This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. (Learn how and when to remove these template messages) This article may be too long to read and navigate comfortably. Consider splitting content into sub-articles, condensing it, or adding subheadings. Please discuss this issue on the article's talk page. (March 2020) This article may contain an excessive number of citations. Please help remove low-quality or irrelevant citations. (March 2020) (Learn how and when to remove this message) This article's tone or style may not reflect the encyclopedic tone used on Wikipedia. See Wikipedia's guide to writing better articles for suggestions. (March 2020) (Learn how and when to remove this message) This article may contain an excessive amount of intricate detail that may interest only a particular audience. Please help by spinning off or relocating any relevant information, and removing excessive detail that may be against Wikipedia's inclusion policy. (March 2020) (Learn how and when to remove this message) (Learn how and when to remove this message)

Tharparkar District
  • ٿرپارڪر
  • تھرپارکر
Eastern Sindh Frontier District
Clockwise from top-left: Naukot Fort, Jain Temple, Nagarparkar, Thar Desert, view of Mithi, Bhodesar Masjid
Location in Sindh
Location in Sindh
Coordinates: 24°44′24″N 69°48′0″E / 24.74000°N 69.80000°E / 24.74000; 69.80000
Country Pakistan
Province Sindh
DivisionMirpur Khas
Established1882
Founded byBritish India Government
HeadquartersMithi
Government
 • TypeDistrict Administration
 • Deputy CommissionerMuhammad Nawaz Sohoo, PAS[1]
 • District Police OfficerZahida Parveen Jamro, PSP
 • District Health OfficerDr. Herchand Rai
Area
 • Total19,637 km2 (7,582 sq mi)
Population
 • Total1,778,407
 • Density91/km2 (230/sq mi)
DemonymThari
Time zoneUTC+5 (PKT)
HDI (2018)[4]
Rank in Pakistan
Decrease 0.427 (very low)
Decrease 109th (out of 114)
Constituencies

Provincial

PS-54 Tharparkar-I - Abdul Razzaque

PS-55 Tharparkar-II - Muhammad Qasim Soomro

PS-56 Tharparkar-III - Faqir Sher Muhammad Bilalani

PS-57 Tharparkar-IV - Arbab Lutfullah

National

NA-221 Tharparkar-I - Pir Noor Muhammad Shah Jeelani

NA-222 Tharparkar-II - Mahesh Kumar Malani

Tharparkar (Dhatki/Sindhi: ٿرپارڪر; Urdu: تھرپارکر, Urdu pronunciation: [t̪ʰəɾpɑːɾkəɾ]), also known as Thar, is a district in Sindh province in Pakistan, headquartered at Mithi. Before Indian independence it was known as the Thar and Parkar (1901⁠–⁠1947) or Eastern Sindh Frontier District (1882⁠–⁠1901).

The district is the largest in Sindh,[5] and has the largest Hindu population in Pakistan.[6] It has the lowest Human Development Index rating of all the districts in Sindh. Currently the Sindh government is planning to divide the Tharparkar district into Tharparkar and Chhachro district.[7]

History

The name Tharparkar originates from a portmanteau of the words Thar (referring to the Thar Desert), and parkar (meaning "to cross over"). The Thar region was historically fertile, although it was mostly desertified between 2000 BCE and 1500 BCE. Before its desertification, a tributary of the Indus River was said to flow through the region; it is speculated by some historians that this river could be the ancient Sarasvati River mentioned in the Hindu Rigveda. The Thar region is also mentioned in the Ramayana, where it is called "Lavanasagara" (meaning "salt ocean").

Sindh was ruled by various dynasties after the fall of the Indus Valley civilisation. These dynasties included the Soomras,[8] the Sammas, the Arghuns, the Kalhoras, and the Talpurs. These rulers mainly focused on the central and western parts of Sindh while the eastern areas, including Tharparkar were largely disregarded. In 1843, as a part of the British conquest of large parts of the Indian subcontinent, Charles James Napier, the Commander-in-Chief of the Presidency Armies, defeated the Talpur dynasty and conquered Sindh. The conquered areas, including Tharparkar, were incorporated into the Cutch Agency and Hyderabad Collectorate. The government of British India divided Sindh into Collectorates, or districts, administered by British-appointed Zamindars.

Sindh was later made part of the Bombay Presidency of British India. In 1858, the entire area around Tharparkar became part of the Hyderabad District, and in 1860 the region was established as a subdivision of Hyderabad district and renamed as Eastern Sindh Frontier, with its headquarters at Amarkot. In 1882, Eastern Sindh Frontier subdivision bifurcated from Hyderabad District and established a separate district headed by a British Deputy Commissioner, with a political superintendent at Amarkot.[9] In 1906, it was reorganized as the Thar and Parkar district and the district headquarters was moved from Amarkot to Mirpur Khas.

Prior to the partition of India, there was a very strong cultural and trading connection between Tharparkar, Gujarat and Rajasthan, which continued for some years after partition before the border became sealed.[10]

On 31 October 1990 the district was divided into the Tharparkar and Mirpur Khas Districts. On 17 April 1993, Umerkot District was carved out of Tharparkar.[8]

Geography

Tharparkar district lies between 69° 3′ 35″ E and 71° 7′ 47″ E longitudes, and between 24° 9′ 35″ N and 25° 43′ 6″ N latitudes.[11] To its east, the district borders the Jaisalmer, Barmer and Jalore districts of Rajasthan in India. To the south, it borders the Kutch district of Gujarat in India. Umerkot district lies to its north while Badin and Mirpur Khas districts are to its west.

Climate and environment

Nagarparkar after rains
Nagarparkar after rains
Deadly scorpions of Tharparkar
Tharparkar scorpions

The district has a tropical semi arid (Köppen: BSh)[12] climate. During summer, it is extremely hot during the day, while nights are much cooler. April, May and June are the hottest months and December, January and February are the coldest months. The mean maximum and minimum temperatures during winter are 28 °C and 9 °C, respectively. There are wide fluctuations in annual rainfall and the yearly average in some areas is as low as 100 mm. Most precipitation occurs between July and September, during the south-west monsoon.[13]

Annual rainfall by taluka (mm)[14](Abbreviations DU = Data unavailable, TNC = Taluka not created)
Year Mithi Islamkot Diplo Kaloi Chachro Dahli Nagarparkar
2014 180 167 33 TNC 7 TNC 43
2015 422 362 512 TNC 363 26 588
2016 DU DU DU DU DU DU DU
2017 261 337 379 11 1 123 324
2018 58 24 51 10 10 120 40

Since 1997 the highest recorded annual rainfall was 1306 mm in 2011.[15] Tharparkar has been suffering a drought for several decades and the provincial government has declared Tharparkar as a drought-affected area.[16] Tharparkar was officially declared as in a drought in 1968, 1978, 1985, 1986, 1987, 1995, 1996, 1999, 2001, 2004, 2005, 2007, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015 and 2018.[15]

Flora

Leaves of Ak are used while prayers during Teejdi festival
A type of crown flower, known locally as Ak, growing in Tharparkar.

There are at least 89 plant species of 26 plant families native to Tharparkar. Many species of herbs grow during the wet season while desert shrubs and drought resistant trees grow year-round.[17]

Fauna

Sparrow in Tharparkar
Sparrows in Tharparkar
Chinkara is also known as the Indian gazelle.
A chinkara, also known as the Indian gazelle
Indian robin in Tharparkar
An Indian robin in Tharparkar
Dragon Lizard of Tharparkar
A Tharparkar lizard resting on a branch

Wealth of fauna is considered as a salient feature of this region.The fauna of Tharparkar is a major part of its culture, folk music, art etc.

Sanctuaries

Chinkara wildlife sanctuary

The Chinkara Wildlife Sanctuary covers 940 km2 in Tharparkar where the hunting of wildlife and poaching is prohibited. The prohibition extends from Chelhar in the north, to Bhorelo in the southeast, and to Mithi and Wajatto in the west.[18]

Vulture and migratory birds sanctuary

Poisonous snake in Tharparkar
One of Tharparkar's venomous snakes

Tharparkar has been designated a major sanctuary for endangered species of vulture, while Gorano has been declared a habitat for several migratory birds.[19]

Peafowl conservation efforts in the district focus on preventing the further endangerment and death of animals that are significant as symbols of Tharparkar. In addition, illegal exploitation of scorpions and snakes has been reported in the area.[20][21]

Human Development

The Human Development Index (HDI) of Tharparkar is 0.227. In Pakistan's 2017 HDI report,[22] Tharparkar ranked 109th out of 114 surveyed districts, a drop from its rank as 103rd in 2013, the lowest ranking of any district in Sindh. Tharparkar also ranked among the ten worst districts for HDI growth between 2005 and 2015.

Poverty

The UNDP's Multidimensional Poverty Index for Pakistan reports that 87% of population in Tharparkar live under poverty.[23][24][25] Due to Tharparkar's poor conditions, including its low HDI and high infant mortality rate, a monitoring commission was formed to oversee the Sindh government's administration of the district.[26]

The Benazir Income Support Programme and the United Nations' World Food Programme agreed to take steps to reduce food insecurity in Tharparkar.[27] In 2019, Pakistan was provided with US$362,000 and 4,727 mt of food assistance.[28]

As a part of humanitarian efforts, 287,000 families in Tharparkar each received 50 kg of wheat 12 times. Additionally, 500 houses were provided to house Thari people. 750 small-scale water plants were constructed in the district at a cost of Rs 7.5 billion.[29] The Thar Foundation, a joint venture of the Sindh government and Engro has planned to build a 250-bed hospital at a cost of Rs 2 billion in Tharparkar. The first 82-bed block was completed in February 2019.[30]

Malnutrition biggest issue of Tharparkar
Hunger and malnutrition are the biggest issues in Tharparkar. Each year, around 1,500 children die in the district.

Despite humanitarian initiatives by provincial, federal and international authorities, the region has seen little improvement, especially in its infant mortality rate, which sees around 1,500 children die annually.[31] Between January and October 2019 84 infants died,[32][33][34] while in total, 703 children died.[35][36] In 2016, the National Commission for Human Rights (NCHR) directed the Sindh Chief Secretary to submit a report on cases of infant mortality.[37]

According to Saeed Ghani, Sindh's minister for Local Government, Public Health Engineering and Rural Development, and Katchi Abadies, a mobile app was introduced to assist with the distribution of wheat.[38] However, no such app was actually created, and the system continues to rely on XLS/PDF files, and web resources, that weren't widely distributed.[39]

According to legislator Mahesh Kumar Malani, Rs 15 billion has been spent for development projects in nine years and further development plans worth Rs 18 billion are under way to improve the situation in Tharparkar.[29] According to the Chief Minister of Sindh Rs 70 billion has been spent on the development of infrastructure.[30] The government's Benazir Income Support Programme has transferred Rs 387 billion since 2008.[40] Despite these efforts, the living standard index of Tharparkar has fallen by 50% between 2005 and 2015.

Although Tharparkar has been affected by drought for at least 17 years, and has been a subject of efforts of numerous major NGOs, including USAID, DFID and several branches of the United Nations, no detailed, statistical report on water resources and measures to improve the situation has been published by the government.

Health facilities and immunization

Thari people face various issues due to waterborne diseases, inadequate health facilities, famine, and lack of basic infrastructure.

