Table set with red meat, bread, pasta, vegetables, fruit, fish, and beans
Display of various foods

Food is any substance consumed by an organism for nutritional support. Food comes from plants, animals, or fungal origins and contains essential nutrients such as carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, or minerals. The substance is ingested by an organism and assimilated by the organism's cells to provide energy, maintain life, or stimulate growth. Different species of animals have different feeding behaviours that satisfy the needs of their metabolisms and have evolved to fill a specific ecological niche within specific geographical contexts.

Omnivorous humans are highly adaptable and have adapted to obtain food in many different ecosystems. Humans generally use cooking to prepare food for consumption. The majority of the food energy required is supplied by the industrial food industry, which produces food through intensive agriculture and distributes it through complex food processing and food distribution systems. This system of conventional agriculture relies heavily on fossil fuels, which means that the food and agricultural systems are one of the major contributors to climate change, accounting for as much as 37% of total greenhouse gas emissions.[1]

The food system has significant impacts on a wide range of other social and political issues, including sustainability, biological diversity, economics, population growth, water supply, and food security. Food safety and security are monitored by international agencies like the International Association for Food Protection, the World Resources Institute, the World Food Programme, the Food and Agriculture Organization, and the International Food Information Council.

Definition and classification

Food is any substance consumed to provide nutritional support and energy to an organism.[2][3] It can be raw, processed, or formulated and is consumed orally by animals for growth, health, or pleasure. Food is mainly composed of water, lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates. Minerals (e.g., salts) and organic substances (e.g., vitamins) can also be found in food.[4] Plants, algae, and some microorganisms use photosynthesis to make some of their own nutrients.[5] Water is found in many foods and has been defined as a food by itself.[6] Water and fiber have low energy densities, or calories, while fat is the most energy-dense component.[3] Some inorganic (non-food) elements are also essential for plant and animal functioning.[7]

Human food can be classified in various ways, either by related content or by how it is processed.[8] The number and composition of food groups can vary. Most systems include four basic groups that describe their origin and relative nutritional function: Vegetables and Fruit, Cereals and Bread, Dairy, and Meat.[9] Studies that look into diet quality group food into whole grains/cereals, refined grains/cereals, vegetables, fruits, nuts, legumes, eggs, dairy products, fish, red meat, processed meat, and sugar-sweetened beverages.[10][11][12] The Food and Agriculture Organization and World Health Organization use a system with nineteen food classifications: cereals, roots, pulses and nuts, milk, eggs, fish and shellfish, meat, insects, vegetables, fruits, fats and oils, sweets and sugars, spices and condiments, beverages, foods for nutritional uses, food additives, composite dishes and savoury snacks.[13]

Food sources

A typical aquatic food web

In a given ecosystem, food forms a web of interlocking chains with primary producers at the bottom and apex predators at the top.[14] Other aspects of the web include detrovores (that eat detritis) and decomposers (that break down dead organisms).[14] Primary producers include algae, plants, bacteria and protists that acquire their energy from sunlight.[15] Primary consumers are the herbivores that consume the plants, and secondary consumers are the carnivores that consume those herbivores. Some organisms, including most mammals and birds, diet consists of both animals and plants, and they are considered omnivores.[16] The chain ends with the apex predators, the animals that have no known predators in its ecosystem.[17] Humans are considered apex predators.[18]

Humans are omnivores, finding sustenance in vegetables, fruits, cooked meat, milk, eggs, mushrooms and seaweed.[16] Cereal grain is a staple food that provides more food energy worldwide than any other type of crop.[19] Corn (maize), wheat, and rice account for 87% of all grain production worldwide.[20][21][22] Just over half of the world's crops are used to feed humans (55 percent), with 36 percent grown as animal feed and 9 percent for biofuels.[23] Fungi and bacteria are also used in the preparation of fermented foods like bread, wine, cheese and yogurt.[24]


During photosynthesis energy from the sun is absorbed and used to transform water and carbon dioxide in the air or soil into oxygen and glucose. The oxygen is then released, and the glucose stored as an energy reserve.[25] Photosynthetic plants, algae and certain bacteria often represent the lowest point the food chains,[26][27] making photosynthesis the primary source of energy and food for nearly all life on earth.[28]

Plants also absorb important nutrients and minerals from the air, natural waters, and soil.[29] Carbon, oxygen and hydrogen are absorbed from the air or water and are the basic nutrients needed for plant survival.[30] The three main nutrients absorbed from the soil for plant growth are nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, with other important nutrients including calcium, sulfur, magnesium, iron boron, chlorine, manganese, zinc, copper molybdenum and nickel.[30]


Bacteria and other microorganisms also form the lower rugs of the food chain. They obtain their energy from photosynthesis or by breaking down dead organisms, waste or chemical compounds. Some form symbiotic relationships with other organisms to obtain their nutrients.[31] Bacteria provide a source of food for protozoa,[32] who in turn provide a source of food for other organisms such as small invertebrates.[33] Other organisms that feed on bacteria include nematodes, fan worms, shellfish and a species of snail.

