This is a list of pies, tarts and flans. A pie is a baked or fried dish which is usually made of a pastry dough casing that covers or completely contains a filling of various sweet or savory ingredients. A tart is a baked dish consisting of a filling over a pastry base with an open top not covered with pastry. The pastry is usually shortcrust pastry; the filling may be sweet or savory, though modern tarts are usually fruit-based, sometimes with custard. The croustade, crostata, galette, tarte tatin and turnovers are various types of pies and tarts. Flan, in Britain, is an open pastry or sponge case containing a sweet or savory filling. A typical flan of this sort is round, with shortcrust pastry.

Pies, tarts, flans and pastries

Name Image Origin Type Description
Aloo pie Trinidad and Tobago Savory This soft and fried pastry is a variant of the samosa, made from flour and water, and filled with boiled, spiced and mashed potatoes and other vegetables like green peas. Its shape is similar to a calzone, and it is usually larger than a samosa, approximately 5 inches (13 cm) long.[1]
Apple crisp
Apple crumble
United States Sweet A dessert consisting of baked apples topped with a crispy crust. Many different kinds of fruit can substituted for apples, and one of the most common variants is 'apple rhubarb crisp' including rhubarb. It is a simpler alternative to apple pie and apple cobbler.
Apple pie United Kingdom (England) Sweet A fruit pie (or tart) in which the principal filling ingredient is crisp and acidic cooking apples such as the Bramley or Granny Smith
Australian and New Zealand meat pie Australia and New Zealand[2] Savory A hand-sized meat pie containing largely minced meat and gravy sometimes with onion and often consumed as a takeaway food snack. The pie itself is congruent with the United Kingdom's steak pie.
Bacon and egg pie New Zealand Savory A pie containing bacon, egg and often onion
Bakewell tart United Kingdom (England) Sweet A tart with a shortcrust pastry shell, spread with jam and filled with a sponge-like, ground almond filling.[3] Often covered with nuts, such as almonds and peanuts, a top layer of almond flavored icing, and a half glacé cherry.
Banana cream pie United States Sweet A cream pie made with a rich custard made from milk, cream, flour, and eggs and combined with sliced bananas in a pastry or graham crumb crust. It is often made with a whipped cream topping.
Banoffee pie United Kingdom (England) Sweet An English pastry-based dessert made from bananas,[4] toffee[4] and cream, either on a pastry base or digestive biscuit crumb crust.
Bay tat Indonesia (Bengkulu) Sweet A sweet pie or tart made from coconut milk with pineapple jam or coconut jam as filling.[citation needed]
Bavarian Cream Pie Bavaria Sweet A sweet chocolatey pie best served cold, topped with Bavarian cream.[citation needed]
Bean pie United States Sweet A sweet custard pie with a filling of mashed beans, sugar, butter, milk, and spices, including vanilla, cinnamon, and nutmeg.
Bedfordshire clanger United Kingdom (England) Savory and sweet An elongated, suet crust pie with a savory filling at one end (meat, potatoes and vegetables) and a sweet filling (jam or fruit) at the other.
pastilla, etc.
Morocco Savory A traditional Berber meat pie traditionally made of squab (fledgling pigeons) in crisp layers of warka dough, with a crunchy layer of toasted and ground almonds, cinnamon, and sugar. Many variant transliterations: bastilla, bsteeya, b'stilla, bstilla, ...
Blackberry pie United States Sweet A fruit pie with a filling made from blackberries.
Black bottom pie United States Sweet A layer of chocolate pastry cream or pudding, the "black bottom", topped with whipped cream or meringue in a crust of variable composition.
Black bun United Kingdom (Scotland) Sweet A pastry-covered fruitcake, traditionally eaten on Twelfth Night.
Blueberry pie United States (New England) Sweet A fruit pie (or tart) in which the principal filling ingredient is blueberries.
Bob Andy pie United States (Amish community) Sweet A sweet custard pie, spiced with cinnamon and cloves.
