Kohistani Shina
Kohistani, Kohistyo, Palasi-Kohistani
ݜݨیاٗ کستِین٘و زبان / ݜݨیاٗ زبان
Native toPakistan
RegionKohistan District, Pakistan
Native speakers
458,000 (2018)[1]
Indo-European
Dialects
Perso-Arabic script (Nastaliq)
Language codes
ISO 639-3plk
Glottologkohi1248

Kohistani Shina is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in the former Kohistan District of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, northern Pakistan. According to Ethnologue, Kohistani Shina is mutually intelligible with the Shina variety of Chilas, but not with the standard dialect of Gilgit.[1] Bateri and Kalkoti speakers speak Kohistani Shina as a second language.[3] Indus Kohistani loanwords can be found in the language.[citation needed] A grammar and a dictionary of the language have been published.[4][5][6]

Alphabet

Shina is one of the few Dardic languages with a written tradition.[7] However, it was an unwritten language until a few decades ago.[8] Only in late 2010s has Shina orthography been standardized and primers as well as dictionaries have been published. [9][5]

Since the first attempts at accurately representing Shina's phonology in the 1960s there have been several proposed orthographies for the different varieties of the language, with debates centering on how to write several retroflex sound not present in Urdu and whether vowel length and tone should be represented.[10]

There are two main orthographic conventions now, one in Pakistani-controlled areas of Gilgit-Baltistan and in Kohistan, and the other in Indian-controlled area of Dras, Ladakh.

Below alphabet has been standardized, documented, and popularized thanks to efforts of literaturists such as Professor Muhammad Amin Ziya, Shakeel Ahmad Shakeel, and Razwal Kohistani, and it has been developed for all Shina language dialects, including Gilgit dialect and Kohistani dialect, which [9][5][11] The Kohistani Shina alphabet differs slightly from the Gilgiti variety. For example, it includes one additional letter ڦ, and it includes several additional digraphs to represent additional aspirated consonants unique to Kohistani. Furthermore, variations and personal preferences can be observed across Shina documents. For example, it is common to see someone use سً instead of ݜ for [ʂ], or use sukun ◌ْ (U+0652) instead of small sideway noon ◌ࣿ (U+08FF) to indicate short vowels. However, these variations are no longer an issue. Another issue is that of how to write loanwords that use letters not found in Shina language, for example letters "س / ث / ص", which all sound like [s] in Shina. Some documents preserve the original spelling, despite the letters being homophones and not having any independent sound of their own, similar to orthographic conventions of Persian and Urdu. Whereas other documents prefer to rewrite all loanwords in a single Shina letter, and thus simplify the writing, similar to orthographic conventions of Kurdish and Uyghur.

Shina vowels are distinguished by length, by whether or not they're nasalized, and by tone. Nasalization is represented like other Perso-Arabic alphabets in Pakistan, with Nun Ghunna (ن٘ـ / ـن٘ـ / ں). In Shina, tone variation only occur when there is a long vowel. There are conventions unique to Shina to show the three tones. In Shina conventions, specific diacritics are shown in conjunction with the letters aliv, waaw, buṛi ye, and ye (ا، و، یـ، ی، ے), as these letters are written down to represent long vowels. The diacritics inverted damma ◌ٗ (U+0657) and superscript alef ◌ٰ (U+0670) represent a rising tone and a falling tone respectively. Another diacritic, a small sideway noon ◌ࣿ (U+08FF) is used to represent short vowels when need be.[12]

Consonants

Below table shows Shina consonants.[9][5]

