Couscous
Cuscus.jpg
Couscous served with vegetables and chickpeas
Alternative namesKesksou, Seksu, Ta'aam, Barboucha, Aberbouch, Taberbouchet
CourseMain course, side dish or dessert
Place of origin
Main ingredientsSemolina
VariationsMoghrabieh, maftoul
Food energy
(per 1/4 cup, dry serving)
150 kcal (628 kJ)[1]
Nutritional value
(per 1/4 cup, dry serving)
Proteing
Fatg
Carbohydrate30 g

Couscous (Arabic: كُسْكُس kuskus; Berber languages: ⵙⴽⵙⵓ, romanized: Seksu) – sometimes called kusksi or kseksu – is a Maghrebi dish[2][3] of small[a] steamed granules of rolled durum wheat semolina[4] that is often served with a stew spooned on top. Pearl millet, sorghum, bulgur, and other cereals are sometimes cooked in a similar way in other regions, and the resulting dishes are also sometimes called couscous.[5][6]: 18 [7]

Couscous is a staple food throughout the Maghrebi cuisines of Algeria, Tunisia, Mauritania, Morocco, and Libya.[8][9]: 250  It was integrated into French and European cuisine at the beginning of the twentieth century, through the French colonial empire and the Pieds-Noirs of Algeria.[10][11][12] In 2020, couscous was added to UNESCO's Intangible Cultural Heritage list.[13]

Etymology

The word couscous (alternately cuscus or kuskus) was first noted in early 17th century French, from Arabic kuskus, from kaskasa ‘to pound’, and is probably of Berber origin.[14][15][16] The exact formation of the word presents some obscurities.[14] The Berber root *KS means "well formed, well rolled, rounded".[14][15] Numerous names and pronunciations for couscous exist around the world.[17]: 919 

History

Algerian couscous from Kabylia
Algerian couscous from Kabylia

It is unclear when couscous originated. Food historian Lucie Bolens believes couscous originated millennia ago, during the reign of Masinissa in the ancient kingdom of Numidia in present-day Algeria.[18][19][20][21] Traces of cooking vessels akin to couscoussiers have been found in graves from the 3rd century BC, from the time of the berber kings of Numidia, in the city of Tiaret, Algeria.[22]

According to food writer Charles Perry, couscous originated among the Berbers of Algeria and Morocco between the end of the 11th-century Zirid dynasty, modern-day Algeria, and the rise of the 13th-century Almohad Caliphate.[16] The historian Hady Idris noted that couscous is attested to during the Hafsid dynasty, but not the Zirid dynasty.[16]

In the twelfth century, Maghrebi cooks were preparing dishes of non-mushy grains by stirring flour with water to create light, round balls of couscous dough that could be steamed.[23]

The historian Maxime Rodinson found three recipes for couscous from the 13th-century Arabic cookbook Kitab al-Wusla ila al-Habib, written by an Ayyubid author,[16] and the anonymous Arabic cooking book Kitab al tabikh and Ibn Razin al-Tujibi's Fadalat al-khiwan also contain recipes.[21]

Couscous is believed to have been spread among the inhabitants of the Iberian Peninsula by the Berber dynasties of the thirteenth century, though it is not found in traditional Spanish or Portuguese cuisine anymore. In modern-day Trapani, Sicily the dish is still made to the medieval recipe of Andalusian author Ibn Razin al-Tujibi. Ligurian families that moved from Tabarka to Sardinia brought the dish with them to Carloforte in the 18th century.[24]

Known in France since the 16th century, it was brought into French cuisine at the beginning of the 20th century, via the French colonial empire and the Pieds-Noirs of Algeria.

Preparation

Brown couscous with vegetables in Tunisia
Brown couscous with vegetables in Tunisia

Couscous is traditionally made from semolina, the hardest part of the grain of durum wheat (the hardest of all forms of wheat), which resists the grinding of the millstone. The semolina is sprinkled with water and rolled with the hands to form small pellets, sprinkled with dry flour to keep them separate, and then sieved. Any pellets that are too small to be finished granules of couscous fall through the sieve and are again rolled and sprinkled with dry semolina and rolled into pellets. This labor-intensive process continues until all the semolina has been formed into tiny granules of couscous. In the traditional method of preparing couscous, groups of people come together to make large batches over several days, which are then dried in the sun and used for several months. Handmade couscous may need to be re-hydrated as it is prepared; this is achieved by a process of moistening and steaming over stew until the couscous reaches the desired light and fluffy consistency.[25]

In some regions couscous is made from farina or coarsely ground barley or pearl millet.

A kiskas (French: couscoussier), a traditional steamer for couscous.
A kiskas (French: couscoussier), a traditional steamer for couscous.

