Pistachio baklava from Gaziantep, Turkey
Place of originOttoman Empire
Serving temperatureCold, room temperature or re-warmed
Main ingredientsFilo pastry, nuts, syrup

Baklava (/bɑːkləˈvɑː, ˈbɑːkləvɑː/,[1] or /bəˈklɑːvə/;[2] Ottoman Turkish: باقلوا listen ) is a layered pastry dessert made of filo pastry, filled with chopped nuts, and sweetened with syrup or honey. It was one of the most popular sweet pastries of Ottoman cuisine.[3]

The pre-Ottoman origin of the dish is unknown, but, in modern times, it is a common dessert of Turkish, Iranian and Arab cuisines, and other countries of the Levant and Maghreb, along with the South Caucasus, Greece, Balkans, Somalia and Central Asia.


The word "baklava" is first attested in English in 1650,[4] a borrowing from Ottoman Turkish: باقلاوه /bɑːklɑvɑː/.[5][6] The name baklava is used in many languages with minor phonetic and spelling variations.

Historian Paul D. Buell argues that the word "baklava" may come from the Mongolian root baγla- 'to tie, wrap up, pile up' composed with the Turkic verbal ending -v;[7] baγla- itself in Mongolian is a Turkic loanword.[8] Sevan Nişanyan considers its oldest known forms (pre-1500) to be baklağı and baklağu, and labels it as being of Proto-Turkic origin.[9] Another form of the word is also recorded in Persian, باقلبا (bāqlabā).[10] Though the suffix -vā might suggest a Persian origin,[11][12] the baqla- part does not appear to be Persian and remains of unknown origin.[13] Linguist Tuncer Gülensoy states that the origin of baklava is bakl-ı (feed) in proto-Turkish and suffixes -la-ğı are added. The word changes as bakılağı > bakılavı > baklava.[14]

The Arabic name بقلاوة baqlāwa likely originates from Turkish.[15]


Although the history of baklava is not well documented, its current form was probably developed in the imperial kitchens of the Topkapı Palace in Constantinople (modern Istanbul).[16][17] The Sultan presented trays of baklava to the Janissaries every 15th of the month of Ramadan in a ceremonial procession called the Baklava Alayı.[18][19]

The three main proposals for the pre-Ottoman roots of baklava are the Ancient Roman placenta cake,[20] the Central Asian Turkic tradition of layered desserts,[16] and the lauzinaj.[18] There are also claims attributing baklava to the Assyrians, according to which baklava was already prepared by them in the 8th century BC.[21][22]

There are also some similarities between baklava and the Ancient Greek desserts gastris (γάστρις),[23] kopte sesamis (κοπτὴ σησαμίς), and kopton (κοπτόν) found in book XIV of the Deipnosophistae.[24][25] However, the recipe there is for a filling of nuts and honey, with a top and bottom layer of honey and ground sesame similar to modern pasteli or halva, and no dough, certainly not a flaky dough.[26]

Another recipe for a similar dessert is güllaç, a dessert found in Turkish cuisine and considered by some as the origin of baklava.[27] It consists of layers of filo dough that are put one by one in warmed up milk with sugar. It is served with walnut and fresh pomegranate and generally eaten during Ramadan. The first known documentation of güllaç is attested in a food and health manual, written in 1330 that documents Mongol foods called Yinshan Zhengyao (飮膳正要, Important Principles of Food and Drink), written by Hu Sihui, an ethnic Mongol court dietitian of the Yuan dynasty.[7]

Placenta cake theory

The earliest known recipe from the 2nd century BC that resembles baklava is Ancient Roman placenta cake, a honey-covered baked layered-dough dessert which food historian Patrick Faas identifies as the origin of baklava. Faas writes, "The Greeks and the Turks still argue over which dishes were originally Greek and which Turkish. Baklava, for example, is claimed by both countries. Greek and Turkish cuisine both built upon the cookery of the Byzantine Empire, which was a continuation of the cooking of the Roman Empire. Roman cuisine had borrowed a great deal from the ancient Greeks, but placenta (and hence baklava) had a Latin, not a Greek, origin—please note that the conservative, anti-Greek Cato left us this recipe."[20][28]

