|Alternative names||Harif, ma'booj, sahawiq, sahowqa, skhug|
|Place of origin||Yemen|
|Main ingredients||Hot peppers, garlic, coriander|
|Variations||Red skhug, green skhug, brown skhug|
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Zhug (from Judeo-Yemenite Arabic سحوق or זחוק IPA: [zħuːq] through Hebrew: סְחוּג, romanized: s'ḥug), sahawiq (Yemeni Arabic: سَحاوِق, IPA: [saħaːwiq]) or bisbas (ِArabic: بسباس) is a hot sauce originating in Yemeni cuisine. In other countries of the Arabian Peninsula it is also called mabooj (Arabic: معبوج).
The word sahawiq [saħaːwiq] comes from the Arabic root (s-ḥ-q) which means to pestle or to crush. Formally, it is a plural form. In Judeo-Yemenite Arabic a corresponding singular form is more common, سحوق [zħuːq], from which the Hebrew name [sħug] was derived.
Varieties in Yemen include sahawiq akhdar (green sahawiq), sahawiq ahmar (red sahawiq), and sahawiq bel-jiben (sahawiq with cheese, usually Yemeni cheese). Sahawiq is one of the main ingredients of saltah. Wazif (traditional Yemeni dried baby sardines) is sometimes added to the sahawiq's ingredients and it is known as sahawiq wazif (Arabic: سحاوق وزف).
In Israel, one can find skhug adom ("red zhug"), skhug yarok ("green zhug") and skhug khum ("brown zhug"), which has added tomatoes. Red zhug is made with red peppers while green zhug is made with green peppers, or jalapeños. Zhug may be referred to by the generic term harif (Hebrew: חריף; lit. "hot/spicy"). Also known as zhoug, it is a popular condiment at Israeli falafel and shawarma stands, and served with hummus.
Zhug is made from fresh red or green hot peppers (like jalapeño) seasoned with coriander, garlic, salt, black cumin (optional) and parsley, and then mixed with olive oil. Some also add lemon juice, caraway seed, cardamom, and black pepper.
Traditional Yemeni cooks prepare sahawiq using two stones: a large stone called marha' (مرهى) used as a work surface and a smaller one called wdi (ودي) for crushing the ingredients. Alternative options are a mortar and pestle or a food processor. Yemenis sometimes add Pulicaria jaubertii.
Red, green, and smoked zhug
Skhug and its ingredients
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