Barley
Illustration Hordeum vulgare1.jpg
Drawing of barley
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Monocots
Clade: Commelinids
Order: Poales
Family: Poaceae
Subfamily: Pooideae
Genus: Hordeum
Species:
H. vulgare
Binomial name
Hordeum vulgare
Synonyms[2]
List
    • Frumentum hordeum E.H.L.Krause nom. illeg.
    • Frumentum sativum E.H.L.Krause
    • Hordeum aestivum R.E.Regel nom. inval.
    • Hordeum americanum R.E.Regel nom. inval.
    • Hordeum bifarium Roth
    • Hordeum brachyatherum R.E.Regel nom. inval.
    • Hordeum caspicum R.E.Regel nom. inval.
    • Hordeum coeleste (L.) P.Beauv.
    • Hordeum daghestanicum R.E.Regel nom. inval.
    • Hordeum defectoides R.E.Regel nom. inval.
    • Hordeum durum R.E.Regel nom. inval.
    • Hordeum elongatum R.E.Regel nom. inval.
    • Hordeum gymnodistichum Duthie
    • Hordeum heterostychon P.Beauv. [Spelling variant]
    • Hordeum hexastichon L.
    • Hordeum hibernaculum R.E.Regel nom. inval.
    • Hordeum hibernans R.E.Regel nom. inval.
    • Hordeum himalayense Schult.
    • Hordeum hirtiusculum R.E.Regel nom. inval.
    • Hordeum horsfordianum R.E.Regel nom. inval.
    • Hordeum ircutianum R.E.Regel nom. inval.
    • Hordeum jarenskianum R.E.Regel nom. inval.
    • Hordeum juliae R.E.Regel nom. inval.
    • Hordeum kalugense R.E.Regel nom. inval.
    • Hordeum karzinianum R.E.Regel nom. inval.
    • Hordeum kiarchanum R.E.Regel nom. inval.
    • Hordeum laevipaleatum R.E.Regel nom. inval.
    • Hordeum lapponicum R.E.Regel nom. inval.
    • Hordeum leptostachys Griff.
    • Hordeum macrolepis A.Braun
    • Hordeum mandshuricum R.E.Regel nom. inval.
    • Hordeum mandshuroides R.E.Regel nom. inval.
    • Hordeum michalkowii R.E.Regel nom. inval.
    • Hordeum nekludowii R.E.Regel nom. inval.
    • Hordeum nigrum Willd.
    • Hordeum pamiricum Vavilov nom. inval.
    • Hordeum parvum R.E.Regel nom. inval.
    • Hordeum pensanum R.E.Regel nom. inval.
    • Hordeum polystichon Haller
    • Hordeum praecox R.E.Regel nom. inval.
    • Hordeum pyramidatum R.E.Regel nom. inval.
    • Hordeum revelatum (Körn.) A.Schulz
    • Hordeum sativum Jess. nom. illeg.
    • Hordeum sativum Pers. nom. inval.
    • Hordeum scabriusculum R.E.Regel nom. inval.
    • Hordeum septentrionale R.E.Regel nom. inval.
    • Hordeum stassewitschii R.E.Regel nom. inval.
    • Hordeum strobelense Chiov.
    • Hordeum taganrocense R.E.Regel nom. inval.
    • Hordeum tanaiticum R.E.Regel nom. inval.
    • Hordeum tetrastichum Stokes
    • Hordeum transcaucasicum R.E.Regel nom. inval.
    • Hordeum violaceum R.E.Regel nom. inval.
    • Hordeum walpersii R.E.Regel nom. inval.
    • Secale orientale Schreb. ex Roth nom. inval.

Barley (Hordeum vulgare), a member of the grass family, is a major cereal grain grown in temperate climates globally. It was one of the first cultivated grains, particularly in Eurasia as early as 10,000 years ago.[3] Globally 70% of barley production is used as animal fodder,[4] while 30% as a source of fermentable material for beer and certain distilled beverages, and as a component of various foods. It is used in soups and stews, and in barley bread of various cultures. Barley grains are commonly made into malt in a traditional and ancient method of preparation.