Cato's original recipe for placenta follows:

Shape the placenta as follows: place a single row of tracta along the whole length of the base dough. This is then covered with the mixture [cheese and honey] from the mortar. Place another row of tracta on top and go on doing so until all the cheese and honey have been used up. Finish with a layer of tracta. ... place the placenta in the oven and put a preheated lid on top of it ... When ready, honey is poured over the placenta.

— Cato the Elder, De Agri Cultura 160 BC[20]

Historian Andrew Dalby speculates as to why Cato's section on bread and cakes, which he[who?] describes as "recipes in a Greek tradition", are included in De Agricultura: "Possibly Cato included them so that the owner and guests might be entertained when visiting the farm; possibly so that proper offerings might be made to the gods; more likely, I believe, so that profitable sales might be made at a neighbouring market."[29]

The word "placenta" originally comes from the Greek language plakous (πλακοῦς), which means something "flat and broad".[30][31] Although there are no surviving recipes for Greek plakous, the term is known from the work of comic poet Antiphanes, quoted by Athenaeus:

The streams of the tawny bee, mixed with the curdled river of bleating she-goats, placed upon a flat receptacle of the virgin daughter of Demeter [honey, cheese, flour], delighting in ten thousand delicate toppings – or shall I simply say plakous?

I'm for plakous.

— Antiphanes quoted by Athenaeus, The Deipnosophists, 449c[32]

According to a number of scholars, koptoplakous (κοπτοπλακοῦς) was a precursor to the modern baklava.[20][33][34] Historian Speros Vryonis describes koptoplakous as a "Byzantine favorite" and "the same as the Turkish baklava",[35] as do other writers.[30] The name (Greek: πλατσέντα) is used today on the island of Lesbos for thin layered pastry leaves with crushed nuts, baked, and covered in syrup.[36][37]

Persian lauzinaj

Main article: Lauzinaj

Baklava is a common dessert in modern Arab cuisines, but the Arabic language cookbook Kitab al-Tabikh, compiled by Ibn Sayyar al-Warraq in the 10th-century, does not contain any recipe for baklava.[38] Its recipe for lauzinaj refers to small pieces of almond paste wrapped in very thin pastry ("as thin as grasshoppers' wings") and drenched in syrup.[39] Some writers say this is dessert that most closely resembles the modern baklava.[40] Charles Perry, however, has written that "it was not much like baklava".[41]

There are similar recipes for lauzinaj in the 13th-century Kitab al-Tabikh by Muhammad bin Hasan al-Baghdadi. Written in 1226 in today's Iraq, the cookbook was based on an earlier collection of 9th century Persian-inspired recipes.[18] According to Gil Marks, Middle Eastern pastry makers later developed the process of layering the ingredients.[18]


Large baking sheets are used for preparing baklava.
Baklava cut in a lozenge shape

Baklava is normally prepared in large pans. Many layers of filo dough,[42] separated with melted butter and vegetable oil, are laid in the pan. A layer of chopped nuts—typically walnuts or pistachios, but hazelnuts are also sometimes used—is placed on top, then more layers of filo. Most recipes have multiple layers of filo and nuts, though some have only top and bottom pastry.

Before baking, the dough is cut into regular pieces, often parallelograms (lozenge-shaped), triangles, diamonds or rectangles. After baking, a syrup, which may include honey, rosewater, or orange flower water is poured over the cooked baklava and allowed to soak.

Baklava is usually served at room temperature, and is often garnished with ground nuts.