Name Forms IPA Transliteration[13] Unicode Notes
Shina Isolated Final Medial Initial
الڦ
aliv
ا ـا ـا ا / آ [ʌ], [], silent – / aa U+0627
U+0627
At the beginning of a word it can either come with diacritic, or it can come in form of aliv-madda (آ), or it can be stand-alone and silent, succeeded by a vowel letter. Diacritics اَ اِ، اُ can be omitted in writing.
بےࣿ
be
ب ـب ـبـ بـ [b] b U+0628
پےࣿ
pe
پ ـپ ـپـ پـ [p] p U+067E
تےࣿ
te
ت ـت ـتـ تـ [] t U+062A
ٹےࣿ
te
ٹ ـٹ ـٹـ ٹـ [ʈ] U+0679
ثےࣿ
se
ث ـث ـثـ ثـ [s] s U+062B Only used in loanwords of Arabic origin. Can be replaced with letter siin س.[9]
جوࣿم
ǰom
ج ـج ـجـ جـ [d͡ʒ] ǰ U+062C
چےࣿ
če
چ ـچ ـچـ چـ [t͡ʃ] č U+0686
څےࣿ
tse
څ ـڅ ـڅـ څـ [t͡s] ts U+0685 Letter borrowed from Pashto alphabet.
ڇےࣿ
c̣e
ڇ ـڇ ـڇـ ڇـ [ʈ͡ʂ] U+0687 Unique letter for Shina language. Some Shina literatures and documents use two horizontal lines instead of four dots, use حٍـ instead of ڇـ.
حےࣿ
he
ح ـح ـحـ حـ [h] h U+062D Only used in loanwords of Arabic origin. Can be replaced with letter hay ہ.[9]
خےࣿ
khe
خ ـخ ـخـ خـ [x]~[] kh U+062E Only used in loanwords of Arabic origin. Can be replaced with digraph letter khe کھ.[9]
دال
daal
د ـد - - [] d U+062F
ڈال
ḍaal
ڈ ـڈ - - [ɖ] U+0688
ذال
zaal
ذ ـذ - - [z] z U+0630 Only used in loanwords of Arabic origin. Can be replaced with letter ze ز.[9]
رےࣿ
re
ر ـر - - [r] r U+0631
ڑےࣿ
ṛe
ڑ ـڑ - - [ɽ] U+0691
زےࣿ
ze
ز ـز - - [z] z U+0632
ژےࣿ
že / ǰe
ژ ـژ - - [ʒ]‍~[d͡ʒ] ž / ǰ U+0632 Only used in loanwords of Persian and European origin. Can be replaced with letter jom ج.[9]
ڙےࣿ
ẓe
ڙ ـڙ - - [ʐ] U+0699 Unique letter for Shina language. Some Shina literatures and documents use two horizontal lines instead of four dots, use رً instead of ڙ.
سِین
siin
س ـس ـسـ سـ [s] s U+0633
شِین
šiin
ش ـش ـشـ شـ [ʃ] š U+0634
ݜِین
ṣiin
ݜ ـݜ ـݜـ ݜـ [ʂ] U+0687 Unique letter for Shina language. Some Shina literatures and documents use two horizontal lines instead of four dots, use سً instead of ݜ.
صواد
swaad
ص ـص ـصـ صـ [s] s U+0635 Only used in loanwords of Arabic origin. Can be replaced with letter siin س.[9]
ضواد
zwaad
ض ـض ـضـ ضـ [z] z U+0636 Only used in loanwords of Arabic origin. Can be replaced with letter ze ز.[9]
طوے
tooy
ط ـط ـطـ طـ [] t U+0637 Only used in loanwords of Arabic origin. Can be replaced with letter te ت.[9]
ظوے
zooy
ظ ـظ ـظـ ظـ [z] z U+0638 Only used in loanwords of Arabic origin. Can be replaced with letter ze ز.[9]
عَین
ayn
ع ـع ـعـ عـ [ʔ], silent - U+0639 Only used in loanwords of Arabic origin. Can be replaced with letter aliv ا.[9]
غَین
gayn
غ ـغ ـغـ غـ [ɣ]~[ɡ] g U+063A Only used in loanwords of Arabic and Turkic origin. Can be replaced with letter gaaf گ.[9]
فےࣿ
fe / phe
ف ـف ـفـ فـ [f]~[] f / ph U+0641 Only used in loanwords. Can be replaced with digraph letter phe پھ.[9]
ڦےࣿ
ve
ڦ ـڦ ـڦـ ڦـ [v] v U+06A6 Unique letter for Shina language. Some Shina literatures and documents use two horizontal lines instead of four dots, use ڡً instead of ڦ.
