरो/ घरा जो - घर को - to home - Accusative

3. घरे - घर ने - Ergative

‌4. घरा के/ घरा कन्ने/ घरा साउगी - घर के साथ - with house - Comitative

5. घरा ले/ घरा ला - घर से - through home - Instrumental

6. घरा कट्ठे - घर के लिए - for home - Dative

7. घरा ले/ घरा ला - घर से - from home - Ablative

8. घरा रा/रे/री - घर का/की/के - of home - Genetive

9. घरा/ घरा मंझ - घर में - Innesive

10. घरा गास, परयाल्हे, पर - घर पर - Addesive

11. घरा (sing)/ घरो (plural)- ओ घर - Vocative

12. घरा साँहीं - घर जैसा - Similative

13. घरा तिक्कर/ तिक - घर तक - Terminative

Numerals

Numeral Mandeali
1 एक्क ekk
2 दुई duī
3 त्राए trāē
4 चार chār
5 पांज pānj
6 छेह chheh
7 सात्त sātt
8 आठ āṭh
9 नौ nau
10 दस das
11 ग्यारा gyārā
12 बारा bārā
13 तेहरा tehrā
14 चउदा chaudā
15 पंद्रा pandrā
16 सोळा soḷā
17 सतारा satārā
18 ठारा ṭhārā
19 उन्नी unni
20 बीह bīh

Script

The native script of the language is a variety of Takri called Mandeali Takri.

Specimen in Mandeali language

Vocabulary

Names of months

Traditionally, the month formats is based on Hindu calendar.

List of Months in Mandeali
मंडयाली Transliteration English
चइतर chaitar March–April
बसाख basākh April–May
जेठ jeṭh May–June
हाह्ड़ hāhṛ June–July
साओण sāoṇ July–August
भाद्रो bhādro August–September
सौज sauj September–October
कातक kātak October–November
मंगसर mangsar November–December
पौस paus December–January
माघ māgh January–February
फागण phāgaṇ February–March

Names of days

Days are generally indic.

List of days in Mandeali
मंडयाली Transliteration English
त्वार Twār Sunday
सोमबार Sombār Monday
मंगळबार Mangaḷbār Tuesday
बुद्धबार Buddhbār Wednesday
बीरबार Bīrbār Thursday
सुक्करबार Sukkarbār Friday
सनिचर Sanichar Saturday

•Twār is a loan word from Urdu (Itwār)

Status

The language is commonly called Pahari or Himachali, just like many other neighbouring languages. The language has no official status. According to the United Nations Education, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO), the language is of definitely endangered category, i.e. many Mandeali children are not learning Mandeali as their mother tongue anymore.[6]

The demand for the inclusion of 'Pahari (Himachali)' under the Eight Schedule of the Constitution, which is supposed to represent multiple Pahari languages of Himachal Pradesh, had been made in the year 2010 by the state's Vidhan Sabha.[7] There has been no positive progress on this matter since then even when small organisations strive to save the language and demand it.[8] Due to political interest, the language is currently recorded as a dialect of Hindi,[9] even when having a poor mutual intelligibility with it and being close to other Pahari languages such as Kahluri and Kangri.

References

  1. ^ Grierson, George Abraham. Linguistic Survey Of India, Volume 9.4. pp. 718, 719, 730.
  2. ^ Mandeali at Ethnologue (24th ed., 2021) Closed access icon
  3. ^ "UNESCO Atlas of the World's Languages in danger". Unesco.org. Retrieved 25 August 2012.
  4. ^ Mandeali at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015) (subscription required)
  5. ^ "Mandeali".
  6. ^ "Endangered languages". 15 April 2011.
  7. ^ "Pahari Inclusion". Zee News.
  8. ^ "Pahari Inclusion". The Statesman.
  9. ^ "Indian Language Census" (PDF).