Regional variations

Algerian baklawa served during Eid

There are many regional variations of baklava. In Greece, walnuts are more common than pistachios, and the dessert is often flavored with cinnamon. In Iran, fragrant cardamom is added to a sweetened walnut filling. In Azerbaijani cuisine Azərbaycan Paxlavası, made with walnuts or almonds, is usually cut in a rhombus shape and is traditionally served during the spring holiday of Nowruz.[43][44][45]

In Gaziantep, locally grown pistachios are used, and the dessert is often served with kaymak cream.[46]


Gaziantep baklava

Baklava in Algeria is called Baklawa (Arabic: بقلاوة). In most Algerian regions, Baklawa is the centerpiece of any sweets table. This Baklawa originates in the Algerian city of Constantine. The Algerian Baklawa is distinct in that filo dough is not used, Instead, it is made up of multiple layers of very thin dough that has been meticulously handcrafted.[47][48][49]

It's stuffed with ground almonds and walnuts and flavored with orange blossom water before being cooked and drizzled in pure honey.[50][51][52]


Armenian baklava

In Armenian cuisine, pakhlava (Armenian: Փախլավա) is spiced with cinnamon and cloves.[53] Greek-style baklava is supposed to be made with 33 dough layers, referring to the years of Christ's life.[54]


Azerbaijani pakhlava

Azerbaijani pakhlava (Azerbaijani: Azərbaycan paxlavası), or simply pakhlava (Azerbaijani: Paxlava), are a type of baklavas made in Azerbaijan[44][45] for Nowruz holiday, although not baked only for holidays. Yeasty pastry, hazelnuts or Circassian walnut, milled clove, cardamom, and saffron are used for the preparation of pakhlava. Milled nuts and sugar are used for stuffing.[55]

The diamond shape of pakhlava is commonly associated with a star or fire in Azerbaijan. Azerbaijani pakhlava is multilayered and commonly prepared with walnuts or almonds and flavored with saffron. It is generally made in a big baking tray. Pakhlava has some variations in different regions of Azerbaijan based on the ingredients and baking techniques.[56][57]

A layer is rolled out from the pastry with thickness of not less than 2 mm, put into baking tray, oiled and lavishly filled with stuffing. This process is continued, until 9–10 layers are made. Another version uses 14 layers.[58] The last layer is greased with yolk, mixed up with saffron. Then pakhlava is cut into two rhombus, then either hazelnut or half of the kernel of Circassian walnut is placed on each piece. Then it is baked with 180–200 °C temperature pending 30–40 minutes.[59][60]


A tray of baklava in Kosovo

In Bosnian cuisine, Ružice is the name of the regional variant of baklava.[66]

Baklava also exists in Romanian cuisine, being known as baclava in Romanian. It is one of the most preferred desserts among Romanians together with the Kanafeh (cataif) and the sarailia. In Romania, some Turkish pastry shops that sell baklava have notable popularity. They are common in the south and southeast of the country, but some also exist in its east.[67]


Greek baklava with walnuts

In Greece, baklava is supposed to be made with 33 dough layers, referring to the years of Jesus's life.[54]


Photo of baklava on wooden dish, garnished with pistachios
Yazdi baklava

In Iranian cuisine, a drier version of baklava is cooked and presented in smaller diamond-shaped cuts flavored with rose water. The cities of Yazd and Qazvin are famous for their baklava, which is widely distributed in Iran.[68] Persian baklava uses a combination of chopped almonds and pistachios spiced with cardamom and a rose water-scented syrup and is lighter than other Middle Eastern versions.[11][69]


In Turkish cuisine, baklava is traditionally made by filling between the layers of dough with pistachios, walnuts or almonds (in some parts of the Aegean Region). In many parts of Turkey, baklava is often topped with kaymak or ice cream.

