|Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)|
|Energy||94 kJ (22 kcal)|
|Dietary fiber||1.6 g|
|Vitamin A equiv.|
|Pantothenic acid (B5)|
|†Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults. |
Source: USDA FoodData Central
Basil (//, also US: //; Ocimum basilicum), also called great basil, is a culinary herb of the family Lamiaceae (mints).
Basil is native to tropical regions from Central Africa to Southeast Asia. It is a tender plant, and is used in cuisines worldwide.
There are many varieties of basil, as well as several related species or hybrids also called basil. The type used commonly as a flavor is typically called sweet basil (or Genovese basil), as opposed to Thai basil (O. basilicum var. thyrsiflora), lemon basil (O. × citriodorum), and holy basil (Ocimum tenuiflorum). While most common varieties of basil are treated as annuals, some are perennial in warm, tropical climates, such as the closely related holy basil and hybrids such as African blue basil.
Basil is an annual, or sometimes perennial, herb used for its leaves. Depending on the variety, plants can reach heights of between 30 and 150 cm (1 and 5 ft). Its leaves are richly green and ovate, but otherwise come in a wide variety of sizes and shapes depending on cultivar. Leaf sizes range from 3 to 11 cm (1 to 4+1⁄2 in) long, and between 1 and 6 cm (1⁄2 and 2+1⁄2 in) wide. Basil grows a thick, central taproot. Its flowers are small and white, and grow from a central inflorescence that emerges from the central stem atop the plant.
The various basils have such distinct scents because the volatile aromatic compounds vary with cultivars. The essential oil from European basil contains high concentrations of linalool and methyl chavicol (estragole), in a ratio of about 3:1. Other constituents include: 1,8-cineole, eugenol, and myrcene, among others. The clove scent of sweet basil is derived from eugenol. The aroma profile of basil includes 1,8-cineole and methyl eugenol. In this species eugenol is synthesised from coniferyl acetate and NADPH. Some of these are useful as insect repellents, see § Insect repellent below.
The name "basil" comes from the Latin basilius, and the Greek βασιλικόν φυτόν (basilikón phutón), meaning "royal/kingly plant", possibly because the plant was believed to have been used in production of royal perfumes. The Latin name has been confused with basilisk, as it was supposed to be an antidote to the basilisk's venom.
Further information: List of basil cultivars
The exact taxonomy of basil is uncertain due to the immense number of cultivars, its ready polymorphy, and frequent cross-pollination (resulting in new hybrids) with other members of the genus Ocimum and within the species. Ocimum basilicum has at least 60 varieties, which further complicates taxonomy.
Most basils are cultivars of sweet basil.
Several other basils, including some other Ocimum species, are grown in many regions of Asia. Most of the Asian basils have a clove-like flavor that is, in general, stronger than the Mediterranean basils, such as tulsi. Lemon basil has a strong lemony smell and flavor very different from those of other varieties because it contains a chemical called citral. It is widely used in Indonesia, where it is called kemangi, served raw together with raw cabbage, green beans, and cucumber as an accompaniment to fried fish or duck. Its flowers, when broken up, are a zesty salad condiment.
Basil is native to India and other tropical regions stretching from Africa to Southeast Asia, but has now become globalized due to human cultivation.
Most culinary and ornamental basils are cultivars of the species Ocimum basilicum, but other species are also grown and there are many hybrids between species. Traditionally a green plant, some varieties, such as 'Purple Delight', have leaves that appear purple.
Basil grows between 30–130 cm (12–51 in) tall, with opposite, light green, silky leaves 3–11 cm (1–4+1⁄2 in) long and 1–6 cm (1⁄2–2+1⁄2 in) broad. The flowers are small, white in color and arranged in a terminal spike. Unusual among Lamiaceae, the four stamens and the pistil are not pushed under the upper lip of the corolla, but lie over the inferior lip. After entomophilous pollination, the corolla falls off and four round achenes develop inside the bilabiate calyx.
Basil is sensitive to cold, with best growth in hot, dry conditions. It behaves as an annual if there is any chance of a frost. However, due to its popularity, basil is cultivated in many countries around the world. Production areas include countries in the Mediterranean area, those in the temperate zone, and others in subtropical climates.
In Northern Europe, Canada, the northern states of the U.S., and the South Island of New Zealand, basil grows best if sown under glass in a peat pot, then planted out in late spring/early summer (when there is little chance of a frost); however, it can also thrive when planted outside in these climates. Additionally, it may be sown in soil once chance of frost is past. It fares best in well-drained soil with direct exposure to the sun.