In the marine environment plankton (which includes bacteria, archaea, algae, protozoa and microscopic fungi)[34] provide a crucial source of food to many small and large aquatic organisms.

Without bacteria, life would scarcely exist because bacteria convert atmospheric nitrogen into nutritious ammonia. Ammonia is the precursor to proteins, nucleic acids, and most vitamins. Since the advent of industrial process for nitrogen fixation, the Haber-Bosch Process, the majority of ammonia in the world is human-made.[35]


Foods from plant sources

Plants as a food source are divided into seeds, fruits, vegetables, legumes, grains and nuts.[36] Where plants fall within these categories can vary, with botanically described fruits such as the tomato, squash, pepper and eggplant or seeds like peas commonly considered vegetables.[37] Food is a fruit if the part eaten is derived from the reproductive tissue, so seeds, nuts and grains are technically fruit.[38][39] From a culinary perspective, fruits are generally considered the remains of botanically described fruits after grains, nuts, seeds and fruits used as vegetables are removed.[40] Grains can be defined as seeds that humans eat or harvest, with cereal grains (oats, wheat, rice, corn, barley, rye, sorghum and millet) belonging to the Poaceae (grass) family[41] and pulses coming from the Fabaceae (legume) family.[42] Whole grains are foods that contain all the elements of the original seed (bran, germ, and endosperm).[43] Nuts are dry fruits, distinguishable by their woody shell.[40]

Fleshy fruits (distinguishable from dry fruits like grain, seeds and nuts) can be further classified as stone fruits (cherries and peaches), pome fruits (apples, pears), berries (blackberry, strawberry), citrus (oranges, lemon), melons (watermelon, cantaloupe), Mediterranean fruits (grapes, fig), tropical fruits (banana, pineapple).[40] Vegetables refer to any other part of the plant that can be eaten, including roots, stems, leaves, flowers, bark or the entire plant itself.[44] These include root vegetables (potatoes and carrots), bulbs (onion family), flowers (cauliflower and broccoli), leaf vegetables (spinach and lettuce) and stem vegetables (celery and asparagus).[45][44]

The carbohydrate, protein and lipid content of plants is highly variable. Carbohydrates are mainly in the form of starch, fructose, glucose and other sugars.[36] Most vitamins are found from plant sources, with exceptions of vitamin D and vitamin B12. Minerals can also be plentiful or not. Fruit can consist of up to 90% water, contain high levels of simple sugars that contribute to their sweet taste, and have a high vitamin C content.[36][40] Compared to fleshy fruit (excepting Bananas) vegetables are high in starch,[46] potassium, dietary fiber, folate and vitamins and low in fat and calories.[47] Grains are more starch based[36] and nuts have a high protein, fibre, vitamin E and B content.[40] Seeds are a good source of food for animals because they are abundant and contain fibre and healthful fats, such as omega-3 fats.[48][49] Complicated chemical interactions can enhance or depress bioavailability of certain nutrients. Phytates can prevent the release of some sugars and vitamins.[36]

Animals that only eat plants are called herbivores, with those that mostly just eat fruits known as frugivores,[50] leaves, while shoot eaters are folivores (pandas) and wood eaters termed xylophages (termites).[51] Frugivores include a diverse range of species from annelids to elephants, chimpanzees and many birds.[52][53][54] About 182 fish consume seeds or fruit.[55] Animals (domesticated and wild) use as many types of grasses that have adapted to different locations as their main source of nutrients.[56]

Humans eat thousands of plant species; there may be as many as 75,000 edible species of angiosperms, of which perhaps 7,000 are often eaten.[57] Plants can be processed into breads, pasta, cereals, juices and jams or raw ingredients such as sugar, herbs, spices and oils can be extracted.[36] Oilseeds are pressed to produce rich oils – ⁣sunflower, flaxseed, rapeseed (including canola oil) and sesame.[58]

Many plants and animals have coevolved in such a way that the fruit is a good source of nutrition to the animal who then excretes the seeds some distance away, allowing greater dispersal.[59] Even seed predation can be mutually beneficial, as some seeds can survive the digestion process.[60][61] Insects are major eaters of seeds,[48] with ants being the only real seed dispersers.[62] Birds, although being major dispersers,[63] only rarely eat seeds as a source of food and can be identified by their thick beak that is used to crack open the seed coat.[64] Mammals eat a more diverse range of seeds, as they are able to crush harder and larger seeds with their teeth.[65]