Bougatsa Greece Sweet or savory Consists of custard, cheese, or minced meat filling between layers of phyllo.
Boysenberry pie United States Sweet Made with boysenberries, often simmered into a softer sweeter "preserve"-type gel, most frequently with a second covering crust, either lattice or with only a few cutouts.[citation needed]
Bridie United Kingdom (Scotland) Savory A small, savory pie filled with minced steak, butter, and beef suet seasoned with salt and pepper. Sometimes with an addition of minced onions.
Buko pie Philippines Sweet A sweet pie originating from the Philippines. It was only available to the island country, until a method of freezing was used. It is a very popular pie, consisting of young coconuts.
Bumbleberry pie Canada, United States Sweet This is a sweet fruit pie in which the filling consists of blackberries, blueberries, raspberries and strawberries.[5] Other varieties also include other berries or the addition of grapes. The color of the filling is a deep purple, and it is baked in a typical pie shell pâte sucrée.
Bundevara Serbia Sweet An elongated, strudel-like pie filled with sweetened pumpkin.
Bündner Nusstorte Switzerland (Graubünden) Sweet A traditional sweet, caramelised nut-filled pastry (generally walnut).
Burek Turkey (Anatolia) Savory Phyllo filled with cheese, meat, potatoes and other vegetables. Found in the cuisines of the Balkans, the Caucasus, Central Asia, West Asia, and parts of North Africa.
Butter pie United Kingdom (England) Savory Made with sliced potatoes, onion, butter, salt and pepper in a light pastry casing.
Butter tart Canada Sweet Butter, sugar and eggs in a pastry shell, with raisins, pecans or walnuts often added.
Buttermilk pie United States Sweet A traditional custard-like pie in a pastry crust with a filling made of a mixture of sugar, butter, eggs, buttermilk and flour.
Butterscotch-Cinnamon Pie United States Sweet A relatively recently invented pie, first conceptualized in the video game Undertale but having gained popularity on YouTube; contains a thick filling of butterscotch and cinnamon.[citation needed]
Canelé France Sweet A small French pastry with a soft and tender custard center and a dark, thick caramelized crust.
Cantaloupe pie United States Sweet A custard pie of cantaloupe, butter, eggs, and nutmeg, with meringue topping.[citation needed]
Caramel tart Australia Sweet A sweet tart, filled with soft piped caramel. Sometimes topped with whipped cream or drizzled with chocolate.
Cashew pie Worldwide Sweet Prepared using cashews as a main ingredient.
Cheesecake United States Sweet Cream cheese and pastry; may come in a variety of flavors.
Cheese pie United States Sweet A pie with a filling similar to cheesecake with a graham wafer crust and often topped with fruit.
Cherry pie Worldwide Sweet A pie baked with a cherry filling. Usually made with tart rather than sweet cherries so as to control the sweetness of the pie.
Chess pie United Kingdom, United States Sweet A custard pie with a filling composed of eggs, butter, granulated sugar, brown sugar, vanilla and corn meal.
Chestnut pie Italy, United States Savory or sweet A pie prepared using chestnuts as a primary ingredient
Chicken and mushroom pie United Kingdom Savory A pie made with a pastry crust with a filling of small pieces of chicken and sliced mushrooms in a creamy sauce.
Chicken pastel Philippines Savory Stew or pie made with chicken (sometimes pork), sausages, mushrooms, peas, carrots, potatoes, soy sauce, and various spices in a creamy sauce.
Chiffon pie United States Sweet A pie with a filling made by folding meringue or whipped cream into a mixture resembling a fruit curd (most commonly lemon) in a crust of variable composition. Can also be made with canned pumpkin in place of the fruit.
Chinese pie
Pâté chinois
Canada (Quebec) Savory A layered French Canadian dish similar to the British cottage pie. It is made with ground beef and sautéed onions on the bottom layer, canned corn (whole-kernel or creamed) for the middle layer, and mashed potatoes on top.