Health facilities

As of 2014, there were 140 health facilities in the district, including a district headquarters hospital with a capacity of 50 beds and 3 tehsil headquarters hospitals with capacities of 80 beds each.[41] When compared to World Health Organization standards, these facilities were sufficient for only 54% of the population, while bedding capabilities were sufficient for only 6%. In Tharparkar, an average 85% of births take place at home, with home births constituting 56% of urban births and 87% of rural births. Tharparkar ranks lowest in Sindh for births assisted by skilled attendants, with only 16% deliveries performed in that manner.[42]

Health facilities in Tharparkar[43] [DU = Data Unavailable]
Type June 2012 March 2019
Teaching Hospitals 0 DU
District headquarter hospital 1 1
Tehsil headquarter hospitals 3 1
Rural health centres 2 2
Basic Health units 31 36
Govt. Rural Dispensaries 101 38
MCH centres 2 DU
Sub health centres 0 DU
Total 140 78*

Immunization

On average, only about 25% of pregnant women receive tetanus toxoid injections (25% in rural areas and 37% in urban areas). The overall percentage of infants aged 12–23 who receive full immunization is 21%. Urban areas saw a 32% immunization rate (16% of males and 48% of females), while rural areas saw a 20% rate (26% of males and 14% of females).[41]

Comparison

Change in HDI compared to provincially and federally top HDI
Change in HDI compared to provincially and federally top HDI


Trend of change in Human Development Index[44]
Year Karachi Lahore Tharparkar Rajanpur Awaran Kohistan
2005 0.812 0.811 0.303 0.441 0.067 0.155
2007 Increase 0.819 Decrease 0.804 Decrease 0.164 Decrease 0.348 Decrease 0.000 Increase 0.168
2009 Increase 0.852 Increase 0.834 Increase 0.185 Decrease 0.347 Increase 0.240 Increase 0.188
2011 Increase 0.864 Decrease 0.824 Increase 0.203 Increase 0.399 Decrease 0.127 Decrease 0.137
2013 Increase 0.867 Increase 0.858 Increase 0.257 Increase 0.481 Decrease 0.111 Increase 0.172
2015 Decrease 0.854 Increase 0.877 Decrease 0.227 Increase 0.506 Increase 0.173 Increase 0.229
As of 2015 Provincial Top HDI Federally Top HDI Lowest in Sindh Lowest in Punjab Lowest in Balochistan Lowest in KPK
Rank change in 2 years

(2013-2015)

Decrease -2 Increase +2 Decrease -6 +7 Decrease -2 0
Rank change in a decade

(2005-2015)

Decrease -2 Increase +2 Decrease -34 Decrease -14 Decrease -15 Decrease -15


Comparing components of Human Development Index for 2015[44]
Components Karachi Lahore Tharparkar Rajanpur Awaran Kohistan
Immunization rate (%) 80.2 89.5 38.1 90.7 85.2 21.9
Satisfaction with health facility (%) 82.5 85.8 57.0 65.2 83.3 56.9
Expected years of schooling (years) 11.8 12.2 6.4 7.1 5.9 5.5
Mean years of schooling (years) 7.7 7.5 2.3 2.0 2.5 1.3
Living Standard (%) 98.5 98.9 7.5 48.9 1.9 12.5


Comparing Multidimensional Poverty Index(MPI) and its components for 2015[44]
Karachi Lahore Tharparkar Rajanpur Awaran Kohistan
MPI (value) 0.019 0.017 0.481 0.357 0.415 0.581
Population in multidimensional poverty (%) Incidence - Headcount 4.5 4.3 87 64.4 77.2 95.8
Intensity 42.4 38.8 55.2 55.4 53.8 60.6
Contribution of deprivation to overall poverty (%) Education 57.5 65.6 38.8 44.3 38.4 41.9
Health 12.4 11.7 18.0 22.2 18.1 24.1
Living Standards 30.2 22.6 43.2 33.6 43.5 34.1

Livelihood

Tharparkar district is predominantly rural, with 96% of the population residing outside of urban areas. The primary economic activity of the district is agriculture, while the much smaller urban population carries out activities related to agriculture. While the main food source and economic base of Tharparkar comes from livestock management, farming and artisanry are also important factors.[13]

Thari women working on fields
Thari women working in a field

Farming

Despite the arid climate and generally poor conditions for growing crops, the majority of the Thari people are employed by some form of farming. Most of the area relies on scant rainfall to irrigate farmland, however, in some areas of Nagarparkar taluka, tube wells are used. 1,014,000 (50.4%) of the district's 2,011,000 hectares of land are cultivated.[13]

Livestock

94% of the district's households own some form of livestock, while 77.64% of the population is actively engaged in livestock management.[45] The average household owns 8 animals, and an estimated 7.7 million animals make up the total livestock population of the district.[46][47] Sheep are especially important to the district's livestock economy, with 3 million kg of wool produced annually.[48] Tharparkar holds 40% of Sindh's sheep population, and is considered the most suitable area for sheep in the province.[49] 70.3% of farms use animals as a source of power for plowing land.[50] The percentage of donkeys in the livestock population is notably high, especially for an arid region, with the percentage in Tharparkar being higher than other areas in Pakistan.[50] Despite the size and economic importance of the livestock population, only 12 veterinarians serve the district.[51]

Thari camel herd
Thari camel herd
Tharparkar livestock populations and notable breeds (2006)[52]
Livestock Population Breeds
Cattle 752,265 Tharparkar, Kankrej[53]
Buffalo 46,328 Kundhi[54]
Sheep 1,185,122 Kooka,[55] Magra, Sonadi, Kachhi,[56] Marwari
Goat 2,217,876 Tharki, Kamori, Chappar[57]
Camel 135,356 Dhatti[58]
Horse 8,519 Baluchi[59]
Mule 1,475
Donkey 246,657 Ghudkhur
Domestic Poultry 263,431
Total 4,857,029
Thari women working on Charkha
Thari woman working on a Charkha (spinning wheel)

Handicrafts

Art and artisanry have been part of Thari society since the Indus Valley civilisation. Common handicrafts include ralli, pottery, puppet-making, carpet-making, traditional decoration, block printing, cobbling, and embroidery, among others. In Chachro taluka alone there are 6,000 handlooms, despite the lack of a centralized facility. The sale of these products supplement local incomes, and provide economic opportunities, especially for women.[60]

Politics

Between 2002 and 2018, the district was represented in the Provincial Assembly of Sindh by constituencies 60, 61, 62, and 63. The 2008 elections saw three of those constituencies represented by members of the Pakistan Muslim League (Q) (PMLQ), and one by a member of the Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP).[61] During the 2013 elections, three candidates from the PPP and one from the Pakistan Muslim League (N) won.[62]

Before 2018, Tharparkar was represented in the National Assembly by constituencies 229 and 230. During the 2008 elections, both were won by candidates of the PMLQ, while in the 2013 elections, they were both won by candidates of the PPP.[63]

After a new delimitation of constituencies in 2018, the district is represented in the Provincial Assembly by constituencies 54, 55, 56, and 57, while in the National Assembly, it is represented by constituencies 221 and 222. In the 2018 elections, both national constituencies and three of the four provincial constituencies were won by the PPP, while one provincial seat was won by the Grand Democratic Alliance.[64]

Industry and infrastructure

Industry

Coal

Pakistan's estimated 185.175 billion tonnes of lignite coal reserves are the 7th largest in the world.[65][66][67] Tharparkar district alone is estimated to hold 175.506 billion tonnes (95%) of the national reserves,[67] the energy contents of which would surpass the combined energy of the resource reserves of Saudi Arabia and Iran.[68]

In Pakistan, companies generating power are completely exempted from the payment of income tax, as well as turnover tax. Additionally, imports from prospective sponsors of coal power generation projects are exempted from tariffs. This is done in order to encourage investment in the country's energy sector.[69] Such investments have included a 600 MW producing project implemented by the Chinese Shenhua Group, and the 1200 MW producing Thar Engro Coal Power Project.[70]

In Pakistan, mineral mining operations are subject to provincial administration.[71] However, in 2011, to encourage large-scale investment in coal mining, the federal government authorized the creation of the "Thar Coal & Energy Board" (TCEB), a statutory corporation that would directly administer the extraction and use of Tharparkar's large energy resources.[72]

In March 2019, new members were appointed to the TCEB including female Member of National Assembly (MNA) Shazia Marri (NA-216).[73][74] However, the TCEB's charter requires that there should be one female MNA from either Tharparkar, Umerkot or Mirpur Khas districts on the board. An exception was made, as MNA Mahesh Malani and Senator Krishna Kohli were from and represented the Thar region, despite neither directly fitting the "female MNA from Thar" requirement.

The Sindh Engro Coal Mining Company in Tharparkar supplies electricity to the national grid.[75] Despite this, the large majority of the 2,300 registered and almost 2,000 unregistered Thari villages have no electricity supply.[51] Energy shortages and blackouts are common, and one outage during a heat wave lasting 22 hours resulted in the deaths of several hospital patients.[76][77] An informal announcement made by the Sindh government declared that electricity would be freely provided to Tharparkar, however this has not happened, and electricity continues to be supplied by private companies such as Hyderabad Electric Supply Company.[78][79]

Several entities have raised issues of potential environmental and health impacts that could result from extensive coal mining and use.[80][81][82][83][84] The pollution and harm to the environment caused by coal mining and use in the region have led to destruction of habitat, as well as the large-scale displacement of local communities. Health effects of lignite pollution include increases in the risk of cancer, as well as heart and lung problems.[85] Social movements, which some Thari people are involved in, have hoped to address these challenges.[86][87][88][89][90]

Solar

Solar potential of Tharparkar compared to Bahawalpur district (the largest solar power producer in Pakistan)
Solar potential of Tharparkar compared to Bahawalpur (having Pakistan's largest solar power plant)

Bahawalpur district's Quaid-e-Azam Solar Park, the largest photovoltaic power station in Pakistan, has a photovoltaic electricity output (PVOUT) of 1596 kWh/kWp per year and a global horizontal irradiance (GHI) of 1925 kWh/m2 per year. In comparison, Tharparkar has a PVOUT of 1642 kWh/kWp per year and a GHI of 2005 kWh/m2 per year.[citation needed]

In January 2015, at a cost of US$2.98 million the largest solar reverse osmosis plant in Asia was completed in Mithi with the ability to filter two million gallons of water daily. Throughout the district, smaller plants, each with filtration capacities of 10,000 gallons per day were installed at cost of around US$24,900 each.[91][92][93][94] These plants were the result of cooperation between the Sindh provincial government and Pak Oasis, a water treatment company.[95] Despite such initiatives, much of the arid region continues to suffer from a lack of clean drinking water, resulting in sickness and death.[96]

The efficacy, political motivations, and administration of these plants have been called into question, and as a result of a four-month lapse in pay, workers went on strike in October 2018, causing a significant water crisis.[97][98][99]

In July 2018, Pakistan's National Accountability Bureau began an investigation of an alleged illegal awarding of a contract to Pak Oasis. Allegations included a premature payment of Rs 5 billion to Pak Oasis prior to their completion of a water treatment project.[citation needed]

In October 2018, the Chief Minister of Sindh authorized the use of Rs 336.7 million for the construction of 110 reverse osmosis plants.[100] In November 2018, Sindh Government decided to takeover all RO plants in Thar Coal Block-II.[101]

On 16 April 2019, MPA Sidra Imran claimed in a speech in the Provincial Assembly of Sindh that 700 solar reverse osmosis plants, worth Rs 8 billion, were not functional.[102]

Transportation

Road

Donkey cart used in transportation
Donkey-drawn cart used for transportation

Only 743 km of quality roads run through the 19,638 km2 of Tharaparkar district, considered inadequate by the standards of several NGOs.[41] Major cities of the province are connected by a highway, and the talukas of the district are connected to the district headquarters of Mithi by several metaled roads.

Local transportation with Chinchi in Tharparkar
Local chinchi (rickshaw) transportation
A packed jeep moving in the desert of Tharparkar
A jeep moving in the Thar Desert
Lengths of road journeys between selected cities and Mithi[13]
Destination Road (km)
Karachi (via Thatta / Badin) 300
Karachi (via Hyderabad / Mirpurkhas) 400
Karachi (via Mirpurkhas / Umerkot) 425
Nagarparkar 150
Badin 100
Naukot 50
Umerkot 85


Airport

The Civil Aviation Authority of Pakistan (PCAA) constructed an airport in Islamkot at a cost of around Rs 972.07 million.[103][104] The Islamkot International Airport covers 1,000 acres and has a 3 km long runway, and serves both civilian and military air traffic.[104] The Sindh Coal Authority requested the construction of the airport, as the new infrastructure would contribute to the development of the nearby Thar coalfield.

The airport lies within 80 km (50 mi) of Pakistan's border with India, and clearance for the construction of the airport was given by the Pakistani Ministry of Defence on 25 September 2009.[103] The airport was first inaugurated on 17 July 2017 by Chief Minister Murad Ali Shah as Thar Airport.[citation needed] It was inaugurated again on 11 April 2018 by Bilawal Bhutto Zardari, when its name was changed to Mai Bakhtawar Airport.[104] However, the PCAA does not recognize the airport,[105] and the airport, which has no official website, lacks an official ICAO or IATA code.

Railway

Before the partition of India and creation of Pakistan in 1947, the Sind Mail ran between Hyderabad, Pakistan and Ahmedabad, India via Mirpur Khas, Khokhropar, Munabao, Barmer, Luni, Jodhpur, Pali, Marwar and Palanpur. Post-partition, service continued on the line, with Khokhropar railway station, the last station in Pakistan, used for customs. However, service on that line was stopped after the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965. The town of Khokhropar and the rest of the Nagarparkar salient were captured by India in the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971, but were returned to Pakistan in 1972.