In 2017, barley was ranked fourth among grains in quantity produced (149 million tonnes or 330 billion pounds) behind maize, rice and wheat.[5]

Etymology

Barley seeds with and without the outer husk
Barley seeds with and without the outer husk
Seed under a microscope.
Seed under a microscope.

The Old English word for barley was bere, which traces back to Proto-Indo-European and is cognate to the Latin word farina "flour" (see corresponding entries).

The direct ancestor of modern English barley in Old English was the derived adjective bærlic, meaning "of barley".[6] The first citation of the form bærlic in the Oxford English Dictionary dates to around 966 CE, in the compound word bærlic-croft.[7] The underived word bære survives in the north of Scotland as bere, and refers to a specific strain of six-row barley grown there.[8]

The word barn, which originally meant "barley-house", is also rooted in these words.[6]

The Latin word hordeum (see), used as barley's scientific genus name, is derived from an Indo-European root meaning "bristly" after the long prickly awns of the ear of grain.

Biology

Barley
Barley
The cross-section of a barley root
The cross-section of a barley root

Barley is a member of the grass family. It is a self-pollinating, diploid species with 14 chromosomes. The wild ancestor of domesticated barley, Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum, is abundant in grasslands and woodlands throughout the Fertile Crescent area of Western Asia and northeast Africa, and is abundant in disturbed habitats, roadsides, and orchards. Outside this region, the wild barley is less common and is usually found in disturbed habitats.[3] However, in a study of genome-wide diversity markers, Tibet was found to be an additional center of domestication of cultivated barley.[9]

Domestication

Wild barley (H. spontaneum) is the ancestor of domestic barley (H. vulgare). Over the course of domestication, barley grain morphology changed substantially, moving from an elongated shape to a more rounded spherical one.[10] Additionally, wild barley has distinctive genes, alleles, and regulators with potential for resistance to abiotic or biotic stresses to cultivated barley and adaptation to climatic changes.[11] Wild barley has a brittle spike; upon maturity, the spikelets separate, facilitating seed dispersal. Domesticated barley has nonshattering spikes, making it much easier to harvest the mature ears.[3] The nonshattering condition is caused by a mutation in one of two tightly linked genes known as Bt1 and Bt2; many cultivars possess both mutations. The nonshattering condition is recessive, so varieties of barley that exhibit this condition are homozygous for the mutant allele.[3]

Domestication in barley is followed by the change of key phenotypic traits at the genetic level. Little is known about the genetic variation among domesticated and wild genes in the chromosomal regions.[12]

Two-row and six-row barley

Two-row and six-row barley
Two-row and six-row barley

Spikelets are arranged in triplets which alternate along the rachis. In wild barley (and other Old World species of Hordeum), only the central spikelet is fertile, while the other two are reduced. This condition is retained in certain cultivars known as two-row barleys. A pair of mutations (one dominant, the other recessive) result in fertile lateral spikelets to produce six-row barleys.[3] Recent genetic studies have revealed that a mutation in one gene, vrs1, is responsible for the transition from two-row to six-row barley.[13]

Two-row barley, sometimes considered a separate species, Hordeum distichon, has a lower protein content than six-row barley, thus a more fermentable sugar content. High-protein barley is best suited for animal feed. Malting barley is usually lower protein[14] ("low grain nitrogen", usually produced without a late fertilizer application) which shows more uniform germination, needs shorter steeping, and has less protein in the extract that can make beer cloudy. Two-row barley is traditionally used in English ale-style beers, with two-row malted summer barley being preferred for traditional German beers.[citation needed]

Amylase-rich six-row barley is common in some American lager-style beers, especially when adjuncts such as corn and rice are used.[citation needed]

Hulless barley

Hulless or "naked" barley (Hordeum vulgare L. var. nudum Hook. f.) is a form of domesticated barley with an easier-to-remove hull. Naked barley is an ancient food crop, but a new industry has developed around uses of selected hulless barley to increase the digestible energy of the grain, especially for swine and poultry.[15] Hulless barley has been investigated for several potential new applications as whole grain, and for its value-added products. These include bran and flour for multiple food applications.[16]

