This is a list of fermented soy products. A diverse variety of soy food products made from fermented soybeans exists.

Fermented soy products

Name Image Origin Description
Akhuni (axone) Nagaland, India Axone is regarded as Sümi's (Sema) special dish, which is made of fermented soybean. Soybean is boiled, transferred to a bamboo basket and covered with leaves - preferably banana leaves. The basket is placed in a warm, humid place such as over a furnace. After several days, the fermented soybean is mashed, made into thick flat cakes and wrapped in leaves which are then smoked over a fire for up to a week before cooking. It is usually cooked with smoked pork.
Bekang Mizoram, India Fermented with a small amount of wood-ash for three days after boiling. Mix in the traditional Bai dish.
Hawaijar Manipur, India Whole soybeans fermented without salt, Hawaijar is used for making piquant relishes called ametpas as well as thick hearty stews such as Changempomba along with leafy greens and fish.[1]
Cheonggukjang Korea A fermented soybean paste used in Korean cuisine that contains whole as well as ground soybeans; similar to nattō.
Doenjang Korea A traditional Korean fermented soybean paste. Its name literally means "thick paste" in Korean.
Doubanjiang China A spicy, salty paste made from fermented broad beans, soybeans, salt, rice, and various spices. Doubanjiang exists in plain and spicy versions, with the latter containing red chili peppers and called la doubanjiang. It is used particularly in Sichuan cuisine.
Douchi China Used in the cuisine of China, where it is most widely used for making black bean sauce,[2] the preparation process and product are similar to ogiri and iru, both being African fermented bean products.
Fermented bean paste East and Southeast Asia A category of fermented foods typically made from ground soybeans, which are indigenous to the cuisines of East and Southeast Asia. In some cases, such as in the production of miso, other varieties of beans such as broad beans, may also be used.[3]
Gochujang Korea A savory and pungent fermented Korean condiment made from red chili, glutinous rice, fermented soybeans and salt. Traditionally, it has been naturally fermented over years in large earthen pots outdoors, more often on an elevated stone platform, called jangdokdae.
Jajangmyeon Shandong region, China Consists of wheat noodles topped with a thick sauce made of chunjang (a salty black soybean paste), diced pork and vegetables, and sometimes also seafood. The dish originated from zhajiangmian in China's Shandong region.
Kinema Nepal and India(Darjeeling and Sikkim) A fermented soybean product indigenous to Nepal, mostly prepared by Rais and Limbus of Eastern Nepal. The traditional method of kinema preparation involves cooking of soybeans, cooling to room temperature, mixing with a small amount of vegetable ash, wrapping in banana leaves or rice straw, leaving it for 2–3 days in warm place for fermentation. It has slimy appearance and has a persistent nutty to musty flavor. Kinema resembles characteristics of Natto.
Mianchi China Similar to douchi but made with white soybeans
Miso Japan A traditional Japanese seasoning produced by fermenting rice, barley, and/or soybeans with salt and the fungus kōjikin (麹菌), the most typical miso being made with soy. The result is a thick paste used for sauces and spreads, pickling vegetables or meats, and mixing with dashi soup stock to serve as miso soup called misoshiru (味噌汁), a Japanese culinary staple.
Nattō Japan A traditional Japanese food made from soybeans fermented with Bacillus subtilis.[4] It is especially popular as a breakfast food.[5] As a rich source of protein, nattō and the soybean paste miso formed a vital source of nutrition in feudal Japan.[citation needed] Nattō may be an acquired taste because of its powerful smell, strong flavor, and slimy texture.[6][7][8][9]
Pickled tofu China A form of processed, preserved tofu used in East Asian cuisine as a condiment made from soybeans. The ingredients typically are soybeans, salt, rice wine and sesame oil or vinegar, and are sold in jars containing blocks 2- to 4-cm square by 1 to 2 cm thick soaked in brine with select flavorings.[10]
Soy sauce China A condiment produced from a fermented paste of boiled soybeans, roasted grain, brine, and Aspergillus oryzae or Aspergillus sojae molds.[11] After fermentation, the paste is pressed, producing a liquid, which is the soy sauce, and a solid byproduct, which is often used as animal feed.[12] Soy sauce is a traditional ingredient in East and Southeast Asian cuisines, where it is used in cooking and as a condiment. It originated in China in the 2nd century BCE and spread throughout Asia. In recent times, it is used in Western cuisine and prepared foods. See also: Sweet soy sauce.
Stinky tofu China A form of fermented tofu that has a strong odor. Unlike cheese, stinky tofu fermentation does not have a fixed formula for starter bacteria; wide regional and individual variations exist in manufacture and preparation. The traditional method for producing stinky tofu is to prepare a brine made from fermented milk, vegetables, and meat; the brine can also include dried shrimp, amaranth greens, mustard greens, bamboo shoots, and Chinese herbs.[13] The brine fermentation can take as long as several months.
Tamari Japan Produced mainly in the Chūbu region of Japan, tamari is darker in appearance and richer in flavor than koikuchi, Japan's most-produced soy sauce. It contains little or no wheat. Wheat-free tamari can be used by people with gluten intolerance. It is the "original" Japanese soy sauce, as its recipe is closest to the soy sauce originally introduced to Japan from China. Technically, this variety is known as miso-damari (味噌溜り), as this is the liquid that runs off miso as it matures.
Tauchu China[citation needed] A paste made from preserved soybeans and often used when steaming fish in Hubei cuisine.
Tauco Indonesia A paste made from preserved fermented yellow soybeans in Chinese Indonesian cuisine. The name comes from the pronunciation in the Hokkien dialect and it is originated from China. The sauce is also commonly used in other Indonesian cuisines traditions, such as Sundanese cuisine and Javanese cuisine. The sauce is often used as condiment and flavoring for stir fried dishes.
Tempeh Indonesia A traditional soy product originally from Indonesia. It is made by a natural culturing and controlled fermentation process that binds soybeans into a cake form, similar to a very firm vegetarian burger patty. Tempeh is unique among major traditional soy foods in that it is the only one that did not originate from the Sinosphere cuisine.
Thua nao Myanmar, Thailand Fermented soybeans in fresh or dried forms, indigenous to the Shan people of Myanmar and Thailand
Tianmianjiang (Sweet bean sauce) China A thick, dark brown- or black-colored Chinese sauce made from wheat flour, sugar, salt, mantou, and fermented yellow soybeans (the lees left over from the fermentation of soybeans to make soy sauce). There are many different types of sweet bean sauces depending on the different compositions and the different method of production, and significant regional variations exist.
Tungrymbai India A fermented soy product indigenous to the Khasi and Jaiñtia tribes in Meghalaya, India.
Tương Vietnam A name applied to a variety of condiments, Tương is a fermented bean paste made from soybean and commonly used in Vietnamese cuisine. It may range in consistency from a thick paste to a thin liquid.
Yellow soybean paste China A fermented paste made from yellow soybeans, salt, and water; wheat flour, though not formerly used, is often used as an additional ingredient in the modern day, and potassium sorbate may also be used as a preservative. Yellow soybean paste is produced in China and is used primarily in Beijing cuisine and other cuisines of northern China.
Pehak India it is prepared with fermented soybeans and Bhut Jolokia