قاف
qaaf / kaaf
ق ـق ـقـ قـ [q]~[k] q / k U+0642 Only used in loanwords of Arabic and Turkic origin. Can be replaced with letter kaaf ک.[9]
کاف
kaaf
ک ـک ـکـ کـ [k] k U+0643
گاف
gaaf
گ ـگ ـگـ گـ [ɡ] g U+06AF
ڱاف / گاف گُنَہ
ngaaf / gaaf gunna
ڱ ـڱ ـڱـ ڱـ /ŋ/ ng U+06B1 Unique letter for Kohistani Shina language.[5]
لام
laam
ل ـل ـلـ لـ [l] l U+0644
مِیم
miim
م ـم ـمـ مـ [m] m U+0645
نُون
nuun
ن ـن ـنـ نـ [n] n U+0646
نُوݨ
nuuṇ
ݨ ـݨ ـݨـ ݨـ [ɳ] U+0768
نُوں / نُون گُنَہ
nū̃ / nūn gunna
ں / ن٘ ـں ـن٘ـ ن٘ـ /◌̃/ ◌̃ For middle of word:
U+0646
plus
U+0658
For end of word:
U+06BA
واؤ
waaw
و / او ـو - - [] / [w] w / ō U+0648 The letter waaw can either represent consonant ([w/v]) or vowel ([oo]). It can also act as a carrier of vowel diacritics, representing several other vowels. At the beginning of a word, when representing a consonant, the letter waaw will appear as a standalone character, followed by the appropriate vowel. If representing a vowel at the beginning of a word, the letter waaw needs to be preceded by an aliv ا. When the letter waaw comes at the end of the word representing a consonant sound [w], a hamza is used ؤ to label it as such and avoid mispronunciation as a vowel.[12]
ہَے
hai
ہ ـہ ـہـ ہـ [h] h U+0646 This letter differs from do-ac̣hi'ii hay (ھ) and they are not interchangeable. Similar to Urdu,do-chashmi hē (ھ) is exclusively used as a second part of digraphs for representing aspirated consonants. In initial and medial position, the letter always represents the consonant [h]. In final position, The letter can either represent consonant ([h]) or it can demonstrate that the word ends with short vowels a ◌َہ / ـَہ, i ◌ِہ / ـِہ, u ◌ُہ / ـُہ.[12]
ہَمزَہ
hamza
ء - - - [ʔ], silent U+0621 Used mid-word to indicate separation between a syllable and another that starts with a vowel. hamza on top of letters waaw and ye at end of a word serves a function too. When the letter waaw or ye come at the end of the word representing a consonant sound [w] or [y], a hamza is used ؤ / ئ / ـئ to label it as such and avoid mispronunciation as a vowel.[9][12]
یےࣿ / لیکھی یےࣿ
ye / leekhii ye
ی ـی ـیـ یـ [j] / [e] / [i] y / e / i U+06CC The letter ye can either represent consonant ([j]) or vowels ([e]/[i]). It can also act as a carrier of vowel diacritics, representing several other vowels. At the beginning of a word, when representing a consonant, the letter ye will appear as a standalone character, followed by the appropriate vowel. If representing a vowel at the beginning of a word, the letter ye needs to be preceded by an aliv ا. When the letter ye comes at the end of the word representing a consonant sound [j], a hamza is used ئ to label it as such and avoid mispronunciation as a vowel. When representing a vowel at the end of a word, it can only be [i]. For vowel [e], the letter buṛi ye ے is used.