In the Black Sea Region hazelnuts are commonly used as a filling for baklava.[70] Hazelnuts are also used as a filling for the Turkish dessert Sütlü Nuriye, a lighter version of the dessert which substitutes milk for the simple syrup used in traditional baklava recipes.[71] Şöbiyet is a variation that includes fresh cream in the filling, in addition to the traditional nuts.[72]

The city of Gaziantep in south-central Turkey is famous for its pistachio baklava. The dessert was introduced to Gaziantep in 1871 by Çelebi Güllü, who had learned the recipe from a chef in Damascus.[73] In 2008, the Turkish patent office registered a geographical indication for Antep Baklava,[74] and in 2013, Antep Baklavası or Gaziantep Baklavası was registered as a Protected Geographical Indication by the European Commission.[75] Gaziantep baklava is the first Turkish product to receive a protected designation from the European Commission.[76]

Uzbek and Tatar

Uzbek cuisine has pakhlava, puskal or yupka or in Tatar yoka, which are sweet and salty savories (börekler) prepared with 10–12 layers of dough.[15] In Crimean Tatar cuisine, the pakhlava is their variant of baklava.[77]


There are many variants in Maghrebi cuisine as well (from east Algeria).[78]


See also


  1. ^ "Merriam-Webster". Merriam-Webster. Archived from the original on 2012-01-26. Retrieved 2012-04-22.
  2. ^ "Oxford Dictionaries". Oxford Dictionaries. Archived from the original on 2022-04-30. Retrieved 2012-04-22.
  3. ^ Isin, Priscilla Mary (2018). Bountiful Empire: A History of Ottoman Cuisine. Reaktion Books. ISBN 9781780239392. Archived from the original on 2022-04-30. Retrieved 2021-01-21.
  4. ^ Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd edition
  5. ^ "Merriam-Webster Online, s.v. Baklava". Archived from the original on 2007-10-14. Retrieved 2012-04-22.
  6. ^ " Unabridged, s.v. Baklava". Archived from the original on 2012-04-13. Retrieved 2012-04-22.
  7. ^ a b Paul D. Buell, "Mongol Empire and Turkicization: The Evidence of Food and Foodways", p. 200ff, in Amitai-Preiss, 1999.
  8. ^ Sukhbaatar, O. (1997). A Dictionary of Foreign Words in Mongolian (in Mongolian). Ulaanbaatar. p. 25. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2006-09-25. Retrieved 2008-10-08.((cite book)): CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  9. ^ Nişanyan, Sevan (2009) (in Turkish). Sözlerin Soyağacı - Çağdaş Türkçenin Etimolojik Sözlüğü [Words' Family Tree - An Etymological Dictionary of Contemporary Turkish]. İstanbul. Archived 2011-07-14 at the Wayback Machine
  10. ^ "Dehkhoda Persian Dictionary, باقلبا". Archived from the original on 2011-10-03. Retrieved 2012-04-22.
  11. ^ a b Batmanglij, Najmieh, A Taste of Persia: An Introduction to Persian Cooking, I.B.Tauris, 2007, ISBN 1-84511-437-X, 9781845114374; page 156.
  12. ^ Marks, Gil, Encyclopedia of Jewish Food, John Wiley and Sons, 2010, ISBN 0-470-39130-8, ISBN 978-0-470-39130-3; page 38.
  13. ^ "a derivation from balg, a common dialect form of barg "leaf", or from Ar. baql "herb" is unlikely", W. Eilers, Encyclopædia Iranica, s.v. 'bāqlavā' Archived 2011-12-28 at the Wayback Machine
  14. ^ Gülensoy, Tuncer (2007). Türkiye Türkcesindeki Türkçe Sözcüklerin Köken Bilgisi Sözlüğü - I. Turkey: Türk Dil Kurumu. p. 106. ISBN 978-9751619709.
