Kundal Shahi
کنڈل شاہی
Kunḍal Šāhī
Native toPakistan
RegionNeelam Valley
Native speakers
700 (2005)[1]
Language codes
ISO 639-3shd
Glottologkund1257
Approximate location where Kundal Shahi is spoken
Approximate location where Kundal Shahi is spoken
Kundal Shahi
Approximate location where Kundal Shahi is spoken
Approximate location where Kundal Shahi is spoken
Kundal Shahi
Coordinates: 34°33′17″N 73°50′38″E / 34.5548°N 73.8439°E / 34.5548; 73.8439

Kundal Shahi (کنڈل شاہی, Kunḍal Šāhī) is an Indo-Aryan language of the Dardic subgroup spoken by about 700 people in the Kundal Shahi village of Neelam Valley in Azad Kashmir, Pakistan.[2] It is an endangered language and its speakers are shifting to Hindko.[3]

Phonology

The following tables set out the phonology of Kundal Shahi.[4]

Vowels

Kundal Shahi is unusual amongst Dardic languages in that it has front rounded vowels.[5]

Front Central Back
unrounded rounded unrounded rounded
Close i iː y yː u uː
Close-Mid e eː øː ə o oː
Open-Mid ɛ ɛː ʌ ɔ ɔː
Open a aː

Consonants

Like Kashmiri, Kundal Shahi is unusual amongst Dardic languages in that it lacks retroflex fricatives and affricates.[5]

Labial Alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n ɳ (ŋ)
Plosive/
Affricate
voiceless p t ʈ k
aspirated ʈʰ tʃʰ
voiced b d ɖ ɡ
Fricative voiceless f s ʃ x h
voiced z
Lateral l
Flap ɾ ɽ
Approximant j w

Tone

Kundal Shahi, like many Dardic languages, has either phonemic tone or, as in Kundal Shahi, pitch accent.[6] Words may have only one accented mora, which is associated with high pitch; the remaining mora have a default or low pitch.[5]

References

  1. ^ Kundal Shahi at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015) (subscription required)
  2. ^ "Kundal Shahi". Ethnologue.
  3. ^ A. Rehman, Khawaja; L. G. Baart, Joan (2005). "A First Look at the Language of Kundal Shahi in Azad Kashmir" (PDF). SIL International.
  4. ^ Baart & Rehman 2005, pp. 10–13.
  5. ^ a b c Baart & Rehman 2005.
  6. ^ Baart 2003, pp. 3, 6.

Bibliography

Further reading