[12]

بُڑیࣿ یےࣿ
buṛi ye
ے ـے - - [e] / [j] e / y U+06D2 The letter buṛi ye only occurs in final position. The letter buṛi ye represents the vowel "ē" [eː] or the consonant "y" [j].
بھےࣿ
bhe
بھ ـبھ ـبھـ بھـ [] bh U+0628
and
U+06BE
A digraph, counted as a letter.[5]
پھےࣿ
phe
پھ ـپھ ـپھـ پھـ [] ph U+067E
and
U+06BE
A digraph, counted as a letter.[5]
تھےࣿ
the
تھ ـتھ ـتھـ تھـ [t̪ʰ] th U+062A
and
U+06BE
A digraph, counted as a letter.[5]
ٹھےࣿ
ṭhe
ٹھ ـٹھ ـٹھـ ٹھـ [ʈʰ] ṭh U+0679
and
U+06BE
A digraph, counted as a letter.[5]
جھوࣿم
ǰhom
جھ ـجھ ـجھـ جھـ [d͡ʒʱ] ǰh U+062C
and
U+06BE
A digraph, counted as a letter.[5]
چھےࣿ
čhe
چھ ـچھ ـچھـ چھـ [t͡ʃʰ] čh U+0686
and
U+06BE
A digraph, counted as a letter.[5]
څھےࣿ
tshe
څھ ـڅھ ـڅھـ څھـ [t͡sʰ] tsh U+0685
and
U+06BE
A digraph, counted as a letter.[5]
ڇھےࣿ
c̣he
ڇھ ـڇھ ـڇھـ ڇھـ [ʈ͡ʂʰ] c̣h U+0687
and
U+06BE
A digraph, counted as a letter.[5]
دھےࣿ
dhe
دھ ـدھ ـدھـ دھـ [d̪ʱ] dh U+062F
and
U+06BE
A digraph, counted as a letter.[5]
ڈھےࣿ
ḍhe
ڈھ ـڈھ ـڈھـ ڈھـ [ɖʱ] ḍh U+0688
and
U+06BE
A digraph, counted as a letter.[5]
رھےࣿ
rhe
رھ ـرھ ـرھـ رھـ [] rh U+0631
and
U+06BE
A digraph, counted as a letter.[5]
زھےࣿ
zhe
زھ ـزھ ـزھـ زھـ [] zh U+0632
and
U+06BE
A digraph, counted as a letter.[5]
ڙھےࣿ
ẓhe
ڙھ ـڙھ ـڙھـ ڙھـ [] ẓh U+0699
and
U+06BE
A digraph, counted as a letter.[5]
کھےࣿ
khe
کھ ـکھ ـکھـ کھـ [] kh U+0643
and
U+06BE
A digraph, counted as a letter.[5]
گھےࣿ
ghe
گھ ـگھ ـگھـ گھـ [ɡʱ] gh U+06AF
and
U+06BE
A digraph, counted as a letter.[5]
لھےࣿ
lhe
لھ ـلھ ـلھـ لھـ [] lh U+0644
and
U+06BE
A digraph, counted as a letter.[5]
مھےࣿ
mhe
مھ ـمھ ـمھـ مھـ [] mh U+0645
and
U+06BE
A digraph, counted as a letter.[5]
نھےࣿ
nhe
نھ ـنھ ـنھـ نھـ [] nh U+0646
and
U+06BE
A digraph, counted as a letter.[5]

Vowels

There are five vowels in Kohistani Shina language. Each of the five vowels in Kohistani Shina have a short version and a long version. Shina is also a tonal language. Short vowels in Shina have a short high level tone ˥. Long vowels can either have "no tone", i.e. a long flat tone ˧, a long rising tone [˨˦], or a long falling tone (/˥˩/.

All five vowels have a defined way of presentation in Kohistani Shina orthographic conventions, including letters and diacritics. Although diacritics can and are occasionally dropped in writing. Short vowels [a], [i], and [u] are solely written with diacritics. Short vowels [e] and [o] are written with letters waw and buṛi ye. A unique diacritic, a small sideway noon ◌ࣿ (U+08FF) is used on top of these letters to indicate a short vowel.[12] Long vowels are written with a combination of diacritics and letters aliv, waaw or ye.