Classification

Barley
Barley

In traditional classifications of barley, these morphological differences have led to different forms of barley being classified as different species. Under these classifications, two-row barley with shattering spikes (wild barley) is classified as Hordeum spontaneum K. Koch. Two-row barley with nonshattering spikes is classified as H. distichon L., six-row barley with nonshattering spikes as H. vulgare L. (or H. hexastichum L.), and six-row with shattering spikes as H. agriocrithon Åberg.[citation needed]

Because these differences were driven by single-gene mutations, coupled with cytological and molecular evidence, most recent classifications treat these forms as a single species, H. vulgare L.[3]

Cultivars

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Vocabulary
Cultivars

[19][20]

This list is incomplete; you can help by adding missing items. (August 2013)

Chemistry

H. vulgare contains the phenolics caffeic acid and p-coumaric acid, the ferulic acid 8,5'-diferulic acid, the flavonoids catechin-7-O-glucoside,[26] saponarin,[27] catechin, procyanidin B3, procyanidin C2, and prodelphinidin B3, and the alkaloid hordenine.

Barley is often assessed by its malting enzyme content.[28]

History

Origin

Genetic analysis on the spread of barley from 9,000 to 2,000 BCE[29]
Genetic analysis on the spread of barley from 9,000 to 2,000 BCE[29]

Barley was one of the first domesticated grains in the Fertile Crescent, an area of relatively abundant water in Western Asia, and near the Nile river of northeast Africa.[30] The grain appeared in the same time as einkorn and emmer wheat.[31] Wild barley (H. vulgare ssp. spontaneum) ranges from North Africa and Crete in the west, to Tibet in the east.[3] The earliest evidence of the consumption of wild barley in an archaeological context comes from the Epipaleolithic at Ohalo II at the southern end of the Sea of Galilee, where grinding stones with traces of starch were found. The remains were dated to about 23,000 BCE.[3][32] The earliest evidence for the domestication of barley, in the form of cultivars that cannot reproduce without human assistance, comes from Mesopotamia, specifically the Jarmo region of modern-day Iraq, around 9,000-7,000 BCE.[33][34][35][29]

Spread of cultivated barley: genetic analysis

See also: Neolithic revolution

One of the world's most important crops, barley was domesticated in the Near East around 11,000 years ago (circa 9,000 BCE).[29] Barley is a highly resilient crop, able to be grown in varied and marginal environments, such as in regions of high altitude and latitude.[29] Archaeobotanical evidence shows that barley had spread throughout Eurasia by 2,000 BCE.[29] To further elucidate the routes by which barley cultivation was spread through Eurasia, genetic analysis was used to determine genetic diversity and population structure in extant barley taxa.[29] Genetic analysis shows that cultivated barley spread through Eurasia via several different routes, which were most likely separated in both time and space.[29]

Dispersal

An account of barley rations issued monthly to adults (30 or 40 pints) and children (20 pints) written in cuneiform on clay tablet, written in year 4 of King Urukagina (circa 2350 BCE), from Girsu, Iraq, British Museum, London
An account of barley rations issued monthly to adults (30 or 40 pints) and children (20 pints) written in cuneiform on clay tablet, written in year 4 of King Urukagina (circa 2350 BCE), from Girsu, Iraq, British Museum, London

Some scholars suppose domesticated barley (Hordeum vulgare) originally spread from Central Asia to India, Persia, Mesopotamia, Syria and Egypt.[36] Some of the earliest domesticated barley occurs at aceramic ("pre-pottery") Neolithic sites, in the Near East such as the Pre-Pottery Neolithic B layers of Tell Abu Hureyra, in Syria.[citation needed] By 4200 BCE domesticated barley occurs as far as in Eastern Finland[37] and had reached Greece and Italy around the 4th c. BCE.[36] Barley has been grown in the Korean Peninsula since the Early Mumun Pottery Period (circa 1500–850 BCE) along with other crops such as millet, wheat, and legumes.[38]