Various raw meats

Animals are used as food either directly or indirectly. This includes meat, eggs, shellfish and dairy products like milk and cheese.[66] They are an important source of protein and are considered complete proteins for human consumption as they contain all the essential amino acids that the human body needs.[67] One 4-ounce (110 g) steak, chicken breast or pork chop contains about 30 grams of protein. One large egg has 7 grams of protein. A 4-ounce (110 g) serving of cheese has about 15 grams of protein. And 1 cup of milk has about 8 grams of protein.[67] Other nutrients found in animal products include calories, fat, essential vitamins (including B12) and minerals (including zinc, iron, calcium, magnesium).[67]

Food products produced by animals include milk produced by mammary glands, which in many cultures is drunk or processed into dairy products (cheese, butter, etc.). Eggs laid by birds and other animals are eaten and bees produce honey, a reduced nectar from flowers that is used as a popular sweetener in many cultures. Some cultures consume blood, such as in blood sausage, as a thickener for sauces, or in a cured, salted form for times of food scarcity, and others use blood in stews such as jugged hare.[68]


Main article: Taste

Animals, specifically humans, typically have five different types of tastes: sweet, sour, salty, bitter, and umami. The differing tastes are important for distinguishing between foods that are nutritionally beneficial and those which may contain harmful toxins.[69] As animals have evolved, the tastes that provide the most energy are the most pleasant to eat while others are not enjoyable,[70] although humans in particular can acquire a preference for some substances which are initially unenjoyable.[69] Water, while important for survival, has no taste.[71]

Sweetness is almost always caused by a type of simple sugar such as glucose or fructose, or disaccharides such as sucrose, a molecule combining glucose and fructose.[72] Sourness is caused by acids, such as vinegar in alcoholic beverages. Sour foods include citrus, specifically lemons and limes. Sour is evolutionarily significant as it can signal a food that may have gone rancid due to bacteria.[73] Saltiness is the taste of alkali metal ions such as sodium and potassium. It is found in almost every food in low to moderate proportions to enhance flavor. Bitter taste is a sensation considered unpleasant characterised by having a sharp, pungent taste. Unsweetened dark chocolate, caffeine, lemon rind, and some types of fruit are known to be bitter. Umami, commonly described as savory, is a marker of proteins and characteristic of broths and cooked meats.[74] Foods that have a strong umami flavor include cheese, meat and mushrooms.[75]

Catfish have millions of taste buds covering their entire body.

While most animals taste buds are located in their mouth, some insects taste receptors are located on their legs and some fish have taste buds along their entire body.[76][77] Dogs, cats and birds have relatively few taste buds (chickens have about 30),[78] adult humans have between 2000 and 4000,[79] while catfish can have more than a million.[77] Herbivores generally have more than carnivores as they need to tell which plants may be poisonous.[78] Not all mammals share the same tastes: some rodents can taste starch, cats cannot taste sweetness, and several carnivores (including hyenas, dolphins, and sea lions) have lost the ability to sense up to four of the five taste modalities found in humans.[80]


Main article: Digestion

Food is broken into nutrient components through digestive process.[81] Proper digestion consists of mechanical processes (chewing, peristalsis) and chemical processes (digestive enzymes and microorganisms).[82][83] The digestive systems of herbivores and carnivores are very different as plant matter is harder to digest. Carnivores mouths are designed for tearing and biting compared to the grinding action found in herbivores.[84] Herbivores however have comparatively longer digestive tracts and larger stomachs to aid in digesting the cellulose in plants.[85][86]

Food safety

Main article: Food safety

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), about 600 million people worldwide get sick and 420,000 die each year from eating contaminated food.[87][88] Diarrhea is the most common illness caused by consuming contaminated food, with about 550 million cases and 230,000 deaths from diarrhea each year. Children under five years of age account for 40% of the burden of foodborne illness, with 125,000 deaths each year.[88][89]

A 2003 World Health Organization (WHO) report concluded that about 30% of reported food poisoning outbreaks in the WHO European Region occur in private homes.[90] According to the WHO and CDC, in the USA alone, annually, there are 76 million cases of foodborne illness leading to 325,000 hospitalizations and 5,000 deaths.[91]

From 2011 to 2016, on average, there were 668,673 cases of foodborne illness and 21 deaths each year.[92][93][94][95] In addition, during this period, 1,007 food poisoning outbreaks with 30,395 cases of food poisoning were reported.[88]

