This is a list of notable dishes found in Russian cuisine.[1] Russian cuisine is a collection of the different cooking traditions of the Russian Empire. The cuisine is diverse, with Northeast European/Baltic, Caucasian, Central Asian, Siberian, East Asian and Middle Eastern influences.[2] Russian cuisine derives its varied character from the vast and multi-ethnic expanse of Russia.

Russian dishes

Zakuski

Name Image Description
Caviar
Ossetra caviar.jpg
Processed, salted roe, often of sturgeon[3]
Courgette caviar
Squash Caviar.jpg
Cold entrée made of stewed vegetables (predominantly courgettes). Usually it is eaten with bread[4]
Kasha
Гречневая каша.jpg
Porridge. Buckwheat,[5] millet, oat, wheat and semolina kashas are widely popular in Russia.[6][7]
Kholodets
Holodez s hrenom.JPG
A meat jelly that is also known as studen[7][8]
Stroganina
Dish Stroganina .jpg
A dish of the indigenous people of northern Arctic Siberia consisting of raw, thin, long-sliced frozen fish.
Zakuski
Russian Celebration Zakuski.jpg
Refers to a variety of hors d'oeuvres, snacks, appetizers, usually served buffet style.[9] It often includes cold cuts, cured fishes, mixed salads, kholodets, various pickled vegetables and mushrooms, pirozhki, caviar, deviled eggs, open sandwiches, canapés and breads.[9]
Julienne
Julienne.jpg
Мushrooms in cream or béchamel sauce topped with grated cheese and baked in a cocotte. Chicken, fish or seafood can also be used with or instead of mushrooms.

Soups

Name Image Description
Okroshka
Kvass-okroshka.jpg
Cold soup of mostly raw vegetables like cucumbers, spring onions, boiled potatoes, with eggs, and a cooked meat such as beef, veal, sausages, or ham with kvass, topped with sour cream[10]
Rassolnik
Rassolnik.jpg
A soup made from pickled cucumbers, pearl barley, and pork or beef kidneys[11]
Shchi
Schi.jpg
A cabbage soup.[12] Also can be based on sauerkraut.[12] Kislye Shchi (sour shchi) despite its name is a fizzy beverage similar to kvass, usually with honey.
Borscht
Borscht with bread.jpg
It is traditionally made from meat or bone stock, sautéed vegetables, and beet sour (i.e., fermented beetroot juice). Depending on the recipe, some of these components may be omitted or substituted for.
Kholodny Borscht
Chlodnik (Cold Borscht).jpg
Cold borscht involves use of dairy products and halves of boiled eggs.
Solyanka
Soljanka with olives.jpg
A thick, spicy and sour soup that contains meat and pickled cucumbers[13]
Sorrel soup
(green shchi)
Borscz zelenyj ukr.jpg
Water or broth, sorrel leaves, salt, sometimes with whole eggs or egg yolks, potatoes, carrots, parsley root, and rice[14][15]
Ukha
Uha 013.jpg
A clear soup, made from various types of fish[16]

Salads

Name Image Description
Dressed herring (Seld pod shuboi)
Selidi pod shuboi.jpg
Diced, salted herring covered with layers of grated, boiled vegetables (potatoes, carrots, beet roots), chopped onions, and mayonnaise[17][7]
Mimosa salad
Mimoza salat e-citizen.jpg
A festive salad, whose main ingredients are cheese, eggs, canned fish, onion, and mayonnaise[citation needed]
Olivier salad (Stolichniy salad)
Russischer Oliviersalat.JPG
Diced potatoes, eggs, chicken or bologna, sweet peas, and pickles with a mayonnaise dressing. Other vegetables, such as carrot or fresh cucumbers, can be added.[18][7]
Vinegret
Vinegret.jpg
Diced boiled vegetables (beet roots, potatoes, carrots), chopped onions, and sauerkraut and/or pickled cucumbers.[19][20][21] Other ingredients, such as green peas or beans, are sometimes also added.[20][21] Dressed with vinaigrette, mayonnaise or simply with sunflower or other vegetable oil.

