Dhatki
धाटकी ڍاٽڪي Dhatki
धाटीڍاٽي Dhatti
थारी ٿَري Thari
Native toPakistan and India (Jaisalmer and Barmer districts of Rajasthan and Tharparkar and Umerkot districts of Sindh)
EthnicityTharis
Native speakers
210,000 (2018)[1]
Devanagari, Mahajani, Arabic script
Language codes
ISO 639-3mki
Glottologdhat1238
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Dhatki (धाटकी; ڍاٽڪي), also known as Dhatti (धाटी; ڍاٽي), Thari (थारी; ٿَري), is a dialect continuum or cluster/series of smaller dialects all mixed of Sindhi and Marwari with varying proportions,[2] the Indo-Aryan Languages of the Indo-European language family.

Speakers

Dhatki/Dhatti is considered either related to Sindhi, or Marwari.[2] Dhatki dialects are divided into two groups Western Dhatki and Eastern Dhatki. Western Dhatki is spoken in Tharparkar, Pakistan while Eastern Dhatki is spoken along Indo-Pakistan border in Jaisalmer and Barmer districts of India. Dhatki dialects and their names are based on the regions in Tharpakar which Include: Muhrano and Samroti etc.[3]

Speakers of Dhatki are ethnically Rajasthanis, Sindhis and Gujaratis, Dhatki language unite these people as a mother tongue under one umbrella. Some Dhatki-speaking communities migrated to India in 1947 after the independence and continued to do so in small numbers after that date, but the great majority of Dhatki speakers still reside in Pakistan.[2] Dhatki/Dhati is spoken by these communities:

The majority speakers of Dhatki language live in Umerkot District and Tharparkar District in Sindh, Pakistan. 60% of the language's speakers are Muslims, 35% are Hindu and the remaining 5% practice traditional folk religions.

Phonology

Dhatki has implosive consonants, unlike other closely related Rajasthani languages but like the neighbouring (but more distantly related) Sindhi language. It is likely that these consonants developed in the language from contact with more culturally dominant Sindhi speakers. Aside from this, its phonology is much like other Indo-Aryan languages:

Dhakti consonants
Labial Dental/
Alveolar
Retroflex Palatal Velar Uvular Glottal
Nasal m n (ɳ)1 (ɲ)1 (ŋ)1
Plosive/
Affricate
voiceless p ʈ k (q)1
voiceless aspirated t̪ʰ ʈʰ tʃʰ
voiced b ɖ ɡ
voiced aspirated d̪ʱ ɖʱ dʒʱ ɡʱ
Implosive voiced ɓ ɗ ʄ ɠ
Fricative voiceless f s (ʂ)1 ʃ (x)1
voiced z (ɣ)1,2 ɦ
Flap plain ɾ (ɽ)1
voiced aspirated (ɽʱ)1
Approximant ʋ l ɭ j
Notes
  1. Marginal and non-universal phonemes are in parentheses. /ɽ/ is lateral [ɺ̢] for some speakers (Masica 1991:98).
  2. /ɣ/ is post-velar.[4]

Dhakti has a fairly standard set of vowels for an Indo-Aryan language: [ə aː ɪ iː ʊ (sometimes: u) uː eː oː ɛː ɔː]. The vowel ʊ may be realized as a short u and the vowel ɪ may be realized as a short i. The vowel ɛː is often realized as the diphthong əiː based and context or as an æː based on the speaker's accent. The vowel ɔː is often realized as the diphthong əuː based and context. Nazalized vowels occur word finally in Dhakti, they are: [ĩː ẽː ɛ̃ː ɑ̃ː ɔ̃ː õː ũː].

Samples

A few of the typical sentences in Dhatki are:

{Tu Kun aheen?}-"who are you?"

English Dhatki Sindhi Marwari
I Hu(n) Ma(n)/Aao(n) Mai(n)
You (informal) Tu(n) Tu(n) Tu
My Mahyo/Mahajo Munjo Mahro
Your Tahyo/Tahajo Tunjo Tharo
What Ki Chha Kaain
Name Naam Nav/Nalo Naam
To look Jovan/Disan Disan Jovan
Go Ja Wanj Jawo

Writing System

The language uses two major writing systems. In India, the Devanagari script (which is also used for Marwari, Hindi and many other north Indian languages) is employed; whereas is in Pakistan, the Sindhi script is used. Some mercantile families, particularly on the Indian side of the border use their own scripts, usually variations of the Mahajani script.

References

  1. ^ Dhatki at Ethnologue (26th ed., 2023) Closed access icon
  2. ^ a b c "Linguistic Survey of India". dsal.uchicago.edu. Retrieved 15 June 2023. To sum up, we have in Southwest Marwar-Mallani and in the Thar or Dhat of Thar and Parkar and of Jaisalmer a number of forms of speech, all mixtures of Marwari and Sindhi in varying proportions. They may be considered either as dialects of Sindhi, or as dialects of Marwari.
  3. ^ Laghari, Inayat Hussain (December 2005). "Dhataki (Thari) language is sub dialect of Sindhi language". ResearchGate.
  4. ^ Kachru, Yamuna (2006). Hindi. John Benjamins Publishing. p. 20. ISBN 90-272-3812-X.