Below table shows short vowels at the beginning, middle, and end of a word.[12][13]

Vowel at the beginning of the word
a e i o u
اَ ایࣿـ / اےࣿ اِ اوࣿ اُ
Vowel at the middle of the word
ـَ یࣿـ / ـیࣿـ ـِ وࣿ / ـوࣿ ـُ
Vowel at the end of the word
◌َہ / ـَہ ےࣿ / ـےࣿ ◌ِہ / ـِہ وࣿ / ـوࣿ ◌ُہ / ـُہ

Below table shows long vowels at the beginning, middle, and end of a word, with "no tone", i.e. a long flat tone ˧.[12][13]

Vowel at the beginning of the word
aa ee ii oo uu
آ ایـ / اے اِیـ / اِی او اُو
Vowel at the middle of the word
ا / ـا یـ / ـیـ ◌ِیـ / ـِیـ و / ـو ◌ُو / ـُو
Vowel at the end of the word
ا / ـا ے / ـے ◌ِی / ـِی و / ـو ◌ُو / ـُو

Below table shows long vowels at the beginning, middle, and end of a word, with a long rising tone [˨˦].[12][13]

Vowel at the beginning of the word
آٗ ایٗـ / اےٗ اِیٗـ / اِیٗ اوٗ اُوٗ
Vowel at the middle of the word
اٗ / ـاٗ یٗـ / ـیٗـ ◌ِیٗـ / ـِیٗـ وٗ / ـوٗ ◌ُوٗ / ـُوٗ
Vowel at the end of the word
اٗ / ـاٗ ےٗ / ـےٗ ◌ِیٗ / ـِی وٗ / ـوٗ ◌ُوٗ / ـُوٗ

Below table shows long vowels at the beginning, middle, and end of a word, with a long falling tone (/˥˩/.[12][13]

Vowel at the beginning of the word
áa ée íi óo úu
آٰ ایٰـ / اےٰ اِیٰـ / اِیٰ اوٰ اُوٰ
Vowel at the middle of the word
اٰ / ـاٰ یٰـ / ـیٰـ ◌ِیٰـ / ـِیٰـ وٰ / ـوٰ ◌ُوٰ / ـُوٰ
Vowel at the end of the word
اٰ / ـاٰ ےٰ / ـےٰ ◌ِیٰ / ـِیٰ وٰ / ـوٰ ◌ُوٰ / ـُوٰ

References

  1. ^ a b "Shina,jalkutia Kohistani".
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian (10 July 2023). "Glottolog 4.8 - Kohistanic Shina". Glottolog. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. doi:10.5281/zenodo.7398962. Archived from the original on 6 November 2023. Retrieved 5 November 2023.
  3. ^ Liljegren, Henrik (2013). "Notes on Kalkoti: A Shina Language with Strong Kohistani Influences". Linguistic Discovery. 11. doi:10.1349/PS1.1537-0852.A.423.
  4. ^ Schmidt, Ruth Laila; Kohistani, Razval; Zarin, Mohammad Manzar (2008). A Grammar of the Shina Language of Indus Kohistan. Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. p. 264. ISBN 9783447056762.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w Kohistani, Razval (21 September 2020). Complete Shina Kohistani Qaida By Razwal Kohistani (in Urdu).
  6. ^ "Kohistani Shina-Urdu dictionary published". 22 October 2021.
  7. ^ Bashir 2003, p. 823. "Of the languages discussed here, Shina (Pakistan) and Khowar have developed a written tradition and a significant body of written material exists."
  8. ^ Schmidt & 2003/2004, p. 61.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Ziya, Muhammad Amin, Prof. (2010, October). Gilti Shina Urdu Dictionary / ݜِناٗ - اُردو لغت. Publisher: Zia Publications, Gilgit. ضیاء پبلیکبشنز، گلیٗتISBN 978-969-942-00-8 https://archive.org/details/MuhammadAmeenZiaGiltiShinaUrduDictionary/page/n5/mode/1up
  10. ^ Bashir 2016, p. 806.
  11. ^ Pamir Times (September 5, 2008), "Shina language gets a major boost with Shakeel Ahmad Shakeel’s efforts" https://pamirtimes.net/2008/09/05/shina-language-gets-a-major-boost-with-shakeel-ahmad-shakeels-efforts/
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Shakeel Ahmad Shakeel. (2008). Sheena language An overview of the teaching and learning system / شینا زبان نظام پڑھائی لکھائی کا جائزہ. https://z-lib.io/book/14214726
  13. ^ a b c d e Radloff, Carla F. with Shakil Ahmad Shakil.1998. Folktales in the Shina of Gilgit. Islamabad: The National Institute of Pakistan Studies and Summer Institute of Linguistics. [1]

Sources