Meat dishes

Name Image Description
Beef Stroganov
Beef Stroganoff-02 cropped.jpg
Pieces of sautéed beef in sauce, with smetana (sour cream)[22]
Chicken Kiev
Chicken Kiev - Ukrainian East Village restaurant.jpg
A dish made of chicken fillet pounded and rolled around cold butter, then coated with eggs and bread crumbs, and either fried or baked.
Golubtsy
Golubzi4.jpg
Cooked cabbage leaves wrapped around a variety of fillings[23][7]
Makarony po-flotski
Navy-style 2020-01-30 Макароны «по-флотски».jpg
Literally navy-style pasta, a dish made of cooked pasta (typically macaroni, penne or fusilli) mixed with stewed ground meat, fried onions and seasoned with salt and black pepper.
Pelmeni
Pelmeni Russian.jpg
Dumplings consisting of a meat filling wrapped in thin, pasta dough[24][25][7]
Pozharsky cutlet
Pozharsky cutlet
A breaded ground chicken patty[26]
Shashlyk
Chenjeh1.jpg
A dish of skewered and grilled cubes of meat.
Veal Orlov
French meat.jpg
A dish invented by the French[27] consisting of braised loin of veal, thinly sliced, filled with a thin layer of pureed mushrooms and onions between each slice, topped with bechamel sauce and cheese. Various versions of this dish usually go by the name French-style meat in Russia today.

Pancakes

Name Image Description
Blini
Blini with beef.jpg
Pancakes of various thickness and ingredients[28][7]
Oladyi
ОладкиУкраїнські.jpg
Small thick pancakes[29]
Syrniki
(tvorozhniki)
Syrniki.jpg
Fried pancakes made of quark, usually topped with sour cream, varenye, jam, honey, or apple sauce[30][31]

Bread

Name Image Description
Baranka
Barankas.jpg
A dough ring somewhat smaller than a bublik, but also thinner and drier
Borodinsky bread
Borodinoer Brot, borordinsky bread, бородинский хлеб II.jpg
Dark brown sourdough rye bread
Bublik
Bublik in Kiev with Sesame.JPG
A ring of yeast-leavened wheat dough, that has been boiled in water for a short time before baking
Karavai
Russian bread and salt.jpg
A large round braided bread, traditionally baked from wheat flour and decorated with symbolic flags and figurines, such as suns, moons, birds, animals, and pine cones.
Kalach
Lob NARkult 09.JPG
Historically, kalach meant any kind of white bread, and before modern methods of grinding wheat came into use, white bread was classed as a type of fancy bread.
Kulich
Kulich pies.JPG
One of the two sine qua non attributes of the Russian Easter (the other is Paskha).[32] A type of Easter bread.[32]
Sushki
Sooshki.jpg
Traditional small, crunchy, mildly sweet bread rings eaten for dessert, usually with tea or coffee

Pirogi (pies)

Name Image Description
Kulyebyaka
Salmon Coulibiac 2.jpg
A fish (usually salmon or sturgeon) loaf, with rice, hard-boiled eggs, mushrooms, and dill[33]
Karelsky pirog
Karjalanpiirakka-20060227.jpg
A traditional pirog from the region of Karelia.
Kurnik
Kurnik.jpg
A dome-shaped savoury type of Russian pirog, usually filled with chicken or turkey, eggs, onions, kasha or rice, and other optional components.[34][35]
Rasstegai
Rasstegai s gorbushei.jpg
The filling usually contains fish, but may also contain meat, liver, rice or mushrooms.
Pirog
Pirog from Stolle 02.jpg
A pie either with a sweet or savoury filling[36]
Pirozhki
Piroshki.JPG
Small pies[37][7]
Vatrushka
Vatrushka.jpg
A pastry with a ring of dough and sweet farmer's cheese in the middle[38]

Sauces

Name Image Description
Khren
Food 013 white.JPG
A spicy paste made of grated horseradish.
Khrenovina
Khrenovina-sauce.jpg
A spicy horseradish sauce served with a main course, which is very popular in Siberia.
Smetana
Crème d
A dairy product produced by souring heavy cream.

