Dijon mustard
A teaspoon of Dijon mustard
Place of originFrance
Region or stateBurgundy
Main ingredientsMustard seeds, white wine or wine vinegar, water, salt
Similar dishesCreole mustard, Kasundi
A jar of Maille brand Dijon mustard

Dijon mustard (French: Moutarde de Dijon) is a traditional mustard of France, named after the city of Dijon in Burgundy, France, which was the center of mustard making in the late Middle Ages and was granted exclusive rights in France in the 17th century.[1] First used in 1336 for the table of King Philip VI,[2] it assumed its current form in 1856 when Jean Naigeon of Dijon replaced the vinegar usually used in prepared mustard with verjuice, the acidic juice of unripe grapes.[3]

The main ingredients of the modern condiment are brown mustard seeds (Brassica juncea) and a mixture of white wine, vinegar, water, and salt designed to imitate the original verjuice.[4][5][6] It can be used as an accompaniment to all meats in its usual form as a paste, or it can be mixed with other ingredients to make a sauce.[7]

Commercial production

In 2008, the Anglo-Dutch group Unilever, which had several mustard plants in Europe, closed the Amora manufacturing plant. Since July 15 2009, Amora's Dijon mustard is no longer manufactured and packaged in the town of Dijon, but in the neighbouring town of Chevigny-Saint-Sauveur.[8] The Grey Poupon mustard brand available in the United States originated in Dijon in 1866.[9]

2022 shortage in France

France requires 35,000 tonnes of mustard seed to make Dijon mustard and 80% of the seed is imported from Canada, mainly from Alberta and Saskatchewan where most of Canada's mustard seeds are grown.[10][11] There was a smaller crop in 2022 in the Canadian production caused by a heatwave, attributable to climate change.[10] The 2022 drought resulted in halving their usual harvest.[12] The 2022 shortage was exacerbated by stockpiling by consumers.[13]

Geographical indications

Dijon mustard does not have a protected geographical indication (PGI). A 1937 decree ruled that "Dijon mustard" can be used as generic designation and has no link to a specific terroir.[14] However, "moutarde de Bourgogne" has a PGI and its seeds have to be produced in Bourgogne.[15]

See also


  1. ^ Carrier, Robert (1981). Robert Carrier's Kitchen. London: Marshall and Cavendish. p. 2377.
  2. ^ "The Dijon Mustard". Regions of France. Retrieved 18 May 2016.
  3. ^ Jack E. Staub, Ellen Buchert (18 August 2008). 75 Exceptional Herbs for Your Garden. Gibbs Smith. p. 170. ISBN 9781423608776.
  4. ^ Lund, B.; Baird-Parker, T.C.; Gould, G.W. (2000). Microbiological Safety and Quality of Food. The Microbiological Safety and Quality of Food. Springer. p. 823. ISBN 978-0-8342-1323-4. Retrieved 4 June 2016.
  5. ^ "The Difference Between Dijon and Yellow Mustard". fitday.com.
  6. ^ "Just don't call it French mustard". connexionfrance.com. January 2009.
  7. ^ Blumenthal, Heston. "The Essential flourless Mustard Sauce". Masterchef Australia. Tenplay. Retrieved 19 May 2016.
  8. ^ Manzella, Luisa (13 July 2009). "Amora Dijon ferme définitivement ses portes après deux siècles d'activité" (in French). Retrieved 18 May 2016.
  9. ^ Lee, Laura (2001). The Name's Familiar II. ISBN 9781455609178.
  10. ^ a b Cohen, Roger (14 July 2022). "France Faces a Shortage of Mustard, Its Uniquely Beloved Condiment". The New York Times. Retrieved 10 August 2022.
  11. ^ "La moutarde de Dijon vient du Canada". www.journaldunet.com (in French). 21 July 2010. Retrieved 2016-05-18.
  12. ^ "Why there is a shortage of Dijon mustard in France". The Economist. ISSN 0013-0613. Retrieved 2023-06-30.
  13. ^ Torsoli, Albertina (10 August 2022). "French Shoppers Face Up to Life Without Dijon Mustard". Bloomberg.com. Retrieved 10 August 2022.
  14. ^ Figaro, Madame (2018-02-22). "Camembert, moutarde de Dijon, jambon Aoste, champignons de Paris... 7 "faux" produits du terroir passés au crible". Madame Figaro. Retrieved 2021-08-01.
  15. ^ "Fiche produit". www.inao.gouv.fr. Retrieved 2021-08-01.