See also


  1. ^ SAPEA (2020). A sustainable food system for the European Union (PDF). Berlin: Science Advice for Policy by European Academies. p. 39. doi:10.26356/sustainablefood. ISBN 978-3-9820301-7-3. Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 April 2020. Retrieved 14 April 2020.
  2. ^ "Food definition and meaning". Collins English Dictionary. Archived from the original on 1 May 2021. Retrieved 21 August 2021.
  3. ^ a b "Low-Energy-Dense Foods and Weight Management: Cutting Calories While Controlling Hunger" (PDF). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Archived (PDF) from the original on 18 November 2021. Retrieved 3 December 2021.
  4. ^ Rahman, M. Shafiur; McCarthy, Owen J. (July 1999). "A classification of food properties". International Journal of Food Properties. 2 (2): 93–99. doi:10.1080/10942919909524593. ISSN 1094-2912.
  5. ^ "What is Photosynthesis". Smithsonian Science Education Center. 12 April 2017. Archived from the original on 3 December 2021. Retrieved 3 December 2021.
  6. ^ "CPG Sec 555.875 Water in Food Products (Ingredient or Adulterant)". U.S. Food and Drug Administration. 11 February 2020. Archived from the original on 3 December 2021. Retrieved 3 December 2021.
  7. ^ Zoroddu, Maria Antonietta; Aaseth, Jan; Crisponi, Guido; Medici, Serenella; Peana, Massimiliano; Nurchi, Valeria Marina (1 June 2019). "The essential metals for humans: a brief overview". Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry. 195: 120–129. doi:10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2019.03.013. ISSN 0162-0134. PMID 30939379. S2CID 92997696. Archived from the original on 11 April 2022. Retrieved 11 April 2022.
  8. ^ Sadler, Christina R.; Grassby, Terri; Hart, Kathryn; Raats, Monique; Sokolović, Milka; Timotijevic, Lada (1 June 2021). "Processed food classification: Conceptualisation and challenges". Trends in Food Science & Technology. 112: 149–162. doi:10.1016/j.tifs.2021.02.059. ISSN 0924-2244. S2CID 233647428.
  9. ^ Nestle, Marion (2013) [2002]. Food Politics: How the Food Industry Influences Nutrition and Health. University of California Press. pp. 36–37. ISBN 978-0-520-27596-6.
  10. ^ Schwingshackl, Lukas; Schwedhelm, Carolina; Hoffmann, Georg; Lampousi, Anna-Maria; Knüppel, Sven; Iqbal, Khalid; Bechthold, Angela; Schlesinger, Sabrina; Boeing, Heiner (2017). "Food groups and risk of all-cause mortality: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies". The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 105 (6): 1462–1473. doi:10.3945/ajcn.117.153148. ISSN 0002-9165. PMID 28446499. S2CID 22494319.
  11. ^ Schwingshackl, Lukas; Schwedhelm, Carolina; Hoffmann, Georg; Knüppel, Sven; Preterre, Anne Laure; Iqbal, Khalid; Bechthold, Angela; Henauw, Stefaan De; Michels, Nathalie; Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Boeing, Heiner (2018). "Food groups and risk of colorectal cancer". International Journal of Cancer. 142 (9): 1748–1758. doi:10.1002/ijc.31198. ISSN 1097-0215. PMID 29210053.
  12. ^ Schwingshackl, Lukas; Hoffmann, Georg; Lampousi, Anna-Maria; Knüppel, Sven; Iqbal, Khalid; Schwedhelm, Carolina; Bechthold, Angela; Schlesinger, Sabrina; Boeing, Heiner (May 2017). "Food groups and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies". European Journal of Epidemiology. 32 (5): 363–375. doi:10.1007/s10654-017-0246-y. ISSN 0393-2990. PMC 5506108. PMID 28397016.
  13. ^ "Food groups and sub-groups". FAO. Archived from the original on 29 August 2021. Retrieved 29 August 2021.
  14. ^ a b "Food Web: Concept and Applications | Learn Science at Scitable". Nature. Archived from the original on 9 February 2022. Retrieved 15 December 2021.
  15. ^ Allan, J. David; Castillo, Marí M. (2007). "Primary producers". Stream Ecology. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands. pp. 105–134. doi:10.1007/978-1-4020-5583-6_6. ISBN 978-1-4020-5583-6.