Desserts

Name Image Description
Guriev porridge
Gurievskaya porridge photo 05-2017.jpg
A Russian porridge dish prepared from semolina and milk with the addition of nuts (hazelnut, walnuts, almonds), kaimak (creamy foams) and dried fruits.[39]
Kutia
Kutia Natalii.jpg
A ceremonial grain dish with sweet gravy.
Paskha
Paskha2.jpg
Tvorog (farmer's cheese) plus heavy cream, butter, sugar, vanilla, etc., usually molded in the form of a truncated pyramid. Traditional for Easter.
Pryanik
Big Tula Gingerbread.JPG
A range of traditional sweet baked goods made from flour and honey.
Pastila
Kolomna Pastila.jpg
It has been described as "small squares of pressed fruit paste" and "light, airy puffs with a delicate apple flavor".
Varenye
Az-Strawberry jam, making by e-citizen (moonsun1981).JPG
It is made by cooking berries, other fruits, or more rarely nuts, vegetables, or flowers, in sugar syrup.
Zefir
Zefyrai.JPG
A type of soft confectionery made by whipping fruit and berry purée (mostly apple puree) with sugar and egg whites with subsequent addition of a gelling agent like pectin, carrageenan, agar, or gelatine.

Beverages

Non-alcoholic drinks

See also: Russian tea culture

Name Image Description
Kissel
Red Currant Kissel.jpg
Fruit dessert of sweetened juice, thickened with arrowroot, cornstarch or potato starch[40]
Kompot
Compot 12.jpg
Non-alcoholic sweet beverage, that may be served hot or cold, depending on tradition and season. It is obtained by cooking fruit such as strawberries, apricots, peaches, apples, rhubarb, gooseberries, or sour cherries in a large volume of water, often together with sugar or raisins as additional sweeteners.
Kvass
Mint bread kvas.jpg
A fermented non-alcoholic beverage made from black or regular rye bread or dough[41]
Mors
Mors (ru. Морс - прохладительный негазированный напиток).JPG
A non-carbonated Russian fruit drink[42][43][44] prepared from berries, mainly from lingonberry and cranberry (although sometimes blueberries, strawberries, sea buckthorns or raspberries).
Ryazhenka
Ryazhenka16c.JPG
It is made from baked milk by lactic acid fermentation.[45]
Sbiten
Сбитень (збитень) ржаной.JPG
A traditional Russian honey-based drink with herbs and spices[46]
Varenets
Varenets2.jpg
A fermented milk product that is popular in Russia.[47][48] Similar to ryazhenka, it is made by adding sour cream (smetana) to baked milk.[48]

Alcoholic drinks

See also: Beer in Russia

Name Image Description
Medovukha
Медовуха.jpg
A traditional Russian honey-based drink analogous to its counterparts of other Indo-European peoples[49]
Vodka
Smirnoff Red Label 8213.jpg
It is composed primarily of water and ethanol, but sometimes with traces of impurities and flavorings. Traditionally it is made by distilling the liquid from cereal grains or potatoes that have been fermented, though some modern brands use fruits or sugar as the base.
Kvass
Mint bread kvas.jpg
A fermented cereal-based non-alcoholic or low alcoholic beverage with a slightly cloudy appearance, light-brown colour and sweet-sour taste. It stems from the northeastern part of Europe, where the grain production is thought to have been insufficient for beer to become a daily drink. In recent years it has regained its original popularity, often marketed as a national soft drink or "patriotic" alternative to cola.

See also

References

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Bibliography