Barley (known as Yava in both Vedic and Classical Sanskrit) is only[citation needed] crop which has been mentioned many times in Rigveda and other Indian scriptures as one of the principal grains in ancient India.[39] Traces of Barley cultivation have also been found in post-Neolithic Bronze Age Harappan civilization 5700–3300 years before present.[40]

In the Pulitzer Prize-winning book Guns, Germs, and Steel, Jared Diamond proposed that the availability of barley, along with other domesticable crops and animals, in southwestern Eurasia significantly contributed to the broad historical patterns that human history has followed over approximately the last 13,000 years; i.e., why Eurasian civilizations, as a whole, have survived and conquered others.[41] Jared Diamond's proposition was criticized, however, for underemphasizing individual and cultural choice and autonomy.[42]

Barley beer was probably one of the first alcoholic drinks developed by Neolithic humans.[43] Barley later on was used as currency.[43] The ancient Sumerian word for barley was akiti. In ancient Mesopotamia, a stalk of barley was the primary symbol of the goddess Shala.[44] Alongside emmer wheat, barley was a staple cereal of ancient Egypt, where it was used to make bread and beer. The general name for barley is jt (hypothetically pronounced "eat"); šma (hypothetically pronounced "SHE-ma") refers to Upper Egyptian barley and is a symbol of Upper Egypt. According to Deuteronomy 8:8, barley is one of the "Seven Species" of crops that characterize the fertility of the Promised Land of Canaan, and it has a prominent role in the Israelite sacrifices described in the Pentateuch (see e.g. Numbers 5:15). A religious importance extended into the Middle Ages in Europe, and saw barley's use in justice, via alphitomancy and the corsned.

Barley in Egyptian hieroglyphs
jt barley determinative/ideogram
M34
jt (common) spelling
itU9
M33
šma determinative/ideogram
U9

Rations of barley for workers appear in Linear B tablets in Mycenaean contexts at Knossos and at Mycenaean Pylos.[45] In mainland Greece, the ritual significance of barley possibly dates back to the earliest stages of the Eleusinian Mysteries. The preparatory kykeon or mixed drink of the initiates, prepared from barley and herbs, referred in the Homeric hymn to Demeter, whose name some scholars believe meant "Barley-mother".[46] The practice was to dry the barley groats and roast them before preparing the porridge, according to Pliny the Elder's Natural History (xviii.72). This produces malt that soon ferments and becomes slightly alcoholic.

Pliny also noted barley was a special food of gladiators known as hordearii, "barley-eaters". However, by Roman times, he added that wheat had replaced barley as a staple.[47]

Tibetan barley has been a staple food in Tibetan cuisine since the fifth century CE. This grain, along with a cool climate that permitted storage, produced a civilization that was able to raise great armies.[48] It is made into a flour product called tsampa that is still a staple in Tibet.[49] The flour is roasted and mixed with butter and butter tea to form a stiff dough that is eaten in small balls.

In medieval Europe, bread made from barley and rye was peasant food, while wheat products were consumed by the upper classes.[47] Potatoes largely replaced barley in Eastern Europe in the 19th century.[50]

Genetics

The genome of barley was sequenced in 2012,[51] due to the efforts of the International Barley Genome Sequencing Consortium and the UK Barley Sequencing Consortium.

The genome is composed of seven pairs[28] of nuclear chromosomes (recommended designations: 1H, 2H, 3H, 4H, 5H, 6H and 7H), and one mitochondrial and one chloroplast chromosome, with a total of 5000 Mbp.[52]

Abundant biological information is already freely available in several barley databases.[53]

The wild barley (H. vulgare ssp. spontaneum) found currently in the Fertile Crescent might not be the progenitor of the barley cultivated in Eritrea and Ethiopia, indicating that separate domestication may have occurred in eastern Africa.[54]

Being the final end product of food/feed barley and malting barley, both total yield by weight and malting quality are probably influenced by most genes, respectively.[28]