  16. ^ a b Society, National Geographic (21 January 2011). "omnivore". National Geographic Society. Archived from the original on 15 December 2021. Retrieved 15 December 2021.
  17. ^ Wallach, Arian D.; Izhaki, Ido; Toms, Judith D.; Ripple, William J.; Shanas, Uri (2015). "What is an apex predator?". Oikos. 124 (11): 1453–1461. Bibcode:2015Oikos.124.1453W. doi:10.1111/oik.01977.
  18. ^ Roopnarine, Peter D. (4 March 2014). "Humans are apex predators". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 111 (9): E796. Bibcode:2014PNAS..111E.796R. doi:10.1073/pnas.1323645111. ISSN 0027-8424. PMC 3948303. PMID 24497513.
  19. ^ "food". National Geographic Society. 1 March 2011. Archived from the original on 22 March 2017. Retrieved 25 May 2017.
  20. ^ "ProdSTAT". FAOSTAT. Archived from the original on 10 February 2012.
  21. ^ Favour, Eboh. "Design and Fabrication of a Mill Pulverizer". Academia. Archived from the original on 26 December 2017.
  22. ^ The Complete Book on Spices & Condiments (with Cultivation, Processing & Uses) 2nd Revised Edition: With Cultivation, Processing & Uses. Asia Pacific Business Press Inc. 2006. ISBN 978-81-7833-038-9. Archived from the original on 26 December 2017.
  23. ^ Plumer, Brad (21 August 2014). "How much of the world's cropland is actually used to grow food?". Vox. Archived from the original on 12 April 2022. Retrieved 11 April 2022.
  24. ^ Palombo, Enzo (21 April 2016). "Kitchen Science: bacteria and fungi are your foody friends". The Conversation. Archived from the original on 11 April 2022. Retrieved 11 April 2022.
  25. ^ "Photosynthesis". National Geographic Society. 24 October 2019. Archived from the original on 12 April 2022. Retrieved 11 April 2022.
  26. ^ "Oceanic Bacteria Trap Vast Amounts of Light Without Chlorophyll". The Scientist Magazine. Archived from the original on 6 April 2022. Retrieved 11 April 2022.
  27. ^ Leslie, Mitch (6 March 2009). "On the Origin of Photosynthesis". Science. 323 (5919): 1286–1287. doi:10.1126/science.323.5919.1286. ISSN 0036-8075. PMID 19264999. S2CID 206584539. Archived from the original on 11 April 2022. Retrieved 11 April 2022.
  28. ^ Messinger, Johannes; Ishitani, Osamu; Wang, Dunwei (2018). "Artificial photosynthesis – from sunlight to fuels and valuable products for a sustainable future". Sustainable Energy & Fuels. 2 (9): 1891–1892. doi:10.1039/C8SE90049C. ISSN 2398-4902. Archived from the original on 30 July 2022. Retrieved 11 April 2022.
  29. ^ Kathpalia, Renu; Bhatla, Satish C. (2018). "Plant Mineral Nutrition". In Bhatla, Satish C; A. Lal, Manju (eds.). Plant Physiology, Development and Metabolism. Singapore: Springer. pp. 37–81. doi:10.1007/978-981-13-2023-1_2. ISBN 978-981-13-2023-1. Retrieved 20 January 2023.
  30. ^ a b Morgan, J B; Connolly, E L (2013). "Plant-Soil Interactions: Nutrient Uptake". Nature Education Knowledge. 4 (8).
  31. ^ Gupta, Ankit; Gupta, Rasna; Singh, Ram Lakhan (2017), Singh, Ram Lakhan (ed.), "Microbes and Environment", Principles and Applications of Environmental Biotechnology for a Sustainable Future, Singapore: Springer, pp. 43–84, doi:10.1007/978-981-10-1866-4_3, ISBN 978-981-10-1866-4, PMC 7189961, retrieved 1 May 2024
  32. ^ Foissner, W. (1 January 2005), "PROTOZOA", in Hillel, Daniel (ed.), Encyclopedia of Soils in the Environment, Oxford: Elsevier, pp. 336–347, doi:10.1016/b0-12-348530-4/00162-4, ISBN 978-0-12-348530-4, retrieved 1 May 2024
  33. ^ Foissner, W. (1 January 2014), "Protozoa☆", Reference Module in Earth Systems and Environmental Sciences, Elsevier, doi:10.1016/b978-0-12-409548-9.09130-2, ISBN 978-0-12-409548-9, retrieved 1 May 2024
  34. ^ Lawton, Graham (10 February 2024). "Fungi ahoy!". New Scientist. 261 (3477): 37–39. Bibcode:2024NewSc.261b..37L. doi:10.1016/S0262-4079(24)00274-4.
  35. ^ Vaclav Smil (2004). Enriching the Earth Fritz Haber, Carl Bosch, and the Transformation of World Food Production. MIT Press. ISBN 9780262693134.
