Shakshouka
Shakshouka in a cast iron pan
Alternative namesShakshuka, chakchouka
Place of originDisputed; Maghreb, Ottoman Empire or Yemen

Shakshouka (Arabic: شكشوكة‎, also spelled shakshuka or chakchouka) is a Maghrebi dish of eggs poached in a sauce of tomatoes, olive oil, peppers, onion and garlic, and commonly spiced with cumin, paprika, cayenne pepper, and nutmeg. According to Joan Nathan, shakshouka originated in Ottoman North Africa in the mid-16th century after tomatoes were introduced to the region by Hernan Cortés as part of the Columbian exchange.[1]

Etymology

The word shakshouka (Arabic: شَكْشُوكَةٌ‎) is Maghrebi Arabic[2] for "a mixture".[3][4][5][6]

History

According to Gil Marks, an earlier Ottoman vegetable and meat stew was also called şakşuka. Tomatoes and peppers were New World ingredients and became common ingredients in later centuries. Marks says that Jews in the Ottoman Maghreb created a vegetarian version of the stew to make it pareve. Tunisian Jews have been recognized for making spicy versions of egg shakshouka.[7] The dish was brought to Israel by Maghrebi Jews, where it was widely adopted.[8][7]

The origin of the dish remains a matter of some controversy with competing claims of Moroccan, Tunisian, Turkish, and Yemeni origins.[9] The dish has been part of Sephardic cuisine for centuries.[7]

Variations

Individual portion of shakshouka
Individual portion of shakshouka

Many variations of the basic sauce are possible, varying in spice and sweetness. Some cooks add preserved lemon, salty sheep milk cheeses, olives, harissa or a spicy sausage such as chorizo or merguez.[10]

Some variations of shakshouka can be made with lamb mince, toasted whole spices, yogurt and fresh herbs.[11] Spices can include ground coriander, caraway, paprika, cumin and cayenne pepper.[12][13] Tunisian cooks may add potatoes, broad beans, artichoke hearts or courgettes to the dish.[14] The North African dish matbukha can be used as a base for shakshouka.[15]

Shakshouka is made with eggs which are commonly poached but can also be scrambled like the Turkish menemen.[8][7] A shakhsouka made with a kosher version of Spam (called loof) was added to IDF army rations in the 1950s.[16][17] Because eggs are the main ingredient, it is often on breakfast menus in English-speaking countries, but in the Arab world as well as Israel, it is also a popular evening meal,[18] and like hummus and falafel, is a Levantine regional favorite.[9] On the side, pickled vegetables and North African sausage called merguez might be served, or simply bread, with mint tea.[19]

In Andalusian cuisine, the dish is known as huevos a la flamenca; this version includes chorizo and serrano ham.[20]

in Italian cuisine, there is a version of this dish called uova in purgatorio (eggs in purgatory) with tomato paste, anchovy, garlic and parsley and sometime parmesan cheese [21]

Meals and customs

In Israel shakshouka is served, not only as a breakfast food, but also for lunch or dinner. It can be served as part of a mezze platter with arak and other appetizers. It is part of the Israeli breakfast offering at some Israeli hotels and kibbutzim. Sometimes a large batch of tomato stew is made for the Sabbath dinner and the leftovers used the following morning to make a breakfast shakshouka with eggs.[7]

See also

References

  1. ^ Nathan, Joan (2017). A Culinary Exploration of Jewish Cooking from Around the World: A Cookbook. p. 16. Shakshuka was born in Ottoman North Africa in the mid-sixteenth century
  2. ^ Ellis, Robin (2016-03-03). Mediterranean Cooking for Diabetics: Delicious Dishes to Control or Avoid Diabetes. Little, Brown Book Group. ISBN 9781472136381. Archived from the original on 2017-11-16. Retrieved 2017-11-15.
  3. ^ Ly, Linda (2015-03-20). The CSA Cookbook: No-Waste Recipes for Cooking Your Way Through a Community Supported Agriculture Box, Farmers' Market, Or Backyard Bounty. Voyageur Press. ISBN 9780760347294. Archived from the original on 2017-11-16. Retrieved 2017-11-15.
  4. ^ Planet, Lonely (2017-03-01). The World's Best Superfoods. Lonely Planet. ISBN 9781787010369. Archived from the original on 2017-11-16. Retrieved 2017-11-15.
  5. ^ Bilderback, Leslie (2015-09-01). Mug Meals: More Than 100 No-Fuss Ways to Make a Delicious Microwave Meal in Minutes. St. Martin's Press. ISBN 9781466875210. Archived from the original on 2017-11-16. Retrieved 2017-11-15.
  6. ^ Jakob, Ben. "How Shakshuka,, Took the World By Storm". Culture Trip. Archived from the original on 2017-11-16. Retrieved 2017-11-15.
  7. ^ a b c d e Gil Marks, Encyclopedia of Jewish Food, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2010, ISBN 9780470391303, s.v., p. 547
  8. ^ a b Artzeinu: An Israel Encounter, By Joel Lurie Grishaver, 2008
  9. ^ a b Josephs, Bernard (2009-10-08). "Shakshuka: Israel's hottest breakfast dish". The Jewish Chronicle. Archived from the original on 2017-08-08. Retrieved 2017-08-07.
  10. ^ "Shakshuka recipe". The Guardian. February 18, 2012.
  11. ^ Gordon, Peter (2018-06-03). "Peter Gordon's lamb shakshouka recipe". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2018-07-21.
  12. ^ "Shakshouka Recipe - Tunisian Recipes". PBS Food. 2015-03-12. Retrieved 2018-07-21.
  13. ^ Clark, Melissa. "Shakshuka With Feta Recipe". NYT Cooking. Retrieved 2018-07-21.
  14. ^ Claudia Roden (1996). The Book of Jewish Food: An Odyssey from Samarkand to New York. Knopf. p. 512. ISBN 9780394532585.
  15. ^ Gur, Janna (2014). Jewish Soul Food: From Minsk to Marrakesh.
  16. ^ Steinberg, Jessica (20 November 2012). "The rationale behind the rations". The Times of Israel.
  17. ^ Raviv, Yael (November 2015). Falafel Nation: Cuisine and the Making of National Identity in Israel. University of Nebraska Press. p. 171. ISBN 978-0-8032-9023-5.
  18. ^ Clifford-smith, Stephanie (2011-06-07). "Three of a kind ... shakshouka". Sydney Morning Herald. Archived from the original on 2017-08-08. Retrieved 2017-08-07.
  19. ^ Ashkenazi, Michael (2020). Food Cultures of Israel: Recipes, Customs, and Issues. p. 89.
  20. ^ Tish, Ben (2019). Moorish: Vibrant Recipes from the Mediterranean. Bloomsbury. p. 46.
  21. ^ "Eggs in Purgatory Recipe". NYT Cooking. Retrieved 2021-04-14.