Cobbler United Kingdom, United States Sweet A dish consisting of a fruit or savory filling poured into a large baking dish and covered with a batter, biscuit, or dumpling before being baked.
Coconut cream pie United States Sweet A cream pie made with a rich custard made from milk, cream, flour, eggs, and shredded coconut in a pastry or graham crumb crust, usually topped with whipped cream and toasted coconut.
Cookie Cake Pie United States Sweet A combination of cookie dough and cake batter baked together in a pie crust.
Corned beef pie United Kingdom Savory A pie with a filling of corned beef, onion and other vegetables such as corn, peas or carrot. The pie can be made with a mashed potato topping, as in cottage pie, or with a traditional pastry crust.
Coulibiac Russia Savory A baked pie with a filling made with salmon or sturgeon,[6] rice, hard-boiled eggs, mushrooms, and dill.
Cumberland pie United Kingdom (Cumbria) Savory A meat pie topped with a crust of bread crumbs.
Curry pie United Kingdom Savory A pie with a pastry crust filled with Indian or Chinese curry.
Curry puff Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand Savory A small pie consisting of curry with chicken and potatoes in a deep-fried or baked pastry shell, similar to an empanada.
Custard tart
flans pâtissier
United Kingdom, France Sweet A baked pastry consisting of a pastry crust filled with egg custard. French custard tarts are generally shallower and larger than British ones, and therefore served in slices rather than as individual items.
Derby pie United States (Kentucky) Sweet A chocolate and walnut pie with a pastry dough crust; commonly made with pecans, chocolate chips and Kentucky bourbon.
Egg pie Philippines Sweet A sweet Filipino pie with an egg custard filling and a characteristic toasty brown top made from egg whites.
Egg tart China (Guangdong)[7] Sweet A baked pastry consisting of egg custard in a cookie crust or puff crust.
Empanada Spain Sweet or savory A stuffed pastry, baked or fried and stuffed with a variety of fillings, including meat, cheese, vegetables or fruit. Popular throughout Spain, Portugal, Latin America, Central America, the Philippines, Indonesia, Malaysia, and the Caribbean.
Fish pie
Fisherman's Pie
United Kingdom Savory A dish made with white fish in a béchamel sauce with a mashed potato topping, similar to cottage pie.
Flan Worldwide Sweet or savory An open pastry or sponge cake containing a sweet or savory filling.
Flan chino Spain Sweet A rectangular-shaped egg dessert similar to a cross between a flan and a tocinillo de cielo.
Flapper pie Canada (Western Canada) Sweet A custard pie with a graham wafer crust, topped with meringue.
Fleischkuekle Russia (Volga Germans) Savory A fried meat pie made with flat bread. A traditional Volga German dish, through immigration became an addition to the cuisine of North Dakota.
Flipper pie Canada Savory A meat pie made from young harp seal flippers.
Fried pie United States Sweet A small, fried pastry crust pie containing a fruit filling.
Gibanica The Balkans Savory A traditional Balkan pastry, usually made with white cheese (feta, sirene).
Grape hull pie United States Sweet A pie traditionally made with muscadine grapes and their skins.[citation needed]
Green grape pie United States Sweet A pie traditionally made with wild green grapes before seeds have formed in the spring, such as early May.
Homity pie United Kingdom Savory A traditional British, open vegetable pie. The pastry crust contains a filling of potatoes and an onion and leek mixture, which is then covered with cheese.
Hornazo Spain Savory A Spanish meat pie made with flour and yeast and stuffed with pork loin, spicy chorizo sausage and hard-boiled eggs.
Huckleberry pie United States[8] Sweet
Indian potato pie India[citation needed] Savory A spiced potato and sweet potato pie baked in a crust created from multiple layers of Filo pastry.[citation needed]
Jamaican patty Jamaica Savory A small, baked pastry coloured yellow with turmeric, usually filled with seasoned ground beef and with Scotch Bonnet pepper added for spice.
Kalakukko Finland (Savonia) Savory A loaf of bread filled with fish.