On 18 February 2006, after a 41-year suspension, service on the Hyderabad - Jodhpur railway line resumed after the conversion of metre gauge track to broad gauge track. The newly constructed Zero Point railway station near the border town of Khokhropar in Dahli taluka is now the last station in Pakistan on the Hyderabad - Jodhpur line, and so is used in customs enforcement.[106]

The Thar Express, which runs weekly between Karachi and Jodhpur, is operated by Pakistan Railways and Indian Railways. The 700 km journey takes a relatively long 32 hours, and so is nicknamed the 'torture train' by some passengers.[107]

Despite formal Thari petitions for rail service to facilitate migration during drought,[108][109] government efforts focus on the improvement of coal mining infrastructure.[110]

Telecommunications

In March 2009, the Pakistani Ministry of Information Technology's Universal Service Fund awarded a Rs 930 million contract to Telenor Pakistan for the building of basic telephone and data infrastructure in Tharparkar.[111]

In March 2017, Sindh Engro Coal Mining Company, in partnership with Wateen Telecom, introduced free Wi-Fi to two villages, as the first stage of a larger initiative.[112][113][114][115] The villages of Tharyo Halepoto and Senhri Dars near Islamkot were provided with 3 Mbit/s internet service at no charge.[116][117][118] A second phase of the initiative aims to provide the same service to all schools in Thar Coal Block II.[119] Future phases aim to extend service to the entirety of Thar Coal Block II. Questions have been raised about the scale of benefits of free Wi-Fi to a district where 87% of the population lives in absolute poverty.[citation needed]

Paid telecommunications services in Tharparkar are dominated by Pakistan Telecommunication Company Limited (PTCL), which has a monopoly on telecommunication in Pakistan.[120][121][122]

Water resources

Women with children returning home after fetching water
Women and children fetching water

Access to drinking water in Tharparkar is very poor. Only 47% of the population has access to drinking water. Wells are crowded and their supply strained, as 60% of households wait more than an hour at wells for their turn, and 30% households spend more than Rs 30 for two buckets of water. 85% of households use Pakhaal (rubber bags carried by a camel or donkey) to carry water, while 25% use buckets carried by camel or donkey. In some areas, single journeys for water may take as long as two days. 75% of women travel an average 3 km per trip, spending 52% of their working hours fetching water.[13][123]

Water Delivery System in Tharparkar[13][42](Percentage of households)
Type 2010-11 2014-15
Total Urban Rural Total Urban Rural
Tap Water 13 79 10 6 67 1
Hand Pump 2 1 2 7 9 7
Motor Pump 2 20 1 3 0 4
Dug Well 77 0 81 75 20 79
Others 5 0 0 8 3 9

Sanitation

Sewage system in Tharparkar
A sewage ditch in Islamkot

Precise data on solid-waste management are unavailable but basic waste management is present in the urban parts of the district. However, rural areas, which host 96% of the district population, lack such facilities.[13] 44% of households in Tharparkar have no toilets, the highest percentage of any district in Sindh.[42]

Toilet facilities by percentage of households[42]
Flush Non Flush No Toilet
Urban Rural Total Urban Rural Total Urban Rural Total
78 7 12 19 46 44 3 47 44


Electricity cable poles cum street lamp in Tharparkar
Electric poles on an Islamkot street

Electricity

Despite supplying much of Pakistan's energy supply through its coal reserves, only 39% of Thari households use electricity as their main lighting supply, the lowest percentage of any district in Sindh.[42]

Energy supply for lighting by percentage of households[42]
Electricity Gas/Oil Wood & Candle Other
Urban Rural Total Urban Rural Total Urban Rural Total Urban Rural Total
93.44 34.06 38.55 0 10.24 9.47 0 14.42 13.33 6.56 41.28 38.65

Irrigation

As the district is mostly arid, its irrigation system is small. Only 1.6% of the district's cultivated land is irrigated, mostly in Diplo taluka by a tributary of the Naukot branch of Nara Canal. Irrigation is most extensive in Nagarparkar and Mithi, where much of the land is fed by tube wells.[13]

Fuel

Women set out to collect fuel wood
Women set out to collect firewood
Jugaad in Tharparkar for avoiding gas leakage by using heavy weight objects
An example of Jugaad

In Tharparkar, 99% of households use firewood as the main fuel supply for cooking.[42] The deforestation resulting from large-scale firewood harvesting is a potential contributor to Tharparkar's drought issues. The second largest supply is gas, which 0.7% of households use. Most gas use is in Tharparkar's smaller urban communities. Gas infrastructure is poorly developed, and gas cylinder safety is questionable, which has led to some accidents. One common solution to gas safety problems used in Tharparkar is the Jugaad practice of placing a heavy object on top of a faulty valve, to prevent gas from leaking.[citation needed]

Fuel supply for cooking by percentage of households[42]
Gas Wood/Sticks Oil Other
Urban Rural Total Urban Rural Total Urban Rural Total Urban Rural Total
9.36 0 0.71 90.64 99.76 99.07 0 0.08 0.07 0 0.16 0.15

Finance, banking and taxation

Finance

Tharparkar's importance to the Sindh and Pakistani economies is mostly based in its energy reserves and its status as the energy capital of Pakistan.[124][125] During the September 2019 Pakistan Renewable Energy Summit, President Arif Alvi reemphasized the importance of fully utilizing the coal reserves discovered in Tharparkar.[126] To fulfill this aim, the Sindh government called for further Australian investment in Thar coal, and auctioned off 4 coal mining blocks worth between US$4–6 billion.

Chinese investment in the district includes a US$2 billion investment from the Chinese state-owned Shanghai Electric Power Company Limited.[127][128][129][130] As of November 2019, Pakistan and China have agreed to expand the scope of the China–Pakistan Economic Corridor to include copper, gold, oil, gas, and housing sectors.[131]

In 2019, the Manila-based Asian Development Bank approved a $75 million loan for investment in the Sindhi education system.[132] Also in 2019, the World Bank approved a $1.93 billion loan to Sindh to be used in several initiatives with various goals, including the development of Tharparkar's rural economy.[133][134] Since, this occurred just after Sindh CM was summoned by the National Accountability Bureau (NAB) in graft probe, has raised concerns among people.[135][136] However, questions have been raised about possible misuse of such funding.[137][138][139][140][141][142][143][144][145]

Industrial investments in the district have been promoted by the government, with important economic incentives having been implemented in Tharparkar to attract businesses. Serious issues of industrial slave labor and worker exploitation exist in the district.[146][147][148][149][150]

A routine activity in Tharparkar

Banking

Main article: Banking in Pakistan

Like the rest of Pakistan, domestic banking in Tharparkar is conducted interest-free as a result of previous Islamization of banking. However, foreign loans and deposits of foreign currency do incur interest.[151] Most banks in Tharparkar are concentrated within urban centers such as Mithi, and are closed on Saturdays and Sundays. Online banking services in the district are limited.

Taxation

All personal and corporate incomes are taxed by the federal government except income from agriculture which is taxed by provincial governments. In Sindh, Board of Revenue (BOR) collects all tax revenue of the Government of Sindh. As per Sindh Agricultural Income Tax Act of 2000, no land tax is levied in the Thar Desert and the Kohistan areas.[152][153] An amendment bill was passed by the Provincial Assembly of Sindh on 30 April 2018 and further formal notification was issued on 22 May 2018 for the same.[154] The Sindh cabinet during same time also decided to amend the Sindh Arms Act, allowing people to keep more than four (as many weapons as desired) weapons.[155][156] Further asset statements provided by legislators and senators for the year 2018 revealed alarming figures of arms and deadly-military weapons in their personal arsenals.[157] Apart from this, Home secretary was summoned in sale of weapons on fake arms licenses case by an anti-terrorism court.[158][159] In second week of November several reports described Federal Board of Revenue (FBR) is to be restructured and Prime Minister has proposed for replacement of FBR.[160][161]

Demographics

Historical population
YearPop.±% p.a.
1951 249,280—    
1961 290,402+1.54%
1972 359,357+1.96%
1981 540,985+4.65%
1998 914,291+3.13%
2017 1,647,036+3.15%
2023 1,778,407+1.29%
Sources:[162]

At the time of the 2017 census, Tharparkar district had 371,138 households and a population of 1,647,036. Tharparkar had a sex ratio of 869 females per 1000 males and a literacy rate of 29.78%: 41.95% for males and 16.61% for females. 132,534 (8.05%) lived in urban areas. 624,318 (37.91%) were under 10 years of age.[3] In 2023, the district had 327,677 households and a population of 1,778,407.[2]

Population in Tehsils/Talukas of Tharparkar district (DU=data unavailable)[13][163][164]
Year Mithi Islamkot Diplo Kaloi Chachro Dahli Nagarparkar
1998 125,137 137,826 92,047 73,651 167,235 165,289 153,106
2013 201,850 190,664 230,890 DU 232,210 225,710 218,411
2017 219,901 244,439 148,871 117,609 350,807 305,529 259,880

Religion

Religions in Tharparkar district (2017)[3][a]
Religion Percent
Islam
56.56%
Hinduism
43.39%
Other or not stated
0.05%
Religion in present-day Tharparkar district[b]
Religion Population (1941)[165]: 54–57  Percentage (1941) Population (2017)[3] Percentage (2017)
Islam 89,066 47.40% 931,054 56.56%
Hinduism 73,071 38.89% 714,698 43.39%
Tribal religion[c] 25,459 13.55% --- ---
Others [d] 288 0.16% 1,284 0.05%
Total Population 187,884 100% 1,647,036 100%
Churrio Jabal Durga Mata Temple, Tharparkar
A temple in Chelhar
A temple in Chelhar

Before the partition of India in 1947, Hindus and Muslims constituted roughly 52% and 47% of Tharparkar's population, respectively.[e] Post-partition, many Hindus, especially those of the upper castes and their servants, emigrated to India, while roughly 3,500 Muslim families immigrated to Tharparkar from India. The immigrating families were given 12 acres of land each (a total of 42,000 acres).[166] After the 1965 and 1971 wars, many Hindus, especially upper castes from erstwhile Hindu-majority Chhachro, left Pakistan for India.[167][168]

In the 1998 census, 59.42% of the district's population was Muslim and 40.47% Hindu.[169][170][171][6][172][173] As of the 2017 census, Muslims are 56.56% while Hindus make up 43.39%. Hindus make up 64% of Tharpakar's urban areas, while Muslims make up 58% of rural areas. Tharparkar today has the largest Hindu population in Pakistan.[174][175][176]

Population of taluks by religion
Taluk Muslims Hindus Others
Chachro 66.09% 33.90% 0.01%
Dahli 89.54% 10.45% 0.01%
Diplo 54.25% 45.71% 0.04%
Islamkot 40.75% 59.22% 0.03%
Kaloi 67.56% 32.41% 0.03%
Mithi 32.63% 67.19% 0.18%
Nagarpakar 36.20% 63.57% 0.23%

The northern Taluks of Dahli, Chachro, Diplo, and Kaloi are majority Muslim, with Dahli being nearly 90% Muslim. The southern Taluks of Islamkot, Mithi and Nagarpakar are Hindu-majority, with Mithi being nearly 70% Hindu.[3]

Caste

As in the rest of Sindh, most Hindus, especially in rural areas, were the lower caste poor who could not afford to move to India. Over two-thirds of Hindus are Scheduled Castes, which form 28.05% of the entire district's population. This is itself as underestimate as many Scheduled Castes put their religion as generically 'Hindu' rather than Scheduled Caste. The various Hindu communities are:[8][177][178][179][180][181][182][183][184][185][186][187][188][189][190][191]

Hindu temples

  1. Shri Ramapir Mandir
  2. Churrio Jabal Durga Temple at Nagarparkar - The historic Durga Mata Temple on the Churrio Jabal is visited annually by 200,000 pilgrims annually on Shivratri.[192]
  3. Guri Mandir at Guri
  4. Krishna Mandar Kantio Tharparkar[193][194]
  5. Nagarparkar temples
  6. Parbrahm Ashram (Verijhap Dham) at Diplo
  7. Sant Nenuram Ashram at Islamkot

Languages

An example of the differences in dialects of Dhatki, the most widely spoken language in Tharparkar[195]

In the 2017 census, 98.74% of the population recorded their language as 'Dhatki' on the census. However Tharparkar is home to a wide variety of dialects, lying at the transition zone between Sindhi, Rajasthani and Gujarati. Dhatki, which is the most widely used, is closely related to Marwari on the other side of the border, and transitions to Sindhi in the west. Other languages include the various Koli languages such as Parkari and Kachi Koli spoken in the southeast near the border with Gujarat.[196][197][198][199][200]

Education

Entrance board of a school in Tharparkar
Entrance board of a Tharparkar school

From 2011 to 2016, Sindh has increased education spending by 90%, from PKR 14.26 billion to PKR 148 billion.[40] Despite these recent increases in provincial expenditures, Tharparkar district's educational situation is poor. The overall literacy rate of the population older than 10 is 46%, with the overall male literacy rate of 65% much higher than the female rate of 25%. Urban areas have higher rates, with an average 69% (male: 81%, female: 54%), while rural areas have lower rates, with an average 45% (male: 64%, female: 23%). 37% of those older than 15 are literate.

The gross enrolment ratio (GER) for primary level schooling is 84% (male: 96% and female: 71%). The urban GER of 105% (male: 118%, female: 92%) is significantly higher than the rural GER of 84% (male: 95%, female: 70%). The net enrolment rate (NER) for primary level schooling is 52% (male: 57%, female: 47%). The NER in urban areas is 77% (male: 78%, female: 76%) while in rural areas it is 52% (male: 56%, female: 46%).