For durable disease resistance, quantitative resistance is more important than qualitative resistance. The most important foliar diseases have corresponding resistance gene regions on all chromosomes of barley.[28]

Hybridization

Barley has been crossed with wheat with mixed results that have yet to prove commercially viable. The resulting hybrids have further been crossed with rye, but with even more limited results.[55]

Production

Barley production, 2020
Country (Millions of tonnes)
 Russia 20.94
 Spain 11.47
 Germany 10.77
 Canada 10.74
 France 10.27
 Australia 10.13
 Turkey 8.30
 United Kingdom 8.12
 Ukraine 7.64
 Argentina 4.48
 Denmark 4.16
 Kazakhstan 3.66
 United States 3.60
World 157.03
Source: FAOSTAT of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Statistics Division, 2020[5]

In 2020, world production of barley was 157 million tonnes, led by Russia producing 13% of the world total. Spain, Germany, Canada, and France were major producers.[5]

Cultivation

Barley harvesting in Gaziantep, Turkey
Barley harvesting in Gaziantep, Turkey

Barley is a widely adaptable crop. It is currently popular in temperate areas where it is grown as a summer crop and tropical areas where it is sown as a winter crop. Its germination time is one to three days. Barley grows under cool conditions, but is not particularly winter hardy.[citation needed]

Barley is more tolerant of soil salinity than wheat, which might explain the increase of barley cultivation in Mesopotamia from the second millennium BCE onwards. Barley is not as cold tolerant as the winter wheats (Triticum aestivum), fall rye (Secale cereale) or winter triticaleTriticosecale Wittm. ex A. Camus.), but may be sown as a winter crop in warmer areas of Australia and Great Britain.[citation needed]

Barley has a short growing season and is also relatively drought tolerant.[47]

Plant diseases

Main article: List of barley diseases

Barley is known or likely to be susceptible to barley mild mosaic bymovirus,[56][57] as well as bacterial blight. Barley yellow dwarf virus, vectored by the rice root aphid, can also cause serious crop injury.[58] It can be susceptible to many diseases, but plant breeders have been working hard to incorporate resistance. The devastation caused by any one disease will depend upon the susceptibility of the variety being grown and the environmental conditions during disease development. Serious diseases of barley include powdery mildew caused by Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei, leaf scald caused by Rhynchosporium secalis, barley rust caused by Puccinia hordei, crown rust caused by Puccinia coronata, and various diseases caused by Cochliobolus sativus. Barley is also susceptible to head blight.[citation needed]

Food

Cooked barley
Barley grains 3.jpg
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy515 kJ (123 kcal)
28.2 g
Sugars0.3 g
Dietary fiber3.8 g
0.4 g
2.3 g
VitaminsQuantity
%DV
Vitamin A equiv.
0%
0 μg
0%
5 μg
56 μg
Thiamine (B1)
7%
0.083 mg
Riboflavin (B2)
5%
0.062 mg
Niacin (B3)
14%
2.063 mg
Pantothenic acid (B5)
3%
0.135 mg
Vitamin B6
9%
0.115 mg
Folate (B9)
4%
16 μg
Vitamin B12
0%
0 μg
Choline
3%
13.4 mg
Vitamin C
0%
0 mg
Vitamin D
0%
0 IU
Vitamin E
0%
0.01 mg
Vitamin K
1%
0.8 μg
MineralsQuantity
%DV
Calcium
1%
11 mg
Copper
5%
0.105 mg
Iron
10%
1.3 mg
Magnesium
6%
22 mg
Manganese
12%
0.259 mg
Phosphorus
8%
54 mg
Potassium
2%
93 mg
Sodium
0%
3 mg
Zinc
9%
0.82 mg
Other constituentsQuantity
Water68.8 g
Cholesterol0 mg

Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.