Karelian pasties Finland, Russia (Karelia) Savory Pasties made from a thin rye crust usually with a filling of rice, but originally the filling used to be mashed potatoes or barley.
Key lime pie United States (Florida) Sweet A pie made with key lime juice, egg yolks, and sweetened condensed milk in a crust.
Khachapuri Georgia Savory A cheese-filled bread dish.
Killie pie United Kingdom

(Kilmarnock, Scotland)

Savory A steak pie served at Kilmarnock F.C. football ground.
Knish Eastern Europe (Ashkenazi Jews) Savory Baked or fried dumpling made of flaky dough with filling of mashed potatoes, ground meat, sauerkraut, onions, kasha or cheese.
Kuchen Germany Sweet The generic term referring to "cake" in German.
Kurnik Russia Savory A dome-shaped savory Russian pirog, usually filled with chicken or turkey, eggs, onions, kasha or rice, and other optional components.
Lanttusupikas Finland Savory A double folded buttered flaky crust pie, filled with thin, braised swede slices and pork loin.[9]
Lemon ice box pie United States Sweet Lemon juice, eggs, and condensed milk in a pie crust,[10] with preparation very similar to that of key lime pie.
Lemon meringue pie United States Sweet A shortcrust or shortbread pastry with lemon curd filling and a fluffy meringue topping.
Manchester tart United Kingdom (England) Sweet A baked tart consisting of a shortcrust pastry shell, spread with raspberry jam, covered with a custard filling and topped with flakes of coconut and a Maraschino cherry.
Meat and potato pie Yorkshire, Lancashire, and Cumbria regions in the United Kingdom Savory Potato, either lamb or beef, and sometimes carrot or onion baked in a pastry shell.
Meat pie Worldwide Savory A preparation common especially to the UK and Commonwealth countries. Originally a way to stretch ingredients when quantities were not enough for a single meal. Usually made with a hot water crust.
Melktert South Africa Sweet A South African dessert consisting of a sweet pastry crust containing a creamy filling made from milk, flour, sugar and eggs.
Melton Mowbray pork pie United Kingdom (England) Savory A hand-formed crust pork pie made with uncured chopped rather than minced, meat.
Milk pie Indonesia (Bali) Sweet An Indonesian custard tart pastry consisting of a shortcrust pastry filled with egg custard and condensed milk.
Millionaire pie United States (Southern) Sweet A no-bake pie with whipped topping, pineapple, coconut, and pecans.
Mince pie United Kingdom Sweet A small British sweet pie traditionally served during the Christmas season; a sweet pastry case filled with currants, suet and spices. Centuries ago they contained meat, suet, and spices.
Mississippi mud pie United States (Southern) Sweet Dessert pie consisting of a gooey chocolate filling on top of a crumbly chocolate crust; usually served with ice cream.
Moravian chicken pie United States (North Carolina) Savory A traditional double crusted pie made with a flaky pastry filled with only chunks of chicken and a thick chicken broth-based sauce. Unlike chicken "pot pies", no vegetables are included in the filling. Served with hot chicken gravy on the side.
Mustard tart France Savory A pie made of puff pastry, Dijon mustard, Emmentaler or Gruyère cheese, sliced tomatoes and sprinkled with spices (herbes de Provence, salt and pepper).[citation needed]
Natchitoches meat pie United States (Louisiana) Savory Crescent-shaped, flaky wheat pastry turnover with a savory meat filling.
Neenish Tart Australia, New Zealand Sweet A tart made with a pastry base and with icing of two colours on top. The filling consists of sweet gelatine-set cream, mock cream, icing sugar paste, or a lemon-flavoured filling—most familiar to New Zealand residents—made from butter, icing sugar, sweetened condensed milk and lemon juice. The Australian version of the Pineapple tart is similar but is filled with pineapple jam and topped with passionfruit icing.
Russia (Volga region) Savory A triangular pastry, filled with minced beef, onion and potatoes. Considered a Tartar national dish.