Unprivileged child teaching other school children how to milk a goat in Tharparkar
Children milking a goat outside a Tharparkar school

In total, 221,203 students, of which 125,189 are male and 96,014 are female, are enrolled in Tharparkar's 4,152 schools. Of those schools, 620 are male-only, 629 are female-only, and 2,903 are co-ed. There are a total 5,469 teachers, of which 4,813 are male and 656 female. Each school has an average 53 students and 1.3 teachers, and the average student–teacher ratio is about 40, consistent throughout most levels of schooling.[41]

The Sindh Bureau of Statistics places the number of schools in Tharparkar at 4,010, the highest of any district in Sindh. About 4.4% of schools have access to electricity. About 34.6% have washrooms, and about 16.0% have drinking water. Only about 0.4% and 0.6% have access to libraries and laboratories, respectively. Only about 2.2% have playgrounds. About 74.5% have school management committees.[201]

Education statistics by level of schooling
Level Number of schools Students Male Female Teachers Male Female Student-teacher ratio Classrooms (average)
Primary 3,873 190,370 105,494 84,876 4,625 4,057 568 41 1
Middle 234 15,052 8,587 6,465 362 344 18 42 2
Secondary 40 12,130 7,833 4,297 403 333 70 30 7
Higher secondary 5 3,651 3,275 376 79 79 0 46 17
Total 4,152 221,203 125,189 96,014 5,469 4,813 656 40 1.1

University

In April 2019, a large social media movement using the hashtag #TharNeedsUniversity and protesting the lack of a university campus in Tharparkar district demanded the establishment of such an institution.[202][203][204][205] The movement prompted the government to take measures to establish a sub-campus in Islamkot. NED University of Engineering and Technology, in partnership with Sindh Engro Coal Mining Company (SECMC) and The Citizens Foundation (TCF), announced the creation of the "Thar Institute of Engineering, Science, and Technology" in Islamkot, which would be a sub-campus of NED.[205][206][207] An undergraduate programme was planned to commence in October 2019, although instruction was planned to take place at the TCF-Engro Campus Islamkot until a more permanent campus could be established.[207][206][208]

However, the location of the future campuses was moved after the Sindh government purchased 317 acres of land in Mithi for Rs 1.5 billion. In addition, the temporary location was moved from the TCF-Engro Campus in Islamkot to the Benazir Cultural Complex in Mithi after payment of Rs 120 million by the Sindh government. In October 2019, the temporary NED University campus was inaugurated at the Shaheed Benazir Cultural Complex in Mithi, although several weeks after the planned date for the cancelled Islamkot campus.[209][210][211][212][213][214][215][216]

Thari Patko(Turban). Title in Vaniki script also known as Khudawadi script
A Thari patko, a traditional type of turban[217]

Culture

Tharparkar is considered the most peaceful place in the entire country and is well known for its centuries-old interfaith harmony. The culture of Tharparkar is an exemplary example of pluralism in Sindh. Muslim residents do not sacrifice cows, not because of any laws but to avoid causing offense to the Hindu community.[174] Hindu residents avoid weddings and celebrations during Muharram (an Islamic month notable for its solemn mood).[175] Hindus also fast and arrange Iftar dinners for their Muslim neighbors in the month of Ramadan, and both sides exchange sweets on Eid and Diwali.[175] Muslim residents also avoid eating any meat during the Hindu occasion of Navratri. According to Dawn, there appears to be no recorded instance communal violence in the district.[175]

Another unique feature of the district's culture is its relatively low crime rate. Normally, crime is associated with poverty, yet in this district the crime level is low despite its poverty and unemployment level.[176][218][172]

Cuisine

Guar Chibhad ji bhaaji
Guar is a major food crop in Tharparkar and Guar Chibhad ji bhaaji is among popular dishes.[219][220]
Singhrian ji Bhaaji
Singhri(Sangri) grows in arid or desert climates throughout year in Thar and Singhrian ji Bhaaji is prepared from it.[221][222]
Kairan (or Doran) ji Bhaaji
Achar is prepared from fruits and flowers of Kair. Also vegetable dish known as Kairan (or Doran) ji Bhaaji is prepared.[223]
Singhrian jo Raabro (Khaatiyo)
Singhrian jo Raabro (Khaatiyo) is one of variant of Singhri vegetable dish prepared with Kadhi.

Thari people are predominantly vegetarian. Singhri (Sangri), Kair and Guar are among most popular in Thar.[221][224][219][220]

Festivals

Various festivals in Thar include:

Sattu is prepared for Teejdi (or Teej) festival
Sattu is prepared for Teejdi (or Teej) festival
Lola (Lolo in singular) prepared on Thadri in Tharparkar Sindh
Lola (Lolo in singular) prepared on Thadri by Sindhis

Teejdi

Teejdi (known among Sindhis) also known as Teej or Kajari Teej is celebrated in Thar on Tritiya-Krishna Paksha of Bhadrapada. During this festival the women observe fast and also pray to the moon when it rises. While prayers to moon 5 leaves of Ak(2 below Pāda, 2 in īrmá and 1 on Śiraḥ ) are kept and Argh is offered. After the prayers, fast is broken by consuming some Argh and Sattu on another leaf of Ak. The fast is observed by married women for health of their husband while unmarried women pray for marital bliss.[225][226][227]

Thadri

Thadri festival is celebrated by Sindhis, one tithi before Krishna Janmasthmi during which cold (i.e. cooked a day ahead) and pro biotic foods like yogurt and pickle are consumed. Thadri reflects a tribute to Sheetla Mata.[228][229]

Chetichand

Cheti Chand is celebrated by Sindhi Hindus. It is the festival which marks the beginning of the Hindu New Year for Sindhi Hindus.[230][231] It is celebrated on first day of the Sindhi month Chet (Chaitra).

Naurata

Kumkuma
Kumkuma is applied on sing of Gou Mata during Gou Puja on Dhanteras.
Diwali Patikas
During Diwali festival the Brahmins irrespective of their social and economic prosperity follow their Brahmin Dharma by going door-to-door to get Bhikhsha Daan and provide people such Diwali Patrikas (leaflets or stickers). During the Muhurt Chittan or Lakshmi Chittan ritual, this Diwali Patrika having image of Lakshmi is placed or applied within the drawn door frame.

Naurata is celebrated twice in a year by Sindhi Hindus in the honor of goddess Durga. The duration of this festival is nine nights (and ten days) which is marked by fasting and abstinence. The devotees with partial fast observe strict vegetarian diet during this holy festival. On Ashtami after the havan ritual or on Navami, devotees offer meal and kheer to nine young girls (considering them as nau mata avatars) following with gift of red chunri. During all nine nights the garba (dance around lighted lamps or an image of the Goddess, Durga) is performed. Ramlila is also performed with Ravana Dahan on Dussehra (tenth day).[232][233]

Diyari

Diyari (ڏياري, डियारी) is one of prominent Hindu festival celebrated eighteen days after the Dussehra festival. The five-day festival of lights begins with Dhanteras as the first day when females do Gau Puja which includes Sing Abhishek (ritual of applying kumkuma on sing) during which they feed laddu to Gau Mata. The next day is celebrated as Roop Choudas which involves female tradition of Shringar including application of kajal in the eyes. The third day is celebrated with Lakshmi Pujan. On the day of Lakshmi Pujan during the first Choghadiya of Amrut or Shubh or Labh, the ritual of Muhurt Chittan or Lakshmi Chittan (drawing directly on wall or on a paper hanging on wall of Puja Kaksh, a pointed bell-shaped door frame and Shri within it using twig of Neem or Ashoka and red colour prepared by mixture of kumkuma, raw milk and Ganga jal). During the same Choghadiya or in next Choghadiya of same types the puja is performed. Celebrants clean, renovate, and decorate homes and workplaces, purchase new clothing, home refurbishments, gifts, gold, jewellery. During this festival the temples, houses and shops are brightly illuminated with diyas. The youngers take blessings from elders in family, share gifts and sweets and light fireworks.

The duration of this festival is considered very auspicious and believed to give success in work beginning in this time. During this shubh muhurt many political events are exclusively organised in Tharparkar or across Pakistan. In 2015, during this festival in a political event organised in Tharparkar, a politician even being non-Hindu gave significance to this festival and explained the character of Ravana referring illustration from real life in present. In 2019, during this prominent Hindu festival several political parties across Pakistan have scheduled a nationwide anti-government march.[234][235][236][237][238][239][240][241][242][243][244]

Tourism

Major tourist destinations in Tharparkar district include:

Nagarparkar Jain Temples

Main article: Nagarparkar Jain Temples

Frescoes at the Gori Temple are the oldest existing Jain frescoes in the world.[245]

These approximately 14 Jain temples along with Bhodesar Mosque are scattered throughout Nagarparkar taluka are inscribed on the tentative list for UNESCO World Heritage as the Nagarparkar Cultural Landscape.[246] Buildings of these temples date from the 12th to the 15th centuries.

Parbrahma Dham / Verijhap Dham

Main article: Parbrahm Ashram

Parbrahm Ashram

Parbrahm Ashram ( پاربرهم ڌام ) also known as Verijhap Dham(ويڊيجپ ڌام) or Chhari Saheb Dham (ڇڙي صاحب ڌام ) near Diplo taluka is an ancient Shiva Temple considered as Jyotirlinga where thousands of yatris arrive for "Divya Jyot Darshan" (Divine Light View) from a Jar.[247][248][249][250][251][252][253][254] After the independence of Pakistan in 1947 the migrated Hindus worship Chhari Saheb at Sadashiv Chhari Mandir, Kubernagar in Ahmedabad.[255] However many devotees across the world arrive in Diplo during the annual "Parbrahma Jo Melo" or "Parbrahma Mela" held in Jeth (the third Sindhi month).

Gadi Bhit

Gadi Bhit monument view

Gadi Bhit is the highest elevation point of Mithi which is built on a sand hill giving panoramic view of entire town.

Churrio Jabal

Main article: Churrio Jabal

Churrio Jabal (چوڙيو جبل ) is a historic Durga Mata Temple on the Churrio hill which is visited annually by 200,000 pilgrims from Nepal, India and other countries annually on Shivratri.[192] Hindus bring cremated ashes of their departed beloveds to immerse in the holy water.[256] The valuable and multi-coloured hill supporting the temple is mined for its rare and expensive granite, which is posing a serious threat to the hill and this ancient Hindu temple.[257][258]

Marvi Jo Khooh (Marvi's Well)

Marvi Jo Khoh (Marvi's Well) is heritage of Sindh located near village Bhalva in Tharparkar.[259][260][261]

Sant Nenuram Ashram / Puranbharti Ashram

Main article: Sant Nenuram Ashram

Sant Nenuram Ashram

Sant Nenuram Ashram (سنت نيڻورام آشرم ) also known as Puranbharti Ashram (پرڻڀارتي آشرم ) or Aakharo (آکاڊون) was established by Nihalchand Pabani (Neem Revolutionist) in Islamkot (also known as Neem Town or Sant Nenuram Nagri). The Ashram each day twice throughout year serves Bhandhara which is available for everyone.[262] Daily large number of people from different caste, creed, race or religion avail this meal. Apart from this daily huge number of birds (especially Crows, Raven and Peacock) are fed Nukti-Bhujia in Ashram by devotees visiting the Ashram. An annual three-day festival of Sant (Sant Jo Melo) is celebrated by thousands of devotees including both Hindus and Muslims.[263] The annual festival is celebrated in Ashwina month of Hindu Calendar beginning from Tritiya-Krishna Paksha (Andhari Teej) to Panchami-Krishna Paksha (Andhari Pacham).

Karoonjhar Mountains

Main article: Karoonjhar Mountains

Karoonjhar Mountains are located near Nagarparkar on the northern edge of the Rann of Kutch with approximately 19 km length and height of 305 m.

Administration

Tharparkar District is divided into 7 Tehsils, 64 Union Councils, 172 Dehs, and 2,365 villages.[14][264][265][266][267]

Map of Tharparkar District with its administrative divisions.
Map of Tharparkar District's tehsils
Tribal settlement in Tharparkar
Tribal settlement in Tharparkar
Rural Tharparkar
Village in Tharparkar

Tehsils

Union Councils

This list is incomplete; you can help by adding missing items. (January 2020)

List of Dehs

The following is a list of Tharparkar District's 172 dehs, organised by taluka:[268]

Disaster

Drought, malnutrition, child mortality, suicide and locust attacks are common in Tharparkar.[269][270][271][272] Tharparkar has been declared by the government as in a drought for at least 17 separate years before 2018.[15]

Environmental issues

Fly vs spider in Tharparkar
A fly and spider in Tharparkar

Tharparkar experiences the effects of earthquakes, floods, thunderstorms, drought, and locust attacks. Nagarparkar taluka is especially affected by these natural disasters. In addition, climate change issues affect the district and worsen preexisting environmental problems. Recent (2019) earthquakes have included one on 18 November,[273][274] and one on 1 December which occurred during the Sindhi Cultural Day celebrations.[275][276]

Locust

Warheads of locust deployed in Tharparkar
Feces from one of the swarms which has affected Tharparkar[277]

For a large part of 2019, beginning in May, there were large locust swarms which adversely affected Tharparkar's agriculture and economy through destruction of crops which many people rely on for food and livelihood.[272]

Some activists claimed that government response to the disaster was lackluster[citation needed], and in one incident, Ismail Rahoo, Sindh's Minister for Agriculture, remarked that a possible solution would be for the largely vegetarian population of Tharparkar district to eat the insects.[278] The problem, remaining unresolved, forced many farmers to labor continuously to drive away locusts, while many crops were eaten.[221][224] Continuing to try to address the problem, some farmers demanded the government provide them with anti-insect spray.[279]