In modern times, couscous production is largely mechanized, and the product is sold in markets around the world. This couscous can be sauteed before it is cooked in water or another liquid.[25] Properly cooked couscous is light and fluffy, not gummy or gritty.

Traditionally, North Africans use a food steamer (called ataseksut in the Berber language, a كِسْكَاس kiskas in the Arabic language or a couscoussier in the French language). The base is a tall metal pot shaped something like an oil jar, in which the meat and vegetables are cooked as a stew. On top of the base, a steamer sits where the couscous is cooked, absorbing the flavours from the stew. The lid to the steamer has holes around its edge so steam can escape. It is also possible to use a pot with a steamer insert. If the holes are too big, the steamer can be lined with damp cheesecloth. There is little archaeological evidence of early diets (including couscous), possibly because the original couscoussier may have been made from organic materials that could not survive extended exposure to the elements.

The couscous that is sold in most Western grocery stores is usually pre-steamed and dried. It is typically prepared by adding 1.5 measures of boiling water or stock to each measure of couscous then leaving covered tightly for about five minutes. Pre-steamed couscous takes less time to prepare than regular couscous, most dried pasta, or dried grains (such as rice). Packaged sets of quick-preparation couscous and canned vegetables, and generally meat, are routinely sold in European grocery stores and supermarkets. Couscous is widely consumed in France, where it was introduced by Maghreb immigrants[26] and voted the third most popular dish in a 2011 survey.[27][28]

Recognition

In December 2020, Algeria, Mauritania, Morocco and Tunisia obtained official recognition for the knowledge, know-how and practices pertaining to the production and consumption of couscous on the Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity by UNESCO. The joint submission by the four countries was hailed as an "example of international cooperation".[29][30]

Local variations

Moroccan couscous with tfaya and roasted chicken.
Moroccan couscous with tfaya and roasted chicken.

Couscous proper is about 2 mm in diameter, but there also exist a larger variety (3 mm more) that is known as Berkoukes, as well as an ultra fine version (around 1 mm).[16] In Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, and Libya, it is generally served with vegetables (carrots, potatoes, and turnips) cooked in a spicy or mild broth or stew, usually with some meat (generally, chicken, lamb, or mutton).

Couscous with vegetables, meat, and tfaya.
Couscous with vegetables, meat, and tfaya.

Algeria and Morocco

Algerian Couscous from Biskra
Algerian Couscous from Biskra

Algerian couscous can also include tomatoes and legumes. Moroccan couscous uses saffron. In both Algeria and Morocco, couscous may be served at the end of a meal or by itself in a dish called "sfouff". Along the Mediterranean coast of Algeria and Morocco, an ultra-fine (2 millimetres (0.079 in) in diameter) grade of couscous, known as seffa or mesfuf, is also produced.[16]

Couscous might also be served as a dessert, for which the couscous is usually steamed several times until it is fluffy and pale in color. It is then sprinkled with almonds, cinnamon and sugar. Traditionally, this dessert is either served with milk perfumed with orange flower water, or served plain with buttermilk in a bowl as a cold light soup for supper.[21]

Tunisia

Fish couscous from Tunisia
Fish couscous from Tunisia

In Tunisia, couscous is usually spicy, made with harissa sauce and served commonly with any dish, including lamb, fish, seafood, beef and sometimes (in southern regions) camel. Fish couscous is a Tunisian specialty and can also be made with octopus, squid or other seafood in a hot, red, spicy sauce.

Libya

In Libya, couscous is mostly served with lamb (but sometimes camel meat or, rarely, beef) in Tripoli and the western parts of Libya, but not during official ceremonies or weddings. Another way to eat couscous is as a dessert; it is prepared with dates, sesame, and pure honey, and locally referred to as maghrood.

Mauritania

In Mauritania, the couscous uses large wheat grains (mabroum) and is darker than the yellow couscous of Morocco. It is cooked with lamb, beef, or camel meat together with vegetables, primarily onion, tomato and carrots, then mixed with a sauce and served with ghee, locally known as dhen.

Similar foods

Couscous is made from crushed wheat flour rolled into its constituent granules or pearls, making it distinct from pasta, even pasta such as orzo and risoni of similar size, which is made from ground wheat and either molded or extruded. Couscous and pasta have similar nutritional value, although pasta is usually more refined.[4]

Several dishes from all over the world are also made from granules, like those of couscous rolled from flour from grains or other milled or grated starchy crops.

Maftoul, a Palestinian variety of couscous that is made with bulgur.
Maftoul, a Palestinian variety of couscous that is made with bulgur.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Usually about 2 millimetres (0.079 in) in diameter, though a finer (1 mm) and larger varieties (3 mm or more) also exist in North Africa.

References

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