Sattu is a type of flour, mainly used in India and Tibet. It consists of a mixture of roasted ground pulses and cereals. The dry powder is prepared in various ways as a principal or secondary ingredient of dishes. Sattu is used in vegetarian cuisine as it can be a source of protein.

Etymology

The Hindi word Sattu[1] is derived from Sanskrit word Saktu[2] meaning coarsely ground parched barley meal.[3] References to Sattu (Saktu) can be found throughout Ayurvedic literature such as the Caraka-saṃhitā, Aṣṭāṅgahṛdayasaṃhitā and the Suśruta-saṃhitā.[4]

History

The Origin of Sattu is Magadh Region of Bihar. The process of preparing sattu is ancient[5] and is popular over a wide area of Northern India, particularly Bihar and Uttar Pradesh.Sattu is also famous in telangana done as prasadam or Nivedyam for Batukamma. There is One Drink Make from Sattu Called "Sattu Ghol" in Magadh.

Sattu prepared for Teejdi (or Teej) festival in Tharparkar region of Sindh, Pakistan
Sattu prepared for Teejdi (or Teej) festival in Tharparkar region of Sindh, Pakistan

Uses

Sattu is the main ingredient in Litti.
Sattu is the main ingredient in Litti.

Sattu is used in regional cuisine to varying degrees. In Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Uttrakhand, Punjab and Delhi the use of sattu is extensive in various dishes. In Bihar, it is commonly served cold as a savory drink during intense heat waves in summer or as a porridge or soft dough. Sweet dishes combine sattu with fruit slices, sugar and milk. In savoury dishes, sattu may be flavored with green chili, lemon juice and salt. It is a popular stuffing in parathas. In Bihar, sattu is prepared with toasted gram flour as well as toasted barley, or a mixture of both. Sattu mixed with a little mustard oil and some spices is used as a stuffing in the traditional Bihari food litti.

In Punjab, it is used as a cold drink to mitigate heat and dehydration effects. The traditional way is to mix it with water and shakker (Hindi) (jaggery). Here sattu is a mix of toasted, ground barley, while some variants are also prepared by grinding roasted grams.

In Odisha, it is a popular breakfast and also called chhatua. Though there are many different ways to prepare chhatua, also known as sattu. It is generally mixed with ripe bananas, cottage cheese (chenna), yogurt or milk.

Sattu made from ground barley can also be mixed with salt and turmeric and rolled into balls. Alternatively, millet and corn grains are also used.[5]

Ingredients

Sattu is prepared by dry roasting grains or grams, most often barley or bengal gram. In Odisha, Sattu or Chatua is made by dry roasting cashew, almond, millet, barley and chickpea and grinding to a fine flour. The traditional way of preparing sattu involves the use of an iron vessel in which the grains or grams are roasted in sand. Afterwards they are sieved and then ground into a fine flour.

Geography

Sattu is common in the states of Magadh Region of Bihar , Bihar.[6] Jharkhand and Some other Regions of India Spreaded from Magadh like Purvanchal Region of Uttar Pradesh , Madhya Pradesh , Delhi.[5]

References

  1. ^ Dasa, Syamasundara (1965–1975). "Hindi sabdasagara". dsal.uchicago.edu. Retrieved 2022-12-29.((cite web)): CS1 maint: date format (link)
  2. ^ Turner, R. L. (Ralph Lilley) (1962–1966). "A Comparative Dictionary of Indo-Aryan Languages". dsal.uchicago.edu. Retrieved 2022-12-29.((cite web)): CS1 maint: date format (link)
  3. ^ "Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary --स". sanskrit.inria.fr. Retrieved 2022-12-29.
  4. ^ www.wisdomlib.org (2016-03-18). "Saktu, Shaktu, Śaktu: 21 definitions". www.wisdomlib.org. Retrieved 2022-12-29.
  5. ^ a b c Harkesh Singh Kehal. Alop Ho Riha Punjabi Virsa. Pub. Lokgeet Parkashan. ISBN 81-7142-869-X.
  6. ^ Kumar Suresh Singh, Anthropological Survey of India (2008). People of India, Volume 16, Part 1. p. xxix. "However this term of opprobrium ignores the fact that the sattu is nutritious and has sustained the Bihari..."