In October 2019, the Pakistani government announced the creation of the "Ehsaas Langar Scheme" which would establish kitchens to provide free meals to needy families.[280] In the wake of this announcement, an anti-government rally held on 23 October by the Pakistan Peoples Party was affected by the swarms[281]

Natural disasters

Climate change severely affects Tharparkar. In addition, thunderstorms and resultant lightning strikes cause an abnormally large amount of death. In November 2015, more than 30 people and many more livestock were killed by a series of lightning strikes, resulting in a declaration of emergency in the district.[282][283][284][285][286][287] Similarly, in November 2019, nine people were killed along with many more livestock.[288]

Around 1.65 million people in Tharparkar live in houses which they have no legal entitlement to, with no city survey being conducted since 2014.[289]

Social issues

Social issues in Tharparkar exist and are exacerbated by lack of education and awareness about problems. Suicides have become common in Tharparkar. At least 59 people including 38 women and two children committed suicide in 2019, while in 2018 about 198 suicides were reported. Increasing poverty and population displacement have been speculated to lead to these deaths.[290]

Welfare

Many non-governmental organizations (NGOs) operate within Tharparkar, mostly in order to assist in humanitarian efforts.[50] In 2019, Pakistan cancelled the registration of 4,693 NGOs across Sindh (including 59 in Tharparkar) that had violated government regulations.[291]

NGO working for Tharparkar[13]
Baanhn Beli (website)
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Health and Nutrition Development Society (website)
United Nations World Food Programme
Sami Foundation (website)
Sindh Agricultural and Forestry Workers Coordinating Organization (website)
Society for Conservation and Protection of Environment (website)
Sukaar Foundation (website)
United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees
The United Nations Children's Fund  (UNICEF)
Lead Against Marginality & Poverty (website)
Sindh Water Relief Project[292] (by Pakistan Peacekeeping Mission)
United Nation Development Programme (UNDP)
Association For Water Applied Education & Renewable Energy (website)
Participatory Village Development Programme (website)
United Nation World Health Organization
WaterAid
National Commission for Human Development
Pakistan Poverty Alleviation Fund
International Organization for Migration
Thardeep Rural Development Programme (website)
Society for the Protection of the Rights of the Children (SPARC)

Specialities

Peafowl

A view of Peafowl from a house window in Tharparkar District
A view from a house window of a peafowl sitting on water tank(top of a house) in Tharparkar district

In Tharparkar district, the peafowls hold great significance and are considered a part of identity, pride and heritage. They are found very commonly across this region. In early mornings they are seen roaming from one house roof to other and locals often offer them grains for feeding. During rainy days such frequency is higher. Peafowls also have great history in Thar. The peafowl of Thar once caught attention of Alexander the Great while he was passing through Sindh. Further, he sent this gift of nature to his mother. Since ancient times, peafowl has remained most integral part of designs and are seen in pottery, rallis and other handlooms and art works in Thar. Many artists, poets and, singers from the land of Thar have emphasised peafowl in their work. The Sindhi folk song "Mor Tho Tilley Rana" is one of such example. Peafowl is part of cultural heritage in Tharparkar.[293][294][295][296][297][298][299][300][301][302][303]

Tharparkar cattle

Tharparkar cattle famous since first World War

Tharparkar cattle originating in Tharparkar district is a dual purpose breed known for both its milking and draught potential. It is also known as White or Gray Sindhi, Cutchi and Thari. As specified in several reports or articles:

"The Tharparkar came into prominence during the first World War when some animals were taken to supply milk for the Near East army camps. Here their capacity for production under rigorous feeding and unfavorable environmental conditions at once became apparent. Since then many breeding herds have been assembled in India and Pakistan. When left on arid pasture the milk production is approximately 1135 kg per lactation, while those animals maintained in the villages average 1980 kg."[53][304]

Ralli

Ralli quilt
Ralli quilt

Ralli are traditional quilts made by women in the Indus Region of the Indian subcontinent. The word Ralli is derived from the local word "ralanna" which means to mix or connect. Ralli are tradition since 4th millennium BC. On trade records from the early 1500s Ralli is listed as an export item to Europe. The tradition of Ralli has passed from mother to daughter for thousands of years. Irrespective of caste, religion, occupation and tribe thousands of women make Ralli. These women belong to under privileged and poor segment who consider it as their source of income. Women spent more than 170 hours for each of this art. Like a textile currency having a value, Ralli was used for exchange of valuable things in ancient Indus Valley Civilization. For Thari rural women, Ralli is vital source of entrepreneurship and skill development. In Tharparkar, Ralli with Peacock designs are very popular.[305][60][306][307][308][309][310][311][312][313][314][315]

Kekra Truck (Chakra)

A Kekra truck unloading construction material in Islamkot
A Kekra truck unloading construction material in Tharparkar

Kekra Truck also called as Chakra by native people, is very common for the local transportation in Tharparkar. This truck is very suitable for sandy routes so it is also called 'Camel of Thar'. The truck is decorated with various designs and flowers. Since powerful Bedford engines of World War II are used in Kekras, the popularity of this truck is on the peak. Before the roads were constructed in Tharparkar, people along with their livestock and household items used to transport via Kekra. Now, with rise in road connectivity these trucks mostly transport the goods or general items. Modifications to the chassis are done to enhance the loading capacity. A typical Kekra truck is said to have capacity of 12,000 kg. Kekra trucks with traditional Thari decorations has become the tradition of transportation in Tharparkar district.[316][317][318][319][320][321][322][323][324][325]

Notable people

Nihalchand Pabani giving a speech on 14 August (Independence Day)
Nihalchand Pabani giving a speech on 14 August (Independence Day)