See also


  1. ^ Anand Singh, Thangjam; Nongthombam, Grihalakshmi; Goksen, Gulden; Singh, Harikesh B.; Rajauria, Gaurav; Kumar Sarangi, Prakash (August 2023). "Hawaijar – An ethnic vegan fermented soybean food of Manipur, India: A comprehensive review". Food Research International. 170: 112983. doi:10.1016/j.foodres.2023.112983. PMID 37316061.
  2. ^ Shurtleff, W.; Aoyagi, A. 2011. "History of Fermented Black Soybeans (165 B.C. to 2011)." Lafayette, California: Soyinfo Center. 398 pp. (754 references)
  3. ^ The Book of Miso, 2nd ed., by Shurtleff and Aoyagi. Berkeley, California: Ten Speed Press (1985)
  4. ^ Hosking, Richard (1995). A Dictionary of Japanese Food: Ingredients and Culture. Tuttle. p. 106. ISBN 0-8048-2042-2.
  5. ^ McCloud, Tina (7 December 1992). "Natto: A Breakfast Dish That's An Acquired Taste". Daily Press. Retrieved 25 December 2012. It's a traditional soybean breakfast food from northern Japan and it's called natto. [...] As a breakfast food, natto is usually served over steamed rice and mixed with mustard and soy sauce.
  6. ^ Katz, Sandor Ellix (2012). The Art of Fermentation: An In-Depth Exploration of Essential Concepts and Processes from Around the World. Chelsea Green Publishing. pp. 328–329. ISBN 978-1603582865. Natto is a Japanese soy ferment that produces a slimy, mucilaginous coating on the beans, something like okra. [...] The flavor of natto carries notes of ammonia (like some cheeses or overripe tempeh), which gets stronger as it ferments longer.
  7. ^ A., M. (30 March 2010). "Not the natto!". Asian Food. The Economist. Retrieved 25 December 2012. ... natto, a food that has achieved infamy among Japan's foreign residents.
  8. ^ Buerk, Roland (11 March 2010). "Japan opens 98th national airport in Ibaraki". BBC News. Retrieved 25 December 2012. ... natto, a fermented soy bean dish that many consider an acquired taste.
  9. ^ "Natto Fermented Soy Bean Recipe Ideas". Japan Centre. Retrieved 25 December 2012. Natto are one of those classic dishes that people either love or hate. Like Marmite or blue cheese, natto has a very strong smell and intense flavour that can definitely be an acquired taste.
  10. ^ "Chao/Doufu Ru (Fermented Bean Curd)". 19 April 2008. Retrieved 2009-11-21.
  11. ^ 'Microbiology Laboratory Theory and Application.' Michael Leboffe and Burton Pierce, 2nd edition. pp.317
  12. ^ Schueller, Randy (1997). "Soy Sauce". In Kristine M., Krapp; Jacqueline L., Longe (eds.). How Products are Made. Vol. 3. Detroit: Gale. doi:10.1223/0787615471. ISBN 978-0787615475. OCLC 271325103. Retrieved 14 November 2013.
  13. ^ Xiaomi, Tan (2006-06-02). "Stand back! Stinky tofu chain stores arrive in Shenzhen". Shenzhen Daily. Archived from the original on 2013-08-28.