  15. ^ a b Akın and Lambraki, Turkish and Greek Cuisine / Türk ve Yunan Mutfağı p. 248-249, ISBN 975-458-484-2
  16. ^ a b Perry, Charles. "The Taste for Layered Bread among the Nomadic Turks and the Central Asian Origins of Baklava", in A Taste of Thyme: Culinary Cultures of the Middle East (ed. Sami Zubaida, Richard Tapper), 1994. ISBN 1-86064-603-4, page 87
  17. ^ Ayşenur Akkaya; Banu Koc (2017). "Past, Present and Tomorrow of Baklava". IRTAD Journal (August): 47-50. ISSN 2602-4462. Archived from the original on 30 April 2022. Retrieved 20 November 2021.
  18. ^ a b c d Marks, Gil (2010). Encyclopedia of Jewish Food. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. p. 151. ISBN 978-0470391303.
  19. ^ Wasti, Syed Tanvir (2005). "The Ottoman Ceremony of the Royal Purse". Middle Eastern Studies. 41 (2): 193–200. doi:10.1080/00263200500035116. S2CID 143202946.
  20. ^ a b c d Patrick Faas (2003). Around the Roman Table: Food and Feasting in Ancient Rome. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. p. 185f.
  21. ^ "Tracing true origins of baklava, a flaky pastry". Gulf Times. 9 February 2018. Archived from the original on 11 April 2021. Retrieved 1 May 2021.
  22. ^ Akkaya, Ayşenur; Koc, Banu (2017). "Past, present and tomorrow of baklava". International Rural Tourism and Development Journal. 1 (1): 47–50. Archived from the original on 2022-04-30. Retrieved 2021-05-01.
  23. ^ γάστρις Archived 2021-02-25 at the Wayback Machine, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek–English Lexicon, on Perseus
  24. ^ κοπτός Archived 2021-02-24 at the Wayback Machine, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek–English Lexicon, on Perseus
  25. ^ Deipnosophists 14:647, discussed by Charles Perry, "The Taste for Layered Bread among the Nomadic Turks and the Central Asian Origins of Baklava", in A Taste of Thyme: Culinary Cultures of the Middle East (ed. Sami Zubaida, Richard Tapper), 1994. ISBN 1-86064-603-4. p. 88.
  26. ^ Charles Perry, "The Taste for Layered Bread among the Nomadic Turks and the Central Asian Origins of Baklava", in A Taste of Thyme: Culinary Cultures of the Middle East (ed. Sami Zubaida, Richard Tapper), 1994. ISBN 1-86064-603-4.
  27. ^ Husihui; Paul D. Buell; Eugene N. Anderson; Charles Perry (2010). A soup for the Qan: Chinese dietary medicine of the Mongol era as seen in Hu Szu-Hui's Yin-shan cheng-yao (2nd rev. and expanded ed.). Leiden: Brill. ISBN 978-90-04-18020-8.
  28. ^ "LacusCurtius • Cato On Agriculture — Sections 74‑90". Archived from the original on 2021-07-13. Retrieved 2017-01-28.
  29. ^ Dalby, Andrew (1998). Cato on farming-De Agricultura-A modern translation with commentary. p. 21.
  30. ^ a b Rena Salaman, "Food in Motion the Migration of Foodstuffs and Cookery Techniques" from the Oxford Symposium on Food Cookery, Vol. 2, p. 184
  31. ^ placenta Archived 2021-03-07 at the Wayback Machine, Charlton T. Lewis, Charles Short, A Latin Dictionary, on Perseus
  32. ^ Dalby, Andrew (1998). Cato on farming-De Agricultura-A modern translation with commentary. p. 155.
  33. ^ Salaman 1986, p. 184; Vryonis 1971, p. 482.
  34. ^ John Ash, A Byzantine Journey, page 223
  35. ^ Speros Vryonis The Decline of Medieval Hellenism in Asia Minor, 1971, p. 482
  36. ^ Τριανταφύλλη, Κική (17 October 2015). "Πλατσέντα, από την Αγία Παρασκευή Λέσβου". Archived from the original on 12 October 2016. Retrieved 7 February 2020.