See also

References

  1. ^ "Tharis warned against violating cultivation ban". Dawn. 23 June 2019.
  2. ^ a b "TABLE 1 : HOUSEHOLDS, POPULATION, HOUSEHOLD SIZE AND ANNUAL GROWTH RATE" (PDF). www.pbscensus.gov.pk. Pakistan Bureau of Statistics. 2023.
  3. ^ a b c d e "District Wise Results / Tables (Census - 2017)". www.pbscensus.gov.pk. Pakistan Bureau of Statistics.
  4. ^ "PakistanHuman Development Index Report" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 2 May 2018. Retrieved 30 July 2019.
  5. ^ "Population - Pakistan Bureau of Statistics" (PDF). www.pbscensus.gov.pk/.
  6. ^ a b "Population of Hindus in the Pakistan". Pakistan Hindu Council. 13 January 2017. Archived from the original on 18 July 2019.((cite web)): CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  7. ^ "Sindh govt to divide Tharparkar in two districts". Retrieved 7 June 2021.
  8. ^ a b c Beg, Mirza Arshad Ali. "Social & Environmental Baseline of Tharparkar District 2013". ((cite journal)): Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  9. ^ David Ross C.I.E., The land of the five rivers and Sindh (1883), p. 33: “Still further towards the desert is Amarkot, chief town of the Thar and Parkar district, and headquarters of the political superintendent.”
  10. ^ Das, Vikram; Cook, Matthew A. (2023). "India Ukre Giya: Loss and Change in Light of and in the Shadows of War". Journal of Sindhi Studies. 3: 1–15. doi:10.1163/26670925-bja10013.
  11. ^ "Pakistan Emergency Situational Analysis - District Tharparkar, May 2014 - Pakistan". ReliefWeb. 3 August 2014. Retrieved 16 July 2019.
  12. ^ "World Maps of Köppen-Geiger climate classification". Koeppen-geiger.vu-wien.ac.at. Retrieved 9 August 2022.
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "Pakistan Emergency Situational Analysis - District Tharparkar, May 2014 - Pakistan | ReliefWeb". reliefweb.int. 3 August 2014.
  14. ^ a b "Drought Situation Report of Sindh Particularly in District Tharparkar-2018" (PDF). NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT AUTHORITY - GOVERNMENT OF PAKISTAN.
  15. ^ a b c Kumar, Teerath (3 November 2018). "Last 20 Years Rainfall Record of Tharparkar and Drought History | Jhangi Zone". Retrieved 14 August 2019.
  16. ^ "Comprehensive Assessment of Drought and Famine in Sind Arid Zones". Retrieved 14 August 2019.
  17. ^ "Post monsoon floristic inventory of Nagarparkar, District Tharparkar, Sindh, Pakistan". Pure and Applied Biology (Pab). 8 (1): 968–976. 7 March 2019. Retrieved 14 August 2019.
  18. ^ "Chinkara Wildlife Sanctuary – Wildlife of Pakistan". Retrieved 20 October 2019.
  19. ^ "IUCN Identifies Tharparkar As A Major Sanctuary For Endangered Species Of Vulture". UrduPoint. Retrieved 20 October 2019.
  20. ^ "At least 20 peacocks 'mysteriously' die in Tharparkar over weekend". PKKH.tv. 16 April 2017. Retrieved 20 October 2019.
  21. ^ "Illegal business of snakes, scorpions thriving in interior Sindh". www.pakistantoday.com.pk. Retrieved 14 July 2019.
  22. ^ Najam, Adil; Bari, Faisal (2017). Pakistan Human Development Index Report 2017. Pakistan: United Nations Development Programme. ISBN 978-969-8736-19-4.
  23. ^ "Multidimensional Poverty in Pakistan by UNDP" (PDF). UNDP Pakistan.
  24. ^ Gokulan, Dhanusha. "Dubai-based Indian businessman builds 62 water hand pumps in Pakistan". Khaleej Times. Retrieved 20 June 2019.
  25. ^ "Dubai-Based Indian Man Installs Hand Pumps In Poor Pak District: Report". NDTV.com. Retrieved 20 June 2019.
  26. ^ "SC plans body to examine govt measures in Tharparkar - Pakistan". ReliefWeb. 28 December 2018. Retrieved 20 June 2019.
  27. ^ "BISP, WFP ink MoU to mitigate food insecurity in drought-ht Tharparkar". www.thenews.com.pk. Retrieved 23 August 2019.
  28. ^ "WFP Pakistan Country Brief, May 2019 - Pakistan". ReliefWeb. Retrieved 30 June 2019.
  29. ^ a b "Rs 15bn spent on development projects in Tharparkar". Daily Times. 23 November 2017. Retrieved 6 August 2019.
  30. ^ a b "Rs1.8 billion royalty of coal project to be spent on Thar". www.pakistantoday.com.pk. Retrieved 21 August 2019.
  31. ^ "Malnutrition claims life of five more children in Tharparkar". www.pakistantoday.com.pk. Retrieved 20 June 2019.
  32. ^ "Tharparkar'da 10 ayda 700'den fazla çocuk 'yetersiz beslenme ve hastalıktan' öldü | Tarafsız Haber Ajansı" (in Turkish). 3 November 2019. Retrieved 4 November 2019.
  33. ^ "84 Infants Died In Sindh: Where Is The Sindh Government?". Global Village Space. 4 November 2019. Retrieved 4 November 2019.
  34. ^ "Four newborns die of malnutrition in Tharparkar, toll mounts to 326 in 2019". www.pakistantoday.com.pk. Retrieved 20 June 2019.
  35. ^ "Malnutrition kills five more children in Thar - Pakistan". ReliefWeb. 4 August 2019. Retrieved 4 August 2019.
  36. ^ "84 children died in a month due to malnutrition in Tharparkar". www.pakistantoday.com.pk. Retrieved 4 November 2019.
  37. ^ "NCHR takes notice of kids' death in Thar". The Nation. 28 January 2016. Retrieved 28 January 2016.
  38. ^ "Tharparkar's mortality rate was lower than the rest of the country in 2017: Saeed Ghani". Daily Times. 25 September 2018. Retrieved 22 August 2019.
  39. ^ https://web.archive.org/web/20190128092524/http://relief.zeetech.systems/relief.html website
  40. ^ a b "Situation analysis of children in Pakistan" (PDF). UNICEF. Retrieved 22 September 2019.
  41. ^ a b c d "Pakistan Emergency Situational Analysis - District Tharparkar, May 2014 - Pakistan". 3 August 2014.
  42. ^ a b c d e f g h "Pakistan Social And Living Standards Measurement Survey (PSLM) 2014-15 Provincial / District" (PDF). www.pbs.gov.pk. Retrieved 7 September 2019.
  43. ^ "Pakistan: Health facilities in Tharparkar- Sindh province (As of 07 March 2019) - Pakistan". ReliefWeb. 18 March 2019. Retrieved 1 September 2019.
  44. ^ a b c "Pakistan Human Development Index Report 2017" (PDF). UNDP. Retrieved 30 July 2019.
  45. ^ "Drought In District Tharparkar Rapid Need Assessment Report October 2018 - Pakistan". ReliefWeb. 12 February 2019. Retrieved 2 July 2019.
  46. ^ "Free fodder for 20,000 households breeding livestock in Tharparka". The Express Tribune. 26 November 2018. Retrieved 2 July 2019.
  47. ^ "Livestock management in Thar". The Sindh Times. 9 May 2019. Retrieved 2 July 2019.
  48. ^ "Boosting wool output and carpet industry in Sindh". dawn.com. 26 November 2007. Retrieved 31 July 2019.
  49. ^ "Quality wool production". dawn.com. 29 April 2002. Retrieved 31 July 2019.
  50. ^ a b c "Livestock Productivity in the Desert Ecologies of Pakistan: Setting the Development Priorities" (PDF). Pakistan Institute of Development Economics. Retrieved 31 July 2019.
  51. ^ a b "Tharparkar: The history and culture amid catastrophe". www.aljazeera.com. Retrieved 27 August 2019.
  52. ^ "LIVESTOCK RESOURCES OF PAKISTAN: PRESENT STATUS AND FUTURE TRENDS" (PDF). Science Vision - A Journal of Science for Development. Retrieved 31 July 2019.
  53. ^ a b "Zebu cattle of India and Pakistan" (PDF). The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations. Retrieved 31 July 2019.
  54. ^ "Pak Dairy Info - Kudhi Buffalo". www.pakdairyinfo.com. Retrieved 31 July 2019.
  55. ^ "Breeds of Livestock - Kooka Sheep — Breeds of Livestock, Department of Animal Science". afs.okstate.edu. Retrieved 31 July 2019.
  56. ^ "Breeds of Livestock - Kachhi Sheep — Breeds of Livestock, Department of Animal Science". afs.okstate.edu. Retrieved 31 July 2019.
  57. ^ "Goat Breeds In Sindh". AgriHunt - A hunt for agriculture knowledge. 12 November 2011. Retrieved 31 July 2019.
  58. ^ "Pre-Feasibility Study CAMEL FARM" (PDF). Agriculture Marketing Information Service. Retrieved 31 July 2019.
  59. ^ "Livestock". thar. 11 December 2012. Retrieved 31 July 2019.
  60. ^ a b "Household Case Studies from Tharparkar District" (PDF). SUCCESS - Sindh Union Council and Community Economic Strengthening Support Programme. Retrieved 7 July 2019.
  61. ^ "General election 2008 - Sindh Assembly [archive]". Election Commission of Pakistan.
  62. ^ "General election 2013 - Sindh Assembly [archive]" (PDF). Election Commission of Pakistan.
  63. ^ "General election 2013 - National Assembly [archive]" (PDF). Election Commission of Pakistan. Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 June 2013. Retrieved 7 March 2020.
  64. ^ "3 Hindus elected from Muslim majority areas". www.thenews.com.pk. Retrieved 7 March 2020.
  65. ^ "Coal Resources of Pakistan: new coalfields". ResearchGate. Retrieved 27 August 2019.
  66. ^ "Pakistan Coal Power Generation Potential - June 2004" (PDF). National Electric Power Regulatory Authority (NEPRA). Retrieved 27 August 2019.
  67. ^ a b "Pakistan's Thar Coal Power Generation Potential - July 2008" (PDF). National Centre of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry - University of Sindh (ISO Certified 9001 - 2008, 14001 -2004). Retrieved 27 August 2019.
  68. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 April 2021. Retrieved 27 August 2019.((cite web)): CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  69. ^ http://www.ppib.gov.pk/PowerPolicy2002.pdf [bare URL PDF]
  70. ^ https://nepra.org.pk/Policies/Coal%20Potential%20in%20Pakistan.pdf [bare URL PDF]
  71. ^ http://www.smd.gov.pk/Portals/0/NMP.pdf [bare URL PDF]
  72. ^ "TCEB-Act-2011 – Sindh Energy". Archived from the original on 27 August 2019. Retrieved 27 August 2019.
  73. ^ "Govt adds new members to Thar coal board". www.thenews.com.pk. Retrieved 27 August 2019.
  74. ^ "Abbtakk.tv: Latest News Breaking Pakistan, World, Live Videos". Abb Takk News. Retrieved 27 August 2019.
  75. ^ "Thar coal starts power supply to national grid". tribune.com.pk. 19 March 2019. Retrieved 27 August 2019.
  76. ^ Web Desk. "Heat wave kills four in Mithi". Aaj News. Retrieved 27 August 2019.
  77. ^ Shivani, Prem (2 April 2008). "MITHI: The havoc power outages create for people". Ddawn.com. Retrieved 27 August 2019.
  78. ^ "Sindh govt to pay Islamkot electricity bill: Bilawal". Samaa TV. 10 April 2019. Retrieved 3 September 2019.
  79. ^ "HESCO board surprised: Thar people pay power bills on time". The Express Tribune. 25 December 2015. Retrieved 27 August 2019.
  80. ^ "Hazards of Coal Power". Technology Times. 15 June 2017. Retrieved 27 August 2019.
  81. ^ "CPEC's Environmental Toll". The Diplomat. Retrieved 27 August 2019.
  82. ^ "With Thar coal project, Pakistan is harnessing the dirtiest energy". The Express Tribune. 13 April 2017. Retrieved 27 August 2019.
  83. ^ "Thar coal project affects livelihood of locals". www.pakistantoday.com.pk. Retrieved 27 August 2019.
  84. ^ "Environmental concerns abound as Pakistan goes against the grain with coal power spree". dawn.com. 15 November 2018. Retrieved 27 August 2019.
  85. ^ "Lignite coal Mining- health effects and recommendations from the health sector" (PDF). Health and Environment Alliance (HEAL). Retrieved 30 August 2019.
  86. ^ https://www.zsp.com.pk/pdf47/1205-1211%20(1)%20PJZ-2246-15%2024-7-15%20Thar%20Paper%20(Revised%202).pdf [bare URL PDF]
  87. ^ Guriro, Amar (23 August 2016). "Pakistan's coal expansion brings misery to villagers in Thar desert". The Third Pole. Retrieved 27 August 2019.
  88. ^ Saleem, Nausheen H. Anwar | Vikram Das Meghwar | Arsam (14 November 2018). "In Thar, who matters more? Coal companies or Tharis?". dawn.com. Retrieved 27 August 2019.
  89. ^ "Thar badlega Pakistan". The Nation. 21 August 2018. Retrieved 27 August 2019.
  90. ^ "Thar Coal-fired power project to be inaugurated on April 10". tribune.com.pk. 2 April 2019. Retrieved 27 August 2019.
  91. ^ "Asia's largest reverse osmosis plant begins operation". Water. desalination + reuse. Retrieved 30 August 2019.
  92. ^ "Tharparkar gets 'Asia's biggest solar RO plant'". dawn.com. 8 January 2015. Retrieved 30 August 2019.
  93. ^ "Asia's largest reverse osmosis plant inaugurated in Pakistan". The Economic Times. 7 January 2015. Retrieved 30 August 2019.
  94. ^ "Zardari inaugurates Asia's largest RO filter plant in Mithi". The Express Tribune. 7 January 2015. Retrieved 30 August 2019.
  95. ^ "Under Construction". pakoasis.com.pk.
  96. ^ Ghani, Faras. "Tharparkar: Pakistan's ongoing catastrophe". www.aljazeera.com. Retrieved 30 August 2019.
  97. ^ "RO plants in Thar: a political adventure or a practical necessity?". www.thenews.com.pk. Retrieved 30 August 2019.
  98. ^ "Workers shut all RO plants across Thar". dawn.com. 6 October 2018. Retrieved 30 August 2019.
  99. ^ "Thar's reverse osmosis plants shut down as workers go on protest". www.pakistantoday.com.pk. Retrieved 30 August 2019.
  100. ^ Ghori, Habib Khan (9 October 2018). "Release of Rs336.7m ordered to make 110 RO plants in Thar functional". dawn.com. Retrieved 30 August 2019.
  101. ^ "Sindh govt to take over RO plants". The Nation. 24 November 2018. Retrieved 30 August 2019.
  102. ^ "RO plants worth Rs8bn in Thar non-operational: PTI MPA tells Sindh Assembly". ARYNEWS. 16 April 2019. Retrieved 31 August 2019.
  103. ^ a b "Ministry nods for Thar Airstrip project". Archived from the original on 7 January 2010. Retrieved 22 August 2019.
  104. ^ a b c "Bilawal to inaugurate Mai Bakhtawar Airport near Islamkot today". DAWN News. 11 April 2018. Retrieved 21 August 2019.
  105. ^ http://www.caapakistan.com.pk/ [bare URL]