Pască Romania, Moldova Sweet A traditional Easter pie filled with fresh cheese like urdă or cottage cheese. Other variants include sour cream, chocolate, or berries fillings.
Pastafrola Río de la Plata (Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay) Sweet A jam-filled tart with shortcrust pastry lattice. Fillings may include quince cheese, dulce de batata (sweet potato jam), dulce de leche, guava, or strawberry jam.[11]
Pastel de nata Portugal Sweet A custard tart made with egg yolk. Also known as pastél de Belém due to their geographic origin.
Pasty United Kingdom (England) Savory A traditional lunch food for Cornish miners. The claim that the rolled part of the crust was used as a handle and left uneaten where it was soiled with arsenic-laden ore from the miner's hand is a myth.[12] They are also popular in Canada and the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, United States due to Cornish migration.
Peach pie United States Sweet Prepared with peaches as the primary ingredient, with added spices such as nutmeg, ginger or cinnamon. May be strictly a fruit pie, or a custard based pie. Because peaches are a high moisture fruit and produce copious amounts of juice as they cook, peach pies often have a lattice top to allow steam to vent and prevent excessive liquid build-up during baking, which could result in a runny pie.[citation needed]
Peanut pie United States (Southern) Sweet Prepared with peanuts or peanut butter as a primary ingredient.
Pear tart France Sweet Typically Parisian, called tarte bourdaloue.[citation needed]
Pecan pie United States Sweet A pie made primarily of corn syrup or molasses and pecan nuts in a pie shell.
Pie à la mode United States (Minnesota) Sweet A pie with ice cream on top.
Pirog Russia, Ukraine Savory or sweet The generic term for pies and pasties in Eastern-Slavic cuisines. The filling for pirog may be sweet and contain quark or cottage cheese, fruits like apples, plums or various berries, as well as honey, nuts or poppy seeds. Savory versions may consist of meat, fish, mushrooms, cabbage, rice, buckwheat groats or potato.
pirozhok, piroshki
Russia, Ukraine Savory or sweet The generic word for individual-sized baked or fried buns (small pirogs) stuffed with a variety of fillings.
Pork pie United Kingdom Savory A traditional British meat pie consisting of roughly chopped pork and pork jelly sealed in a hot water crust pastry.
Pot pie United States Savory A savory pie made from pastry crust, usually served in individual containers. Normally made of a creamy sauce, turkey or chicken meat, carrots, peas, and pearl onions. This dish is sometimes served with rice.
Pumpkin pie United States Sweet A pumpkin-based custard flavored with nutmeg, cinnamon, cloves, and ginger, baked in a single pie shell. Sometimes the crust is a graham cracker crust or a pastry dough crust. Very common in the autumn and early winter holidays.
Quiche France Savory The generic term; pastry base and sides, with various chopped fillings set in an egg/milk mix.
Qumështor me Petë Albania Sweet A pie filled with apricots, plums, and honey.[citation needed]
Raisin pie Worldwide Sweet A pie in which the main ingredient is raisins.[citation needed]
Rappie pie Canada (Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island) Savory An Acadian dish, also known as râpure, consisting of grated potatoes, meat, onions, and soup stock.
Raspberry pie United States Sweet A pie filled with raspberries, sometimes topped with whipped cream.
Rhubarb pie United Kingdom Sweet A pie filled with diced rhubarb.
singara, sambusac, samsa
Indian Subcontinent, Central and Western Asia, North, South and Horn of Africa Savory A fried or baked pastry with a savory filling such as spiced potatoes, onions, peas, lentils, ground lamb or chicken, often accompanied by chutney.
Saskatoonberry pie Canada Sweet A pie filled with saskatoonberries.
Sausage roll United Kingdom Savory A long cylindrical roll of sausagemeat encased in flaky or puff pastry.
Scotch pie United Kingdom (Scotland) Savory A small, double-crust meat pie filled with minced mutton or other meat.
