|Alternative names||Shakshuka, chakchouka|
|Place of origin||Disputed; Maghreb, Ottoman Empire or Yemen|
Shakshouka (Arabic: شكشوكة, also spelled shakshuka or chakchouka) is a Maghrebi dish of eggs poached in a sauce of tomatoes, olive oil, peppers, onion and garlic, and commonly spiced with cumin, paprika, cayenne pepper, and nutmeg. According to Joan Nathan, shakshouka originated in Ottoman North Africa in the mid-16th century after tomatoes were introduced to the region by Hernan Cortés as part of the Columbian exchange.
The word shakshouka (Arabic: شَكْشُوكَةٌ) is Maghrebi Arabic for "a mixture".
According to Gil Marks, an earlier Ottoman vegetable and meat stew was also called şakşuka. Tomatoes and peppers were New World ingredients and became common ingredients in later centuries. Marks says that Jews in the Ottoman Maghreb created a vegetarian version of the stew to make it pareve. Tunisian Jews have been recognized for making spicy versions of egg shakshouka. The dish was brought to Israel by Maghrebi Jews, where it was widely adopted.
The origin of the dish remains a matter of some controversy with competing claims of Moroccan, Tunisian, Turkish, and Yemeni origins. The dish has been part of Sephardic cuisine for centuries.
Many variations of the basic sauce are possible, varying in spice and sweetness. Some cooks add preserved lemon, salty sheep milk cheeses, olives, harissa or a spicy sausage such as chorizo or merguez.
Some variations of shakshouka can be made with lamb mince, toasted whole spices, yogurt and fresh herbs. Spices can include ground coriander, caraway, paprika, cumin and cayenne pepper. Tunisian cooks may add potatoes, broad beans, artichoke hearts or courgettes to the dish. The North African dish matbukha can be used as a base for shakshouka.
Shakshouka is made with eggs which are commonly poached but can also be scrambled like the Turkish menemen. A shakhsouka made with a kosher version of Spam (called loof) was added to IDF army rations in the 1950s. Because eggs are the main ingredient, it is often on breakfast menus in English-speaking countries, but in the Arab world as well as Israel, it is also a popular evening meal, and like hummus and falafel, is a Levantine regional favorite. On the side, pickled vegetables and North African sausage called merguez might be served, or simply bread, with mint tea.
In Andalusian cuisine, the dish is known as huevos a la flamenca; this version includes chorizo and serrano ham.
in Italian cuisine, there is a version of this dish called uova in purgatorio (eggs in purgatory) with tomato paste, anchovy, garlic and parsley and sometime parmesan cheese 
In Israel shakshouka is served, not only as a breakfast food, but also for lunch or dinner. It can be served as part of a mezze platter with arak and other appetizers. It is part of the Israeli breakfast offering at some Israeli hotels and kibbutzim. Sometimes a large batch of tomato stew is made for the Sabbath dinner and the leftovers used the following morning to make a breakfast shakshouka with eggs.
Shakshuka was born in Ottoman North Africa in the mid-sixteenth century