  106. ^ "Thar Express from Pakistan reaches India; Indian link train on way to Karachi". The Economic Times. 10 August 2019. Retrieved 16 September 2019.
  107. ^ "Aboard the 'torture train' to Pakistan". NDTV.com. Retrieved 16 September 2019.
  108. ^ "Rail for Tharparkar". dawn.com. 8 December 2018. Retrieved 16 September 2019.
  109. ^ "Rail for Tharparkar". www.pakrail.gov.pk. Retrieved 16 September 2019.
  110. ^ "Building infrastructure: Rail track proposed to connect Thar coalfield". The Express Tribune. 11 January 2019. Retrieved 16 September 2019.
  111. ^ "USF :: Project Lots". usf.org.pk. Retrieved 6 September 2019.
  112. ^ "Wateen & SECMC Announce the First Ever Free WiFi Villages of Tharparkar". 12 January 2017. Retrieved 6 September 2019.
  113. ^ "Free WiFi: It's time Pakistan recognises PPP's noble efforts for people of Thar". The Express Tribune. 21 March 2017. Retrieved 6 September 2019.
  114. ^ Mehmood, Iqra (23 March 2017). "There May Not Be Food Or Water, But WIFI Is Absolutely Necessary In Tharparkar". Parhlo. Retrieved 6 September 2019.
  115. ^ "Villages in Thar get free WiFi". Daily Times. 14 March 2017. Retrieved 6 September 2019.
  116. ^ "Thar villages get free Wifi - Technology - Dunya News". dunyanews.tv. Retrieved 6 September 2019.
  117. ^ "Free Wi-fi at Thar coal project site". dawn.com. 12 March 2017. Retrieved 6 September 2019.
  118. ^ "Reham inaugurates first free WiFi villages of Tharparkar". Business Recorder. 14 March 2017. Retrieved 6 September 2019.
  119. ^ "First Free Wifi Villages Inaugurated In Sindh". Pakistanpoint.com. Retrieved 6 September 2019.
  120. ^ "Monopolising the telecom sector". www.pakistantoday.com.pk. Retrieved 6 September 2019.
  121. ^ "PTCL monopoly: Is there any justification?". www.pakistaneconomist.com. Retrieved 6 September 2019.
  122. ^ "Monopoly in Pakistan | Internet Access | Computer Networking". Scribd. Retrieved 6 September 2019.
  123. ^ "Thardeep Rural Development Programme".
  124. ^ Samoon, Hanif (22 July 2017). "Thar to be game changer for economy of Sindh as well as Pakistan". dawn.com. Retrieved 7 November 2019.
  125. ^ "Thar – the energy capital of Pakistan?". The Friday Times. 30 August 2018. Retrieved 7 November 2019.
  126. ^ "President calls for exploiting environment friendly sources of energy to meet domestic demand". www.radio.gov.pk. Retrieved 7 November 2019.
  127. ^ "Sindh to attract $4-6b by auctioning new Thar coal mining blocks". The Express Tribune. 24 September 2019. Retrieved 7 November 2019.
  128. ^ "Sindh govt asks Australia to invest in Thar coal". The Express Tribune. 26 September 2019. Retrieved 7 November 2019.
  129. ^ "NDU war course team calls on Sindh CM". Business Recorder. 6 November 2019. Retrieved 7 November 2019.
  130. ^ "In Pakistan's Thar Desert, Opposition to New Coal Projects Grows". thediplomat.com. Retrieved 8 November 2019.
  131. ^ "Pakistan, China agree to expand CPEC scope". The Express Tribune. 6 November 2019. Retrieved 7 November 2019.
  132. ^ Kiani, Khaleeq (29 October 2019). "ADB approves $75m for Sindh education project". dawn.com=en. Retrieved 7 November 2019.
  133. ^ "Sindh govt, WB approve new development projects worth $1.93b". The Express Tribune. 2 November 2019. Retrieved 7 November 2019.
  134. ^ "World Bank approves $1.9bn for Sindh projects". Pakistan Today Profit. November 2019. Retrieved 7 November 2019.
  135. ^ "Sindh CM Murad Ali Shah summoned by NAB in graft probe". DAWN - Online Newspaper. 16 September 2019. Retrieved 8 November 2019.
  136. ^ "Murad Ali Shah doesn't appear before NAB's Islamabad office". www.pakistantoday.com.pk. Retrieved 8 November 2019.
  137. ^ "Karkey rental power case: Pakistan resolves $1.2bn dispute with Turkey". www.geo.tv. Retrieved 7 November 2019.
  138. ^ "Pakistan absolved of paying $1.2b penalty to Karkey". The Express Tribune. 5 November 2019. Retrieved 7 November 2019.
  139. ^ "Pakistan settles Soviet-era trade dispute with Russia". The Express Tribune. 7 November 2019. Retrieved 7 November 2019.
  140. ^ "Outrage over Maryam's arrest, Bilawal walks out of assembly session". Khaleej Times. Retrieved 8 November 2019.
  141. ^ "All Moments Will Die If PM Khan Offers NRO To Corrupt Politicians: Sheikh Rasheed". UrduPoint. Retrieved 8 November 2019.
  142. ^ "Maryam Nawaz released on bail". www.geo.tv. Retrieved 8 November 2019.
  143. ^ "Bail for Maryam". dawn.com. 6 November 2019. Retrieved 8 November 2019.
  144. ^ "Govt gives Nawaz Sharif permission to fly abroad for treatment: PM's aide". The Express Tribune. 8 November 2019. Retrieved 8 November 2019.
  145. ^ "IMF asks Pakistan to spend more on development". The Express Tribune. 2 November 2019. Retrieved 8 November 2019.
  146. ^ Khan, Mohammad Hussain (1 October 2018). "Slavery Inc: how legislators reinforce bonded labour in Sindh". dawn.com. Retrieved 8 November 2019.
  147. ^ "Business Community Invited To Set Up Industrial Units In Rural Sindh". UrduPoint. Retrieved 7 November 2019.
  148. ^ "More Jobs To Be Created Due To Industrial Growth: Sindh Minister For Industries And Commerce And Cooperative Department Jam Ikramullah Dharejo". UrduPoint. Retrieved 7 November 2019.
  149. ^ "PPP believes in industrial development: Dharejo". The Nation. 2 November 2019. Retrieved 7 November 2019.
  150. ^ "Unbroken chains: The curse of modern day slavery in Sindh". www.geo.tv. Retrieved 8 November 2019.
  151. ^ "History of Islamic Banking in Pakistan". Pak Observer. 21 November 2019. Retrieved 24 November 2019.
  152. ^ "Pakistan Sindh : public expenditure review". 1 June 2017: 1–135. ((cite journal)): Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  153. ^ "Sindh Budget 2019-20 - June 2019" (PDF). Karachi Chamber of Commerce & industry. Retrieved 11 November 2019.
  154. ^ "THE SINDH LAND TAX AND AGRICULTURAL INCOME TAX ORDINANCE, 2000 (AMENDMENT) ACT, 2018" (PDF). Provincial assembly of Sindh. Retrieved 12 November 2019.
  155. ^ "Sindh to collect tax on agricultural income". dawn.com. 22 May 2018. Retrieved 12 November 2019.
  156. ^ "Government to amend arms act". The Express Tribune. 19 August 2016. Retrieved 12 November 2019.
  157. ^ News Desk (25 October 2019). "Assets Statements Reveal Parliamentarians have Military-Grade Weapons". Global Village Space. Retrieved 12 November 2019.
  158. ^ "Home secretary summoned in sale of weapons on fake arms licences case". epaper.dawn.com. 17 March 2019. Retrieved 12 November 2019.
  159. ^ "Court wants implementation of Sindh Arms Act". The Express Tribune. 16 March 2019. Retrieved 12 November 2019.
  160. ^ Khan, Mubarak Zeb (9 November 2019). "Three committees constituted for restructuring FBR". dawn.com. Retrieved 12 November 2019.
  161. ^ "PM Imran seeks proposal for replacement of FBR". www.geo.tv. Retrieved 12 November 2019.
  162. ^ "Population by administrative units 1951-1998" (PDF). Pakistan Bureau of Statistics.
  163. ^ "Tharparkar (District, Pakistan) - Population Statistics, Charts, Map and Location". citypopulation.info. Retrieved 28 August 2019.
  164. ^ "Development Statistics of Sindh - Year 2018" (PDF). Bureau of Statistics Planning & Development Department - Government of Sindh. Retrieved 22 September 2019.
  165. ^ "CENSUS OF INDIA, 1941 VOLUME XII SINDH PROVINCE" (PDF).
  166. ^ Hasan, Arif; Raza, Mansoor (2009). Migration and Small Towns in Pakistan. IIED. pp. 15–16. ISBN 9781843697343.
  167. ^ Maini, Tridivesh Singh (15 August 2012). "Not just another border". Himal South Asian.
  168. ^ Arisar, Allah Bux (6 October 2015). "Families separated by Pak-India border yearn to see their loved ones". News Lens Pakistan.
  169. ^ Channa, Zahid; Pathan, Dr Pervez Ahmed; Taherani, Dr Abida; Khaskhelly, Dr Ambreen Zeb (1 May 2022). "Demographic Features of Coal Field Areas of District Tharparkar". The Women - Annual Research Journal of Gender Studies. 5.
  170. ^ "District Profile". 30 August 2011. Archived from the original on 30 August 2011.
  171. ^ "Thar: where Muslims and Hindus live in complete religious harmony". TNS - The News on Sunday. 20 October 2019. Retrieved 20 October 2019.
  172. ^ a b "Co-existence and Caste System in Tharparkar: A Land of Contrasts". PakVoices. 12 March 2017. Retrieved 2 September 2019.
  173. ^ "Drought In Thar, Pakistan And The Lives of Hindu Minorities". Countercurrents. 2 October 2018. Retrieved 5 October 2019.
  174. ^ a b "No cow slaughtering in Pakistan's border district, not under compulsion but respect". Arab News. 23 August 2018. Retrieved 2 September 2019.
  175. ^ a b c d Raza, Hassan (4 March 2015). "Mithi: Where a Hindu fasts and a Muslim does not slaughter cows". dawn.com. Retrieved 2 September 2019.
  176. ^ a b Abraham, Katherine (28 December 2018). "Mithi: Pakistan's Lost Symbol of interfaith harmony". News and Analysis from India. A Refreshing approach to news. Retrieved 2 September 2019.
  177. ^ "Suthar candidate from Thar vows better education facilities for girls". Daily Times. 25 June 2018. Retrieved 24 September 2019.
  178. ^ "Web Portal of Population Welfare Department Government of Sindh". pwdsindh.gov.pk. Retrieved 25 September 2019.
  179. ^ Zia, K. Hussan (4 May 2018). "Nanakpanthis in Mithi". The Friday Times. Retrieved 25 September 2019.
  180. ^ "Tharis continue long march". dawn.com. 28 February 2012. Retrieved 25 September 2019.
  181. ^ "Buses for Tharparkar". dawn.com. 25 April 2019. Retrieved 25 September 2019.
  182. ^ "Helping Thar's residents: Wheat distribution starts amid allegations of corruption". The Express Tribune. 3 September 2012. Retrieved 25 September 2019.
  183. ^ "This Pakistani Hindu woman is gearing up to fight feudal system in upcoming polls". The Financial Express. 6 June 2018. Retrieved 25 September 2019.
  184. ^ "Tharparkar Contact list Drought 2014". Humanitarian Response -- OCHA. Retrieved 26 September 2019.
  185. ^ "Victory of Mahesh Malani has his friends and community feeling proud in India". CT. 29 July 2018. Retrieved 25 September 2019.
  186. ^ "Co-existence and Caste System in Tharparkar: A Land of Contrasts". PakVoices. 12 March 2017. Retrieved 25 September 2019.
  187. ^ "Two Hindu businessman shot dead in Tharparkar district". ARYNEWS. 5 January 2018. Retrieved 25 September 2019.
  188. ^ Documentary on indigenous Sindhi tribe Rabari in English, archived from the original on 21 December 2021, retrieved 26 September 2019
  189. ^ "MITHI: Educationist remembered". dawn.com. 16 December 2008. Retrieved 25 September 2019.
  190. ^ "Bajeer community protests to halt construction of Desert Safari Park". Daily Times. 2 April 2018. Retrieved 25 September 2019.
  191. ^ Guddu, Emmanuel (24 April 2014). "The Koli of Pakistan". dawn.com. Retrieved 29 October 2019.
  192. ^ a b "Nagarparkar: the land of history and architectural marvels". Global Village Space. 16 May 2019.
  193. ^ "Love in Tharparkar". The Friday Times. 16 March 2018. Retrieved 31 July 2019.
  194. ^ "Tharparkar Search Results in Press Archive". www.pide.org.pk. Retrieved 31 July 2019.
  195. ^ Dhatki, the language of Thar desert - BBCURDU, archived from the original on 21 December 2021, retrieved 29 October 2019
  196. ^ "Pakistan & Afghanistan - Carte linguistique / Linguistic map". www.muturzikin.com. Retrieved 14 August 2019.
  197. ^ "Gujarati". Ethnologue. Retrieved 14 August 2019.
  198. ^ "Jogi". Ethnologue. Retrieved 14 August 2019.
  199. ^ "Koli, Kachi". Ethnologue. Retrieved 14 August 2019.
  200. ^ "Koli, Parkari". Ethnologue. Retrieved 14 August 2019.
  201. ^ http://sindhbos.gov.pk/wp-content/uploads/2017/01/School-Education-Statistics-2015-16.pdf [bare URL PDF]
  202. ^ Rizvi, Raza (19 June 2019). "Thar District to Get Its First University". Retrieved 3 September 2019.
  203. ^ "Thar Needs University". Political Panadol. 9 April 2019. Retrieved 3 September 2019.
  204. ^ "Thar Needs University". trending-topics.co. Retrieved 3 September 2019.
  205. ^ a b "Thar to finally get its first public university". Samaa TV. 19 June 2019. Retrieved 3 September 2019.
  206. ^ a b "NED University establishing campus in Tharparkar". www.thenews.com.pk. Retrieved 3 September 2019.
  207. ^ a b "MoU signed to establish NED Campus in Thar this year". Business Recorder. 9 August 2019. Retrieved 3 September 2019.
  208. ^ "NED signs MoU with SECMC, TCF". Business Recorder. 20 August 2019. Retrieved 3 September 2019.
  209. ^ "CM okay setting up TIEST at Mithi". www.pakistantoday.com.pk. Retrieved 3 September 2019.
  210. ^ "CM approves establishment of engineering institute in Thar". www.thenews.com.pk. Retrieved 3 September 2019.
  211. ^ "Murad approves establishment of engineering institute in Thar". www.thenews.com.pk. Retrieved 3 September 2019.
  212. ^ "Rs1.5bn science & technology institute to be set up in Thar". epaper.dawn.com. 23 August 2019. Retrieved 3 September 2019.
  213. ^ "NED university campus opens in Tharparkar". Business Recorder. 24 October 2019. Retrieved 24 October 2019.
  214. ^ "Thar Institute of Engineering, Sciences & Technology". www.neduet.edu.pk. Retrieved 24 October 2019.
  215. ^ "Job Opportunities for NED University Campus at Islamkot, Thar" (PDF). NED University of Engineering & Technology. Retrieved 24 October 2019.
  216. ^ "Admission Notice for Thar Institute of Engineering, Sciences and Technology" (PDF). Thar Institute of Engineering, Sciences & Technology. Retrieved 24 October 2019.