Nutrition

Barley, oats, and some products made from them
Barley, oats, and some products made from them

Cooked barley is 69% water, 28% carbohydrates, 2% protein, and 0.4% fat (table). In a 100-gram (3.5 oz) reference serving, cooked barley provides 515 kilojoules (123 kcal) of food energy and is a good source (10% or more of the Daily Value, DV) of essential nutrients, including, dietary fiber, the B vitamin, niacin (14% DV), and dietary minerals, including iron (10% DV) and manganese (12% DV) (table).

Preparation

Hulled barley (or covered barley) is eaten after removing the inedible, fibrous, outer hull. Once removed, it is called dehulled barley (or pot barley or scotch barley).[59] Considered a whole grain, dehulled barley still has its bran and germ, making it a commonly consumed food.

Pearl barley (or pearled barley) is dehulled barley which has been steam-processed further to remove the bran.[59] It may be polished, a process known as "pearling". Dehulled or pearl barley may be processed into various barley products, including flour, flakes similar to oatmeal, and grits.[citation needed]

Barley meal, a wholemeal barley flour lighter than wheat meal but darker in colour, is used in gruel,[59] in contrast to porridge which is made from oats.

Barley meal gruel is known as سويق : sawīq in the Arab world.[60]

With a long history of cultivation in the Middle East, barley is used in a wide range of traditional Arabic, Assyrian, Israelite, Kurdish, and Persian foodstuffs including kashkak, kashk and murri. Barley soup is traditionally eaten during Ramadan in Saudi Arabia.[61]

Cholent or hamin (in Hebrew) is a traditional Jewish stew often eaten on Sabbath, in numerous recipes by both Mizrachi and Ashkenazi Jews.

In Eastern and Central Europe, barley is also used in soups and stews such as ričet. In Africa, where it is a traditional food plant, it has the potential to improve nutrition, boost food security, foster rural development, and support sustainable landcare.[62]

The six-row variety bere is cultivated in Orkney, Shetland, Caithness and the Western Isles in the Scottish Highlands and islands. When milled into beremeal, it is used locally in bread, biscuits, and the traditional beremeal bannock.[63]

In Japanese and Korean cuisines, barley is steamed like steamed rice. In Japanese, it is mixed with rice. Barley rice, called mugimeshi in Japanese, and bori-bap (보리밥) in Korean, was long a peasant staple intended to conserve the expensive rice, but the naval surgeon Takaki Kanehiro introduced it into the institutional cooking to combat beriberi, endemic in the armed forces of the time. It remains a staple in the JSDF, but far more publicity it got as a stereotypical prison fare, to the point that "eating mugimeshi" can be heard as a euphemism of "doing time".

Health implications

According to Health Canada and the US Food and Drug Administration, consuming at least 3 grams per day of barley beta-glucan or 0.75 grams per serving of soluble fiber can lower levels of blood cholesterol, a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases.[64][65]

Eating whole-grain barley, as well as other high-fiber grains, improves regulation of blood sugar (i.e., reduces blood glucose response to a meal).[66] Consuming breakfast cereals containing barley over weeks to months also improved cholesterol levels and glucose regulation.[67]

Like wheat, rye, and their hybrids and derivatives, barley contains gluten, which makes it an unsuitable grain for consumption by people with gluten-related disorders, such as celiac disease, non-celiac gluten sensitivity and wheat allergy sufferers, among others.[68] Nevertheless, some wheat allergy patients can tolerate barley or rye.[69]

Beverages

See also: List of barley-based beverages

Alcoholic beverages

Traditional floor malting of barley in Scotland
Traditional floor malting of barley in Scotland

Barley is a key ingredient in beer and whisky production. Two-row barley is traditionally used in German and English beers. Six-row barley was traditionally used in US beers, but both varieties are in common usage now.[70] Distilled from green beer,[71] whisky has been made primarily from barley in Ireland and Scotland, while other countries have used more diverse sources of alcohol, such as the more common corn, rye and wheat in the US. In the US, a grain type may be identified on a whisky label if that type of grain constitutes 51% or more of the ingredients and certain other conditions are satisfied.[72] About 25% of the United States' production of barley is used for malting, for which barley is the best-suited grain.[73]

Barley wine is a style of strong beer from the English brewing tradition. Another alcoholic drink known by the same name, enjoyed in the 18th century, was prepared by boiling barley in water, then mixing the barley water with white wine and other ingredients, such as borage, lemon and sugar. In the 19th century, a different barley wine was made prepared from recipes of ancient Greek origin.[6]

Nonalcoholic beverages

Nonalcoholic drinks such as barley water[6] and roasted barley tea[74] have been made by boiling barley in water. In Italy, barley is also sometimes used as coffee substitute, caffè d'orzo (coffee of barley).