  36. ^ a b c d e f Fardet, Anthony (2017). "New Concepts and Paradigms for the Protective Effects of Plant-Based Food Components in Relation to Food Complexity". Vegetarian and Plant-Based Diets in Health and Disease Prevention. Elsevier. pp. 293–312. doi:10.1016/b978-0-12-803968-7.00016-2. ISBN 978-0-12-803968-7. Archived from the original on 15 June 2022. Retrieved 12 April 2022.
  37. ^ "FAQs". Archived from the original on 21 March 2021. Retrieved 12 April 2022.
  38. ^ "Nuts". Archived from the original on 27 February 2022. Retrieved 17 April 2022.
  39. ^ Chodosh, Sara (8 July 2021). "The bizarre botany that makes corn a fruit, a grain, and also (kind of) a vegetable". Popular Science. Archived from the original on 9 April 2022. Retrieved 17 April 2022.
  40. ^ a b c d e Rejman, Krystyna; Górska-Warsewicz, Hanna; Kaczorowska, Joanna; Laskowski, Wacław (17 June 2021). "Nutritional Significance of Fruit and Fruit Products in the Average Polish Diet". Nutrients. 13 (6): 2079. doi:10.3390/nu13062079. ISSN 2072-6643. PMC 8235518. PMID 34204541.
  41. ^ Thomson, Julie (13 June 2017). "Quinoa's 'Seed Or Grain' Debate Ends Right Here". HuffPost. Archived from the original on 15 April 2022. Retrieved 15 April 2022.
  42. ^ "Legumes and Pulses". The Nutrition Source. 28 October 2019. Archived from the original on 21 April 2022. Retrieved 15 April 2022.
  43. ^ "Definition of a Whole Grain | The Whole Grains Council". Archived from the original on 31 January 2022. Retrieved 15 April 2022.
  44. ^ a b "Vegetables: Foods from Roots, Stems, Bark, and Leaves". U.S. Forest Service. Archived from the original on 17 April 2022. Retrieved 12 April 2022.
  45. ^ "Vegetable Classifications". Vegetables. Archived from the original on 4 February 2022. Retrieved 12 April 2022.
  46. ^ Slavin, Joanne L.; Lloyd, Beate (1 July 2012). "Health Benefits of Fruits and Vegetables". Advances in Nutrition. 3 (4): 506–516. doi:10.3945/an.112.002154. ISSN 2156-5376. PMC 3649719. PMID 22797986.
  47. ^ "Vegetables". U.S. Department of Agriculture. Archived from the original on 17 April 2022. Retrieved 17 April 2022.
  48. ^ a b Lundgren, Jonathan G.; Rosentrater, Kurt A. (13 September 2007). "The strength of seeds and their destruction by granivorous insects". Arthropod-Plant Interactions. 1 (2): 93–99. Bibcode:2007APInt...1...93L. doi:10.1007/s11829-007-9008-1. ISSN 1872-8855. S2CID 6410974. Archived from the original on 30 July 2022. Retrieved 15 April 2022.
  49. ^ "The nutrition powerhouse we should eat more of". BBC Food. Archived from the original on 12 April 2022. Retrieved 12 April 2022.
  50. ^ Kanchwala, Hussain (21 March 2019). "What Are Frugivores?". Science ABC. Archived from the original on 16 May 2022. Retrieved 17 April 2022.
  51. ^ "Herbivore". National Geographic Society. 21 January 2011. Archived from the original on 8 April 2022. Retrieved 17 April 2022.
  52. ^ Hagen, Melanie; Kissling, W. Daniel; Rasmussen, Claus; De Aguiar, Marcus A.M.; Brown, Lee E.; Carstensen, Daniel W.; Alves-Dos-Santos, Isabel; Dupont, Yoko L.; Edwards, Francois K. (2012). "Biodiversity, Species Interactions and Ecological Networks in a Fragmented World". Advances in Ecological Research. 46. Elsevier: 89–210. doi:10.1016/b978-0-12-396992-7.00002-2. hdl:10261/64172. ISBN 978-0-12-396992-7. Archived from the original on 4 May 2022. Retrieved 17 April 2022.
  53. ^ Scanes, Colin G. (2018). "Animals and Hominid Development". Animals and Human Society. Elsevier. pp. 83–102. doi:10.1016/b978-0-12-805247-1.00005-8. ISBN 978-0-12-805247-1. Archived from the original on 9 June 2018. Retrieved 17 April 2022.
  54. ^ Fleming, Theodore H. (1992). "How Do Fruit- and Nectar-Feeding Birds and Mammals Track Their Food Resources?". Effects of Resource Distribution on Animal–Plant Interactions. Elsevier. pp. 355–391. doi:10.1016/b978-0-08-091881-5.50015-3. ISBN 978-0-12-361955-6. Archived from the original on 25 May 2021. Retrieved 17 April 2022.