United Kingdom Savory A layered meat pie made with meat or fish, and is known to have been served to British sailors during the 18th century.
Sfiha Lebanon Savory An open-faced meat pie made with ground mutton.
Shaker lemon pie United States Sweet Thinly sliced lemons, sugar, and eggs in a crust, first made by the Shakers.
Shepherd's Pie United Kingdom Savory A roasted mutton or lamb cooked in pie dish lined with mashed potatoes, with a mashed potato crust on top. Also called "cottage pie", although in modern usage refers to a variation of shepherd's pie made with beef rather than lamb or mutton.
Shoofly pie United States (Pennsylvania Dutch Country) Sweet A molasses pie common to Pennsylvania and the Delaware Valley.
Soparnik Croatia Savory A pie with a filling of chard, chives (or young onion leaves), parsley, olive oil and garlic.
Southern tomato pie United States Savory A savory dish consisting of a pie shell with a filling of tomatoes (sometimes with basil or other herbs), covered with a topping of grated cheese mixed with either mayonnaise or a white sauce.[13][14]
spinach pie
Greece Savory A pie with a filling of chopped spinach, feta cheese, onions and eggs.
pīrāgi or pīrādziņi
Latvia Savory An oblong or crescent-shaped baked bread roll or pastry filled with finely chopped fatty bacon cubes and onions.
Stargazy pie United Kingdom (England) Savory A Cornish dish made of baked pilchards, along with eggs and potatoes, covered with a pastry crust; the fish heads (and sometimes tails) are baked protruding through the crust, thus appearing to be gazing skyward.
Steak and kidney pie United Kingdom Savory A pie filled with a mixture of diced beef, diced kidney (often of ox, lamb, or pork), fried onion, and brown gravy.
Steak pie United Kingdom Savory A meat pie made from stewing steak and beef gravy, enclosed in a pastry shell.
Strawberry pie United States Sweet A pie filled with strawberries, sometimes topped with whipped cream.
Strawberry rhubarb pie United States (New England) Sweet A pie filled with strawberries and rhubarb, usually with a lattice-style crust on top.
Sugar cream pie United States Sweet A single-crust pie with a filling made from flour, butter, salt, vanilla, and cream, with brown sugar or maple syrup
Sweet potato pie[15] United States Sweet A large tart in an open pie shell without a top crust, with a filling consisting of mashed sweet potatoes, milk, sugar and eggs, flavored with spices such as nutmeg.
Tamale pie United States, Mexico Savory A meat pie with a cornmeal crust and typical Mexican tamale fillings arranged in several layers. The meat is traditionally ground beef.
Tarta capuchina Spain Sweet A pie or cake made mainly with egg yolk and syrup. The pie or "cake" is usually presented in a cylindrical or rectangle shape, depending on the mold.
Tarta de Santiago Spain Sweet A cake or pie with a filling of ground almonds, eggs and sugar. The top of the pie is usually decorated with powdered sugar, masked by an imprint of the Cross of Saint James (cruz de Santiago) which gives the pastry its name.
Tarte conversation France Sweet A tart made with puff pastry that is filled with a frangipane cream and topped with royal icing.
Greek cheese pie
Greece Savory A pie made with layers of buttered filo (alternatively, thick pastry or puff-pastry) and filled with a cheese-egg mixture.
Tocinillo de cielo [es] Spain Sweet A dessert made from yolk egg and caramelized sugar that is compact and bright yellow. The tradition places its origin in Jerez de la Frontera more than 500 years ago.
Tourtière Canada (Quebec) Savory A meat pie[16] originating from Quebec, usually made with finely diced pork, veal, beef, fish, or wild game.
Treacle tart United Kingdom Sweet A shortcrust pastry with a thick filling of golden syrup, breadcrumbs, and lemon juice.
Vlaai Netherlands Sweet A pie or tart consisting of a pastry and a filling of either fruit, a crumbled butter and sugar mix, or a cooked rice and custard porridge.