Other uses

Animal feed

Half of the United States' barley production is used as livestock feed.[75] Barley is an important feed grain in many areas of the world not typically suited for maize production, especially in northern climates—for example, northern and eastern Europe. Barley is the principal feed grain in Canada, Europe, and in the northern United States.[76] A finishing diet of barley is one of the defining characteristics of western Canadian beef used in marketing campaigns.[77]

As of 2014, an enzymatic process can be used to make a high-protein fish feed from barley, which is suitable for carnivorous fish such as trout and salmon.[78]

Algistatic

Barley straw used in a pond in Oud-Heverlee, Belgium
Barley straw used in a pond in Oud-Heverlee, Belgium

Barley straw, in England, is placed in mesh bags and floated in fish ponds or water gardens to help prevent algal growth without harming pond plants and animals. Barley straw has not been approved by the EPA for use as a pesticide and its effectiveness as an algae regulator in ponds has produced mixed results, with either more efficacy against phytoplankton algae versus mat-forming algae, or no significant change, during university testing in the US and the UK.[79]

Measurement

Barley grains were used for measurement in England, there being three or four barleycorns to the inch and four or five poppy seeds to the barleycorn.[80] The statute definition of an inch was three barleycorns, although by the 19th century, this had been superseded by standard inch measures.[81] This unit still persists in the shoe sizes used in Britain and the US.[82]

As modern studies show, the actual length of a kernel of barley varies from as short as 4–7 mm (532932 in) to as long as 12–15 mm (15321932 in) depending on the cultivar.[83][84] Older sources stated the average length of a grain of barley to be 8.8 mm (0.345 in).[85]

The barleycorn was known as arpa in Turkish, and the feudal system in Ottoman Empire employed the term arpalik, or "barley-money", to refer to a second allowance made to officials to offset the costs of fodder for their horses.[86]

Ornamental

A new stabilized variegated variety of H. vulgare, billed as H. vulgare variegate, has been introduced for cultivation as an ornamental and pot plant for pet cats to nibble.[87]

Cultural

In English folklore, the figure of John Barleycorn in the folksong of the same name is a personification of barley, and of the alcoholic beverages made from it: beer and whisky. In the song, John Barleycorn is represented as suffering attacks, death, and indignities that correspond to the various stages of barley cultivation, such as reaping and malting.[88]

See also

References

Citations

  1. ^ "Hordeum vulgare". Integrated Taxonomic Information System.
  2. ^ The Plant List: A Working List of All Plant Species, retrieved 2 February 2016
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h Zohary D, Hopf M (2000). Domestication of Plants in the Old World: The Origin and Spread of Cultivated Plants in West Asia, Europe, and the Nile Valley (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. pp. 59–69. ISBN 978-0-19-850357-6.
  4. ^ "BARLEY: Post-Harvest Operations" (PDF).
  5. ^ a b c "Crops/Regions/World List/Production Quantity for Barley, 2017 (pick list)". UN Food and Agriculture Organization Corporate Statistical Database (FAOSTAT). 2018. Retrieved 8 September 2018.
  6. ^ a b c d Ayto, John (1990). The glutton's glossary : a dictionary of food and drink terms. London: Routledge. pp. 16–17. ISBN 978-0-415-02647-5. barley water was used.
  7. ^ J. Simpson; E. Weiner, eds. (1989). "barley". Oxford English Dictionary (2nd ed.). Oxford: Clarendon Press. ISBN 978-0-19-861186-8.
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