  55. ^ Correa, Sandra Bibiana; Winemiller, Kirk O.; LóPez-Fernández, Hernán; Galetti, Mauro (1 October 2007). "Evolutionary Perspectives on Seed Consumption and Dispersal by Fishes". BioScience. 57 (9): 748–756. doi:10.1641/B570907. ISSN 0006-3568. S2CID 13869429.
  56. ^ "Describe the utilization of grass in forage-livestock systems". Forage Information System. 28 May 2009. Archived from the original on 23 January 2022. Retrieved 12 April 2022.
  57. ^ Şerban, Procheş; Wilson, John R. U.; Vamosi, Jana C.; Richardson, David M. (1 February 2008). "Plant Diversity in the Human Diet: Weak Phylogenetic Signal Indicates Breadth". BioScience. 58 (2): 151–159. doi:10.1641/B580209. S2CID 86483332.
  58. ^ McGee, Chapter 9.
  59. ^ Eriksson, Ove (20 December 2014). "Evolution of angiosperm seed disperser mutualisms: the timing of origins and their consequences for coevolutionary interactions between angiosperms and frugivores". Biological Reviews. 91 (1): 168–186. doi:10.1111/brv.12164. PMID 25530412.
  60. ^ Heleno, Ruben H.; Ross, Georgina; Everard, Amy; Memmott, Jane; Ramos, Jaime A. (2011). "The role of avian 'seed predators' as seed dispersers: Seed predators as seed dispersers". Ibis. 153 (1): 199–203. doi:10.1111/j.1474-919X.2010.01088.x. hdl:10316/41308. Archived from the original on 15 April 2022. Retrieved 15 April 2022.
  61. ^ Spengler, Robert N. (1 April 2020). "Anthropogenic Seed Dispersal: Rethinking the Origins of Plant Domestication". Trends in Plant Science. 25 (4): 340–348. doi:10.1016/j.tplants.2020.01.005. hdl:21.11116/0000-0005-C7E0-D. ISSN 1360-1385. PMID 32191870. S2CID 213192873.
  62. ^ Simms, Ellen L. (1 January 2001). "Plant-Animal Interactions". In Levin, Simon Asher (ed.). Encyclopedia of Biodiversity. New York: Elsevier. pp. 601–619. doi:10.1016/b0-12-226865-2/00340-0. ISBN 978-0-12-226865-6. Archived from the original on 15 April 2022. Retrieved 15 April 2022.
  63. ^ Godínez-Alvarez, Héctor; Ríos-Casanova, Leticia; Peco, Begoña (2020). "Are large frugivorous birds better seed dispersers than medium- and small-sized ones? Effect of body mass on seed dispersal effectiveness". Ecology and Evolution. 10 (12): 6136–6143. Bibcode:2020EcoEv..10.6136G. doi:10.1002/ece3.6285. ISSN 2045-7758. PMC 7319144. PMID 32607219.
  64. ^ Jennings, Elizabeth (15 November 2019). "How Much Seed Do Birds Eat In a Day?". Sciencing. Archived from the original on 12 January 2022. Retrieved 14 April 2022.
  65. ^ Carpenter, Joanna K.; Wilmshurst, Janet M.; McConkey, Kim R.; Hume, Julian P.; Wotton, Debra M.; Shiels, Aaron B.; Burge, Olivia R.; Drake, Donald R. (2020). Barton, Kasey (ed.). "The forgotten fauna: Native vertebrate seed predators on islands". Functional Ecology. 34 (9): 1802–1813. Bibcode:2020FuEco..34.1802C. doi:10.1111/1365-2435.13629. ISSN 0269-8463. S2CID 225292938.
  66. ^ "Animal Products". Archived from the original on 20 March 2022. Retrieved 12 May 2022.
  67. ^ a b c Marcus, Jacqueline B. (2013). "Protein Basics: Animal and Vegetable Proteins in Food and Health". Culinary Nutrition. Elsevier. pp. 189–230. doi:10.1016/b978-0-12-391882-6.00005-4. ISBN 978-0-12-391882-6. Archived from the original on 26 June 2018. Retrieved 13 May 2022.
  68. ^ Davidson, 81–82.
  69. ^ a b Yarmolinsky, David A.; Zuker, Charles S.; Ryba, Nicholas J.P. (16 October 2009). "Common Sense about Taste: From Mammals to Insects". Cell. 139 (2): 234–244. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2009.10.001. ISSN 0092-8674. PMC 3936514. PMID 19837029.
  70. ^ "Evolution of taste receptor may have shaped human sensitivity to toxic compounds". Medical News Today. Archived from the original on 27 September 2010. Retrieved 29 May 2015.
  71. ^ "Why does pure water have no taste or colour?". The Times of India. 3 April 2004. Archived from the original on 30 December 2015.
  72. ^ New Oxford American Dictionary
  73. ^ States "having an acid taste like lemon or vinegar: she sampled the wine and found it was sour. (of food, esp. milk) spoiled because of fermentation." New Oxford American Dictionary