  217. ^ "Meet Rana Hamir Singh, PPP's first pick on minority reserved seat in Sindh". The Express Tribune. 3 August 2018. Retrieved 2 October 2019.
  218. ^ "Impoverished but peaceful: Poverty breeds crime, but not in Thar". The Express Tribune. 21 December 2014. Retrieved 2 September 2019.
  219. ^ a b "TDAP holds seminar on export potential of guargum". The Nation. 10 May 2018. Retrieved 18 September 2019.
  220. ^ a b "Figure 3.7: Guar is a major food crop in Tharparkar". ResearchGate. Retrieved 18 September 2019.
  221. ^ a b c Khaskheli, Jan. "Bountiful desert". www.thenews.com.pk. Retrieved 8 September 2019.
  222. ^ "Sangri". www.specialtyproduce.com. Retrieved 18 September 2019.
  223. ^ "The Plants of the Thar Desert". Sahapedia. Retrieved 18 September 2019.
  224. ^ a b Ahmed, Amin (18 June 2016). "Women, children eat less than men in Tharparkar, says UN report". dawn.com. Retrieved 8 September 2019.
  225. ^ "Teejri Rituals". teejri.com. Retrieved 10 September 2019.
  226. ^ "Teejri". www.jhulelal.com. Retrieved 10 September 2019.
  227. ^ "ٽيجڙي : (Sindhianaسنڌيانا)". www.encyclopediasindhiana.org (in Sindhi). Retrieved 10 September 2019.
  228. ^ "Sindhi Hindus celebrate Thadri today". Daily Times. 2 September 2018. Retrieved 10 September 2019.
  229. ^ "Thadri festival~ Food And Rituals". 3 September 2015. Retrieved 10 September 2019.
  230. ^ Mark-Anthony Falzon (2004). Cosmopolitan Connections: The Sindhi Diaspora, 1860–2000. BRILL. pp. 60–63. ISBN 90-04-14008-5.
  231. ^ S. Ramey (2008). Hindu, Sufi, or Sikh: Contested Practices and Identifications of Sindhi Hindus in India and Beyond. Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 8, 36. ISBN 978-0-230-61622-6.
  232. ^ "'Navratri, Ghatasthapana and Cheti Chand festivals celebrated in Sindh". Daily Times. 28 March 2017. Retrieved 5 October 2019.
  233. ^ "Dancing up a storm on Navratri". The Express Tribune. 23 October 2015. Retrieved 5 October 2019.
  234. ^ "Bilawal to celebrate Diwali in Mithi". The Nation. 11 November 2015. Retrieved 22 October 2019.
  235. ^ "Bilawal to celebrate Diwali in Mithi". The Nation. 10 November 2015. Retrieved 22 October 2019.
  236. ^ "Festival of lights". www.thenews.com.pk. Retrieved 22 October 2019.
  237. ^ "Five-day Diwali celebrations begin". The Express Tribune. 6 November 2018. Retrieved 22 October 2019.
  238. ^ "Hindus celebrate Diwali". dawn.com. 7 November 2010. Retrieved 22 October 2019.
  239. ^ Voices, Pak (22 October 2017). "Excellent Display of Solidarity in Hindu-Muslim Joint Diwali Celebrations". PakVoices. Retrieved 22 October 2019.
  240. ^ "Diwali Preparations In Full Swing In Mirpurkhas". UrduPoint. Retrieved 22 October 2019.
  241. ^ "Bilawal reminds PM Nawaz of his promises with Tharparkar people". Khyber News -Official Website. 12 November 2015. Retrieved 22 October 2019.
  242. ^ "Those coming to celebrate Diwali welcome but won't get votes: Bilawal". dunyanews.tv. 14 February 2008. Retrieved 22 October 2019.
  243. ^ "Politicians be aware of benefiting third force: Bilawal". www.thenews.com.pk. Retrieved 22 October 2019.
  244. ^ "What's JUI-F's anti-government march all about?". Samaa TV. 22 October 2019. Retrieved 22 October 2019.
  245. ^ "Tentative Lists". UNESCO. Retrieved 16 September 2017.
  246. ^ "Nagarparkar Cultural Landscape". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Retrieved 23 August 2019.
  247. ^ "Yatris see 'the light' at Shri Parbirham mela". www.thenews.com.pk. Retrieved 23 August 2019.
  248. ^ "Fakeer Parbirham Aashram (Verijhap Dham)". wikimapia.org. Retrieved 23 August 2019.
  249. ^ "NA resolution calls for protection of minorities' holy sites". www.pakistantoday.com.pk. Retrieved 23 August 2019.
  250. ^ "National Assembly session: MPs back move to protect holy sites of minorities". The Express Tribune. 16 May 2014. Retrieved 23 August 2019.
  251. ^ Chharhi Yatra - Fakeere Parbirham - Islamkot, retrieved 23 August 2019
  252. ^ "Fakeer Parbirham - Apps on Google Play". play.google.com. Retrieved 23 August 2019.
  253. ^ "Dado Parbirham". www.fakirparbirham.blogspot.com. Retrieved 24 August 2019.
  254. ^ "Welcome To Sindhi Saints: Faqir Parbirham فقير پاربرهم". Welcome To Sindhi Saints. Retrieved 24 August 2019.
  255. ^ Par Bharam Parmeshwar, Sadashiv Chhari Mandir, Kubernagar. 02.07.2018 Video., archived from the original on 21 December 2021, retrieved 23 August 2019
  256. ^ "Contractor blasting through Tharparkar temple in search of granite". 9 March 2011.
  257. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 July 2018. Retrieved 24 August 2019.((cite web)): CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  258. ^ "Beauty of Thar's Karoonjhar mountains marred by illegal cutting, crushing". Samaa TV. 12 November 2019. Retrieved 13 November 2019.
  259. ^ "Umar Marvi". Retrieved 24 August 2019.
  260. ^ "Marvi's Well, Tharparkar". heritage.eftsindh.com. Retrieved 24 August 2019.
  261. ^ SHABBIR IBNE ADIL, PTV, Marvi Well in Thar (News Report), archived from the original on 21 December 2021, retrieved 24 August 2019
  262. ^ Akash Hamirani, Bashir Ahmad (26 April 2018). "Nenu Ram Ashram: A place of refuge for everyone". Pak Voices.
  263. ^ Zia Ur Rehman (30 October 2018). "Sindh festival promotes religious harmony". Pakistan Forward.
  264. ^ "PBS Census". PBS Census. Archived from the original on 16 June 2017.
  265. ^ "Relief Goods Dispatched in District Tharparkar" (PDF). Provincial Disaster Management Authority - Government of Sindh.
  266. ^ "Sindh Drought Needs Assessment (SDNA) Report January 2019 - Pakistan". ReliefWeb. 28 January 2019. Retrieved 22 July 2019.
  267. ^ "Reform Support Unit School Education & Literacy Department - Government of Sindh" (PDF).
  268. ^ "List of Dehs in Sindh" (PDF). Sindh Zameen. Retrieved 22 March 2021.
  269. ^ "Drought In District Tharparkar Rapid Need Assessment Report October 2018 - Pakistan". ReliefWeb. 12 February 2019. Retrieved 16 October 2019.
  270. ^ "Govt indifferent to rising suicide trend in drought-hit Thar - Pakistan". ReliefWeb. 17 December 2018. Retrieved 16 October 2019.
  271. ^ Rana, Roshane Shahid; Naim, Huda (1 September 2014). "Tharparkar: a forgotten disaster". The Lancet Global Health. 2 (9): e508. doi:10.1016/S2214-109X(14)70254-2. ISSN 2214-109X. PMID 25304414.
  272. ^ a b "Controlling Desert Locust Outbreak in Pakistan". www.fao.org. Retrieved 16 October 2019.
  273. ^ "Earthquake information - EMSC Mobile". m.emsc.eu. Retrieved 15 December 2019.
  274. ^ "M 4.6 - 19 km W of R?par, India". earthquake.usgs.gov. United States Geological Survey. 18 November 2019. Archived from the original on 15 December 2019. Retrieved 5 May 2023.
  275. ^ "Sindh Culture Day celebrated across the province". www.pakistantoday.com.pk. Retrieved 15 December 2019.
  276. ^ "A grim reminder for Sindh on World AIDS Day". The Express Tribune. 30 November 2019. Retrieved 15 December 2019.
  277. ^ "Govt indifferent to locust invasion, claim farmers". The Express Tribune. 2 December 2019. Retrieved 24 December 2019.
  278. ^ "Sindh Minister's Solution to Locust Attack Is Eating Insects". Lens. 1 July 2019. Retrieved 14 July 2019.
  279. ^ "Thar Growers Demands For Anti Locusts Spray". Urdu Point. Retrieved 16 October 2019.
  280. ^ "PM Imran announces to launch Ehsaas Langar Scheme in Tharparkar". ARY NEWS. 12 October 2019. Retrieved 16 October 2019.
  281. ^ "Locusts encroach venue of Bilawal Bhutto Zardari public meeting in Thar". ARY NEWS. 23 October 2019. Retrieved 23 October 2019.
  282. ^ "Lightning kills 14 in Tharparkar as rain lashes parts of Sindh". ARY News. 14 November 2019. Retrieved 15 November 2019.
  283. ^ "Tharparkar hospitals on high alert as lightning kills 20". Samaa TV. Retrieved 15 November 2019.
  284. ^ "Lightning claims at least 22 lives in Sindh". Business Recorder. 15 November 2019. Retrieved 15 November 2019.
  285. ^ "Freak accident leaves 18 dead as lightning strikes people in Tharparkar". www.geo.tv. Retrieved 15 November 2019.
  286. ^ "Thunderbolt leaves three dead in Tharparkar amid rainfall". ARY NEWS. 14 November 2019. Retrieved 15 November 2019.
  287. ^ "DC Declares Emergency Following Heavy Rains In Tharparkar". UrduPoint. Retrieved 15 November 2019.
  288. ^ "Lightning claims two more lives in Tharparkar". ARY NEWS. Retrieved 17 November 2019.
  289. ^ "Petitioners seek court direction for city land survey in Tharparkar". The Express Tribune. Retrieved 17 November 2019.
  290. ^ Khan, M. Ilyas (6 November 2019). "Sisters-in-law's 'joint suicide' investigated". Retrieved 15 November 2019.
  291. ^ "Govt cancels registration of 4,693 NGOs for being inactive, violating rules". www.thenews.com.pk. Retrieved 29 October 2019.
  292. ^ "Sindh Water Relief Project by Pakistan Peacekeeping Mission".
  293. ^ "More Than 170 Peacocks Have Died In Thar Due To A Contagious Disease And Everyone Is Quiet!". Parhlo. 1 March 2017. Retrieved 2 August 2019.
  294. ^ "Awesome beauty wonderful peacock in Thar desert area Sindh Pakistan | Peacocks - طــــاووس". Pinterest. Retrieved 2 August 2019.
  295. ^ "In Thar, Green Guards ensure peacocks keep dancing". www.pakistantoday.com.pk. Retrieved 2 August 2019.
  296. ^ Arisar, A. B. (17 June 2013). "Tharis call for conservation of peafowl habitats". dawn.com. Retrieved 2 August 2019.
  297. ^ "Indus Nature SocietyS". www.facebook.com. Retrieved 2 August 2019.
  298. ^ "Secrets of the Thar Desert | Aboard The Democracy Train". www.aboardthedemocracytrain.com. 30 August 2013. Retrieved 2 August 2019.
  299. ^ "Thar — The Future of Pakistan". www.thenews.com.pk. 21 April 2018. Retrieved 2 August 2019.
  300. ^ "The mute existence and extinction of peacocks". 4 August 2012. Retrieved 2 August 2019.
  301. ^ "Super view of Peacock in Thar desert area Sindh Pakistan | Peacocks - طــــاووس". Pinterest. Retrieved 2 August 2019.
  302. ^ Sindhi Ralli (Quilt) documentary, 1st Sindh Ralli Exhibition & Competition, retrieved 2 August 2019
  303. ^ Documentary on Thar Sindh (English version), archived from the original on 21 December 2021, retrieved 2 August 2019
  304. ^ "Breeds of Livestock - Tharparkar Cattle — Breeds of Livestock, Department of Animal Science". afs.okstate.edu. Retrieved 4 August 2019.
  305. ^ Sindhi Ralli (Quilt) documentary, 1st Sindh Ralli Exhibition & Competition, retrieved 7 August 2019
  306. ^ Rauf, Anam (2 May 2019). "Things You Need To Know About Art Of Ralli Work In Pakistan". Parhlo. Retrieved 7 August 2019.
  307. ^ "History of Ralli". Indus Crafts. Retrieved 7 August 2019.
  308. ^ "Ralli Art Introduction". Indus Crafts. Retrieved 7 August 2019.
  309. ^ "Rilli (Ralli Quilts)". Indus Crafts. Retrieved 7 August 2019.
  310. ^ "The art of creating traditional ralli quilts". Daily Times. 26 March 2019. Retrieved 7 August 2019.
  311. ^ Humes, Tom. "Provinces of Pakistan – Sindh : Pakistan 360 degrees". Retrieved 7 August 2019.
  312. ^ "Ralli Quilt - Dost Pakistan". Retrieved 7 August 2019.
  313. ^ "Picture Day Friday: Thari Women". Retrieved 7 August 2019.
  314. ^ "Picture Day Friday: Ralli Quilts of Thar". Retrieved 7 August 2019.
  315. ^ "Pakistani traditions: Selling Ralli quilts to survive". www.aljazeera.com. Retrieved 7 August 2019.
  316. ^ "Thar desert". thingsasian.com. Retrieved 1 August 2019.
  317. ^ "ThingsAsian: Kekra, a form of local transport made from American Army Trucks, used by Pakistan Army and later auctione… | It's all about the journey... | Beautiful places to travel, Travel, Deserts". Pinterest. Retrieved 1 August 2019.
  318. ^ "Tharparker: a peek into the deserted jewel". www.thenews.com.pk. 19 September 2017. Retrieved 1 August 2019.
  319. ^ "The harmony of Mithi". TNS - The News on Sunday. 14 October 2018. Retrieved 1 August 2019.
  320. ^ "Hunger amidst the dunes?". The Friday Times. 18 March 2016. Retrieved 1 August 2019.
  321. ^ Saqib, Ramla (30 October 2018). "Here's Why Visiting Tharparkar In November Will Be The Best Decision You'll Ever Make!". Parhlo. Retrieved 1 August 2019.
  322. ^ "The rickety 'Kekra' of Thar". dawn.com. 30 June 2011. Retrieved 1 August 2019.
  323. ^ "Pakistan". www.trekearth.com. Retrieved 1 August 2019.
  324. ^ Kekra – The King Of Thar, archived from the original on 21 December 2021, retrieved 1 August 2019
  325. ^ Thar Jo Registani Jahaz ..... .....Kekra Of Thar, archived from the original on 21 December 2021, retrieved 1 August 2019
  326. ^ "Legendary folk singer Mai Bhagi remembered". The Nation. 8 July 2018. Retrieved 28 April 2021.
  327. ^ "Usman Diplai's contribution to Sindhi literature highlighted". dawn.com. 8 February 2012. Retrieved 28 April 2021.

24°44′24″N 69°48′00″E / 24.74000°N 69.80000°E / 24.74000; 69.80000

  1. ^ Hinduism includes Scheduled Caste Hindus and Islam includes Ahmadiyya; which are counted separately in the Census
  2. ^ Chhachro, Diplo, Mithi and Nagarparkar taluks of Tharparkar district
  3. ^ The 1941 census recorded all Scheduled Tribes under 'tribal' irrespective of their real religion.
  4. ^ Including Jainism, Christianity, Buddhism, Zoroastrianism, Judaism, Ad-Dharmis, or not stated
  5. ^ In the 1941 census, the British recorded all members of Scheduled Tribes as having 'tribal' religion irrespective of actual practice.