In the late 19th century, and early 20th century, the chef Auguste Escoffier consolidated the list of sauces proposed by Marie-Antoine Carême to four Grandes-Sauces-de-Base in Le guide culinaire. They are:
Sauce Velouté – Classic French sauce – white stock-based sauce, thickened with a roux or a liaison.
Sauce Béchamel – Sauce of the Italian and French cuisines – milk-based sauce, thickened with a white roux.
Sauce Tomate – sauce made primarily from tomatoes – a tomato-based sauce.
In addition to the four types of great base sauces that required heat to produce, he also wrote that sauce mayonnaise, as a cold sauce, was also a Sauce-Mère (Mother Sauce), in much the same way as Sauce Espagnole and Sauce Velouté due to the number of derivative sauces that can be produced.
Sauce Mayonnaise – Thick, creamy sauce often used as a condiment, composed primarily of egg yolks and oil – an emulsion of egg yolk, butter, and an acid such as lemon or vinegar.
In Escoffier's 1907 book A Guide to Modern Cookery, an abridged English version of his Le guide culinaire
, it presented readers with a list of sauces that have also come to be known as the Five Mother Sauces of French cuisine:
Of his French language publications, both Le guide culinaire and his last book, Ma cuisine that was published in 1934, make no direct mention of Hollandaise as being a Sauce-Mère. Both titles do mention that Sauce Mayonnaise could be considered as a Sauce-Mère within their lists of cold sauces. The 1979 English translation by Cracknell and Kaufmann of the 4th edition of Le guide culinaire also maintains similar wording.
Chilli soy lime – a mixture of soy sauce, chopped bird's eye chillies, chopped onions, and calamansi lime juice—a traditional dipping sauce for grilled meats and seafood. The island of Guam has a similar sauce called finadene.
Liver sauce – used primarily as a dipping sauce for lechon or whole roasted pig. Flavour is savoury, sweet and piquant, vaguely reminiscent of British style brown sauces but with a coarser texture.
Ćwikła – Made of horseradish and cooked, minced beets. Very common during Easter. Served with various meats to eat with bread.
Cranberry horseradish sauce – Consists of horseradish, minced cranberries, sour cream and mayonnaise.
Dill sauce – Sauce which can be made hot or cold. Cold is made of dill, yoghurt and spices. Hot consists of roux, single/double cream or is starch thickened instead of a yoghurt. Hot version can be served with golabki or meatballs, cold one with cooked fish.
Horseradish sauce – Made with sour cream, mayonnaise, lemon juice and minced horseradish. It may be eaten with hard-boiled eggs, bacon or baked/fried meats. It can also be put on sandwiches.
Garlic sauce – Its main ingredients are garlic, mayonnaise, sour cream or yoghurt, herbs and spices. Similar, perhaps, to ranch dressing. It's eaten with pizza or used as a dressing to side salad (usually cauliflower or broccoli). It can be also made with only garlic and melted butter, to be tossed with asparagus, broad beans or green beans.
Grey Polish sauce (Polish: Szary sos polski) – Consists of roux and beef, fish, or vegetable stock seasoned with wine or lemon juice. Additions include caramel, raisins, almonds, chopped onions, grated gingerbread or double cream.
Polonaise – Garnish made of melted butter, chopped boiled eggs, bread crumbs, salt, lemon juice and herbs. In Poland it's usually used as a dressing, served with cooked vegetables like green beans, cauliflower, broccoli or Brussels sprouts next to potatoes and meat.
Salsza sauce (Polish: Salsza) – Sauce with butter, onion, parsley root, garlic, bay leaves, thyme, basil, vinegar, flour and wine.