  74. ^ Fleming, Amy (9 April 2013). "Umami: why the fifth taste is so important". The Guardian. Retrieved 5 January 2023.
  75. ^ Wilson, Kimberley (9 December 2022). "Food aversion: A psychologist reveals why you hate some foods, but could learn to love them". BBC Science Focus Magazine. Retrieved 5 January 2023.
  76. ^ Langley, Liz (14 September 2018). "Some Insects Taste With Their Feet and Hear With Their Wings". National Geographic. Archived from the original on 3 March 2021. Retrieved 5 January 2023.
  77. ^ a b Kasumyan, Alexander O. (10 April 2019). "The taste system in fishes and the effects of environmental variables". Journal of Fish Biology. 95 (1): 155–178. Bibcode:2019JFBio..95..155K. doi:10.1111/jfb.13940. ISSN 0022-1112. PMID 30793305. S2CID 73470487.
  78. ^ a b Gary, Stuart (12 August 2010). "Do animals taste the same things as humans?". Australian Broadcasting Corporation Science. Retrieved 5 January 2023.
  79. ^ "How does our sense of taste work?". Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care. 17 August 2016. Archived from the original on 10 January 2024 – via NCBI.
  80. ^ Scully, Simone M. (9 June 2014). "The Animals That Taste Only Saltiness". Nautilus. Archived from the original on 14 June 2014. Retrieved 8 August 2014.
  81. ^ "Digestion: Anatomy, physiology, and chemistry". Medical News Today. 28 June 2022. Retrieved 6 January 2023.
  82. ^ Patricia, Justin J.; Dhamoon, Amit S. (2022). "Physiology, Digestion". StatPearls. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing. PMID 31334962. Retrieved 6 January 2023.
  83. ^ Inman, Mason (20 December 2011). "How Bacteria Turn Fiber into Food". PLOS Biology. 9 (12): e1001227. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1001227. ISSN 1544-9173. PMC 3243711. PMID 22205880.
  84. ^ "Herbivore | National Geographic Society". Retrieved 6 January 2023.
  85. ^ De Cuyper, Annelies; Meloro, Carlo; Abraham, Andrew J.; Müller, Dennis W. H.; Codron, Daryl; Janssens, Geert P. J.; Clauss, Marcus (1 May 2020). "The uneven weight distribution between predators and prey: Comparing gut fill between terrestrial herbivores and carnivores". Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A: Molecular & Integrative Physiology. 243: 110683. doi:10.1016/j.cbpa.2020.110683. hdl:1854/LU-8656684. ISSN 1095-6433. PMID 32097716.
  86. ^ Fujimori, Shunji (7 December 2021). "Humans have intestinal bacteria that degrade the plant cell walls in herbivores". World Journal of Gastroenterology. 27 (45): 7784–7791. doi:10.3748/wjg.v27.i45.7784. ISSN 1007-9327. PMC 8661373. PMID 34963741.
  87. ^ "Hơn 600 triệu người mắc bệnh do ăn phải các thực phẩm ô nhiễm - Chương trình mục tiêu quốc gia - Cổng thông tin Bộ Y tế". Retrieved 26 December 2023.
  88. ^ a b c "An toàn Thực phẩm". (in Vietnamese). Retrieved 26 December 2023.
  89. ^ "WHO: Các bệnh do thực phẩm ở trẻ em dưới 5 tuổi chiếm gần một phần ba số ca tử vong - Chương trình mục tiêu quốc gia - Cổng thông tin Bộ Y tế". Retrieved 26 December 2023.
  90. ^ "Several foodborne diseases are increasing in Europe". World Health Organization. 16 December 2003. Archived from the original on 16 April 2005. Retrieved 26 December 2023.
  91. ^ "Food safety and foodborne illness". World Health Organization. Archived from the original on 27 January 2013. Retrieved 10 December 2010.
  92. ^ "Hơn 5.000 người bị ngộ độc thực phẩm mỗi năm". Báo Nhân Dân điện tử (in Vietnamese). 5 June 2017. Retrieved 26 December 2023.
  93. ^ "Chỉ 10% số người dân tin vào thực phẩm an toàn". (in Vietnamese). 6 June 2017. Retrieved 26 December 2023.
  94. ^ Tran, Lanh. "Dịch vụ nhận đặc tiệc tại nhà 24h". (in Vietnamese). Retrieved 26 December 2023.
  95. ^ "Cảnh giác ngộ độc thực phẩm từ bếp ăn tập thể - Hoạt động của địa phương - Cổng thông tin Bộ Y tế". Retrieved 26 December 2023.

Further reading