Västerbotten pie Sweden Savory A pie filled with a mixture of Västerbotten cheese, cream and eggs.[citation needed]
Walnut pie United States Sweet A pie prepared using walnuts as a main ingredient.
Watalappam Sri Lanka Sweet A coconut custard pudding made of coconut milk or condensed milk, jaggery, cashew nuts, eggs, and various spices, including cardamom, cloves, and nutmeg.
Wähe[17] Switzerland Savory or sweet A flat pie or cake prepared with short pastry and a topping of either fruits, vegetables, or cheese.
Woolton pie[18] United Kingdom Savory A pie filled with vegetables such as potatoes or parsnips, cauliflower, swede, carrots, and turnips, topped with potato pastry, grated cheese, and served with vegetable gravy.
Whoopie pie Whoopie pie United States Sweet An American baked product that may be considered either a cookie, pie or cake. It is made of two round mound-shaped pieces of chocolate cake, or sometimes pumpkin or gingerbread cake, with a sweet, creamy filling or frosting sandwiched between them.
Yau gok China Savory or sweet A traditional pastry in Cantonese cuisine, eaten during the Lunar New Year. The sweet version has a filling of peanuts and sesame seeds, while the savory version contains meat and vegetables.
Zelnik North Macedonia Savory A pastry composed of thin layers of filo dough filled with combinations of sirene, eggs, spinach, sorrel, browned meat, leeks, rice, and brined cabbage.

See also


  1. ^ Aloo Pie (Trinidad) Archived 2013-02-07 at the Wayback Machine Accessed February 6, 2008.
  2. ^ Phillips, Jock (13 July 2012). "Bicultural New Zealand". The New Zealanders. Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Ministry for Culture and Heritage (New Zealand). Archived from the original on 2014-07-24.
  3. ^ Kane, Adrienne (5 June 2012). United States of Pie: Regional Favorites from East to West and North to South. Harper Collins. ISBN 9780062064080 – via Google Books.
  4. ^ a b "banoffee" – via The Free Dictionary.
  5. ^ Allen, Beth (23 April 2018). Good Housekeeping Great American Classics Cookbook. Hearst Books. ISBN 9781588162809 – via Google Books.
  6. ^ Sokolov, Raymond (1 November 2003). The Cook's Canon: 101 Classic Recipes Everyone Should Know. Harper Collins. p. 53. ISBN 9780060083908 – via Internet Archive. Coulibiac.
  7. ^ Jung, Susan (2 October 2011). "Affair of the tart". SCMP. South China Morning Post. Retrieved 8 April 2014.
  8. ^ "Huckleberry Pie". Retrieved 5 January 2023.
  9. ^ "Suomalaisista piirakoista yleensä". (in Finnish). Archived from the original on January 5, 2005. Retrieved December 2, 2017.
  10. ^ Foose, Martha Hall (20 October 2010). Screen Doors and Sweet Tea: Recipes and Tales from a Southern Cook. Potter/TenSpeed/Harmony. ISBN 9780307885555 – via Google Books.
  11. ^ pastaflora (in Spanish). Diccionario de la lengua española (22.ª edición), Real Academia Española (2001).
  12. ^ "Historian claims miners didn't actually use pasty crust as a handle". 7 April 2020.
  13. ^ Deen, Paula. "Tomato Pie Recipe". Food Network. Retrieved 24 November 2015.
  14. ^ Crain, Eula (2011). Best of the Best, from Southern Coastal Ladies. PublishAmerica. ISBN 9781456085827. Retrieved November 24, 2015.
  15. ^ "Ebony". Johnson Publishing Company. 1 January 1984 – via Google Books.
  16. ^ Clark, Edie (2010), "Best Cook: Meat Pie French Canadian meat pies are a family legacy", Yankee Magazine
  17. ^ "Früchtewähen / Gâteaux aux fruits / Torte di frutta". In the data base of Culinary Heritage of Switzerland.
  18. ^ "Woolton pie creator dies", The Times, London, 17 August 1966, p.1.