  37. ^ Γιαννέτσου, Βασιλεία Λούβαρη (2014). Τα Σαρακοστιανά: 50 συνταγές για τη Σαρακοστή και τις γιορτές της από τη MAMAVASSO. Georges Yannetsos. p. 161. Η πλατσέντα είναι σαν τον πλακούντα των αρχαίων Ελλήνων, με ξηρούς καρπούς και μέλι.
  38. ^ "Saudi Aramco World : Cooking with the Caliphs". Archived from the original on 2016-02-18. Retrieved 2017-01-28.
  39. ^ Perry, Charles. "What to Order in Ninth Century Baghdad," in Rodinson, Maxime, and Arthur John Arberry. "Medieval Arab Cookery." (2001). p. 223
  40. ^ Salloum, Habeeb; Salloum, Muna; Elias, Leila Salloum (2013). Sweet Delights from A Thousand and One Nights: the Story of Tradition Arab Sweets. Bloomsbury. pp. 45–48.
  41. ^ Perry, Charles. "What to Order in Ninth Century Baghdad," in Rodinson, Maxime, and Arthur John Arberry. "Medieval Arab Cookery." (2001). p. 222 "As for lauzinaj, it was not much like baklava."
  42. ^ The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America, p. 111, at Google Books
  43. ^ Nazarli, Amina (19 April 2018). "Azerbaijanis welcome beloved Novruz holiday". AzerNews. AzerNews. Archived from the original on 24 April 2018. Retrieved 23 April 2018.
  44. ^ a b Ismayilova, Laman (20 March 2018). "Delicious sweets for Novruz holiday". AzerNews. AzerNews. Archived from the original on 22 April 2018. Retrieved 23 April 2018.
  45. ^ a b Gadimova, Nazrin (27 February 2018). "Celebrating Novruz? Try These 3 Pastries!". Caspian News. Caspian News. Archived from the original on 24 April 2018. Retrieved 23 April 2018.
  46. ^ "Capital of baklava". Aramco world. Archived from the original on 2021-02-02. Retrieved 2020-12-19.
  47. ^ Wagda, Marin (2004). "Bricks en vrac à l'est d'Ithaque". Hommes & Migrations. 1251 (1): 136–139. doi:10.3406/homig.2004.4253.
  48. ^ Bakhaï, Fatima (1996). "Dounia". Dounia: 1–302.
  49. ^ Bouayed, Fatima-Zohra (1970). "La cuisine algérienne". (in French). Archived from the original on 2022-01-30. Retrieved 2022-01-31.
  50. ^ Bertrand, Georges (2009-07-01). "Turquie, France : le voyage des mots". Hommes & migrations. Revue française de référence sur les dynamiques migratoires (in French) (1280): 100–104. doi:10.4000/hommesmigrations.313. ISSN 1142-852X.
  51. ^ Scholliers, Peter (2001). "Food, Drink and Identity. Cooking, Eating and Drinking in Europe since the Middle Ages". Academia.
  52. ^ Wagda, Marin (2003). "Bricks, boureks et briouates". Hommes & Migrations. 1245 (1): 125–127. doi:10.3406/homig.2003.4076.
  53. ^ The flower of paradise and other Armenian tales by Bonnie C. Marshall, Virginia A. Tashjian, Libraries Unlimited, 2007, p. 179, ISBN 1-59158-367-5
  54. ^ a b Theodore Kyriakou and Charles Campion, The Real Greek at Home, London 2004
  55. ^ "Азербайджанская пахлава". 2009-03-24. Archived from the original on 2020-01-25. Retrieved 2020-01-25.
  56. ^ Jeanne Jacob, Michael Ashkenazi (2014). The World Cookbook: The Greatest Recipes from Around the Globe. ABC-CLIO. pp. 82–83. ISBN 9781610694698.
  57. ^ Nikki Kazimova (2011). Azerbaijan - Culture Smart!: The Essential Guide to Customs & Culture. Kuperard. ISBN 9781857335484.
  58. ^ "Almond-Cardamom Baklava (Azeri Pakhlava)". Saveur. Saveur, Bonnier Corporation. 30 January 2017. Archived from the original on 24 April 2018. Retrieved 23 April 2018.
  59. ^ "Довга, долма и пахлава: секреты азербайджанской кухни". Archived from the original on 2013-10-29. Retrieved 2020-01-25.
  60. ^ "АЗЕРБАЙДЖАНСКАЯ ПАХЛАВА". Archived from the original on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2020-01-25.
  61. ^ a b c d Ahmedov, Ahmed-Jabir (1986). Azərbaycan kulinariyası, Азербайджанская кулинария, Azerbaijan Cookery - cookbook, in Azeri, Russian & English. Baku: Ishig.
  62. ^ a b "A tasty journey through Azerbaijan: Sheki and Ganja cuisine". Azerbaijan State News Agency. Archived from the original on 2019-10-22. Retrieved 2018-11-07.
  63. ^ "Gəncə paxlavası". Website of Ganja city of Azerbaijan (in Azerbaijani). Archived from the original on 2018-09-16. Retrieved 2019-02-27.
  64. ^ "Preparation of Guba pakhlava". Report Information Agency (in Azerbaijani). Archived from the original on 2019-02-27. Retrieved 2019-02-27.
  65. ^ "Guba pakhlava". Azerbaijan State News Agency (in Azerbaijani). Archived from the original on 2019-02-27. Retrieved 2019-02-27.
  66. ^ Manning, Anneka (22 August 2016). "Bakeproof: Bosnian baking : SBS Food". Archived from the original on 2016-11-07. Retrieved 2017-01-28.
  67. ^ Săcara-Onița, Adina; Porumb, Andra-Teodora; Benea, Ciprian Beniamin (2019). "The evolution of Romanian pastry. Traditions, European influences, new trends" (PDF). 3rd International Scientific Conference on Recent Advances in Information Technology, Tourism, Economics, Management and Agriculture – ITEMA 2019. 3rd International Scientific Conference ITEMA Recent Advances in Information Technology Tourism Economics Management and Agriculture: 35–44. doi:10.31410/ITEMA.2019.35. ISBN 9788680194233. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2021-05-01.
  68. ^ N. Ramazani, "Bāqlavā", Encyclopaedia iranica, Volume 3, Issues 5–8, page 729.
  69. ^ Food and Booze: A Tin House Literary Feast, Michelle Wildgen, Nicole J. Georges, Tin House Books, 2007, ISBN 0-9773127-7-1, ISBN 978-0-9773127-7-1; page 200.
  70. ^ "What is baklava—and where to find the best baklava in Istanbul?". Witt magazine. Archived from the original on 2013-10-04. Retrieved 2013-10-02.
  71. ^ "Ihtilal Tatlısı Sütlü Nuriye'nin Trajikomik Hikayesi". Milliyet Haber. 30 June 2014. Archived from the original on 2016-11-26. Retrieved 2018-11-09.
  72. ^ "Şöbiyet". Arda'nın Mutfağı. Archived from the original on 2018-11-10. Retrieved 2018-11-09.
  73. ^ Brunner, Esther (2 January 2009). "Sweet journey of Güllüoğlu baklava". Archived from the original on 2018-11-10. Retrieved 2018-11-09.
  74. ^ "Bsanna News, February 21, 2008". 2008-02-21. Archived from the original on 2011-10-04. Retrieved 2012-04-22.
  75. ^ "Publication of an application pursuant to Article 50(2)(a) of Regulation (EU) No 1151/2012 of the European Parliament and of the Council on quality schemes for agricultural products and foodstuffs". European Commission. 2009-10-07. Archived from the original on 2013-12-20. Retrieved 2013-12-20.
  76. ^ "Greek writers praise world-famous Turkish baklava". Daily News. October 2019. Archived from the original on 2021-01-31. Retrieved 2020-12-19.
  77. ^ Olga Kovalenko (2015-11-24). "A taste of Crimea far from the frontline". Roads and Kingdoms. Archived from the original on 2015-12-08. Retrieved 2015-12-05.
  78. ^ "Sweet Treats around the World: An Encyclopedia of Food and Culture, p.248". ABC-CLIO. 2014-07-28. ((cite web)): Missing or empty |url= (help)

General references