Although basil grows best outdoors, it can be grown indoors in a pot and, like most herbs, will do best on a sun-facing windowsill, kept away from extremely cold drafts. A greenhouse or row cover is ideal if available. It can, however, even be grown in a basement under fluorescent lights. If its leaves have wilted from lack of water, it will recover if watered thoroughly and placed in a sunny location. Yellow leaves towards the bottom of the plant are an indication that the plant has been stressed; usually this means that it needs less water, or less or more fertilizer. If allowed to go to seed, a basil plant will grow back the next year. Basil plants require regular watering, but not as much attention as is needed in other climates. Basil can also be propagated reliably from cuttings with the stems of short cuttings suspended for two weeks or so in water until roots develop.
Once a stem produces flowers, foliage production stops on that stem, the stem becomes woody, and essential oil production declines. To prevent this, a basil-grower may pinch off any flower stems before they are fully mature. Because only the blooming stem is so affected, some stems can be pinched for leaf production, while others are left to bloom for decoration or seeds.
Once the plant is allowed to flower, it may produce seed pods containing small black seeds, which can be saved and planted the following year. Picking the leaves off the plant helps promote growth, largely because the plant responds by converting pairs of leaflets next to the topmost leaves into new stems.
Basil is popularly recommended as a companion plant to the tomato. Common claims are that basil may deter pests or improve tomato flavor. However, in double-blind taste tests, basil did not significantly affect the taste of tomatoes when planted adjacent to them.
Supplemental lighting produces greater biomass and phenol production, with red + blue specifically increasing growth and flower bud production. UV-B increases the volatiles in O. basilicum essential oil, which has not been reproducible in other plants, and so may be unique to the genus or even to this species.
Basil suffers from several plant pathogens that can ruin the crop and reduce yield. Fusarium wilt is a soil-borne fungal disease that will quickly kill younger basil plants. Seedlings may be killed by Pythium damping off. A common foliar disease of basil is gray mold caused by Botrytis cinerea; it can cause infections post-harvest and is capable of killing the entire plant. Black spot can be seen on basil foliage and is caused by the fungi genus Colletotrichum. Downy mildew caused by Peronospora belbahrii is a significant disease, as first reported in Italy in 2004. It was reported in the U.S. in 2007 and 2008.
Non-pathogenic bacteria found on basil include Novosphingobium species.
Basil is most commonly used fresh in recipes. In general, it is added last, as cooking quickly destroys the flavor. The fresh herb can be kept for a short time in plastic bags in the refrigerator, or for a longer period in the freezer, after being blanched quickly in boiling water.
Basil is one of the main ingredients in pesto, an Italian sauce with olive oil and basil as its primary ingredients. It is also an essential ingredient in the popular Italian-American marinara sauce.
The most commonly used Mediterranean basil cultivars are "Genovese", "Purple Ruffles", "Mammoth", "Cinnamon", "Lemon", "Globe", and "African Blue". The Chinese also use fresh or dried basils in soups and other foods. In Taiwan, people add fresh basil leaves to thick soups. They also eat fried chicken with deep-fried basil leaves. Basil (most commonly Thai basil) is commonly steeped in cream or milk to create an interesting flavor in ice cream or chocolates (such as truffles). The leaves are not the only part of basil used in culinary applications, the flower buds have a more subtle flavor and they are edible.
When soaked in water, the seeds of several basil varieties become gelatinous, and are used in Asian drinks and desserts such as the Indian faluda, the Iranian sharbat-e-rihan, or hột é.
In folk medicine practices, such as those of Ayurveda or traditional Chinese medicine, basil is thought to have therapeutic properties.
The essential oil is found by Huignard et al 2008 to inhibit electrical activity by decreasing action potential amplitude, by shortening the post hyperpolarization phase, and reducing the action frequency of action potentials. In Huignard's opinion this is due to the linalool and estagole, the amplitude reduction due to linalool, and the phase shortening due to both.
Research studies of the essential oil showed antifungal and insect-repelling properties, including potential toxicity to mosquitos.
The thrips Frankliniella occidentalis and Thrips tabaci are repelled by O. basilicum, making this useful as an insect repellent in other crops.
Callosobruchus maculatus in cowpea is repelled by the essential oil.
Sitophilus oryzae, Stegobium paniceum, Tribolium castaneum, and Bruchus chinensis are evaluated by Deshpande et al 1974 and '77.
The EO mixed with kaolin is both an adulticide and an ovicide, effective for three months in against C. maculatus in cowpea.
The essential oil is found by Malik et al 1987 and Sangwan et al 1990 to be nematicidal against Tylenchulus semipenetrans, Meloidogyne javanica, Anguina tritici, and Heterodera cajani.
The essential oil of leaf and/or terminal shoot is effective against a large number of species including Lactiplantibacillus plantarum and Pseudomonas spp.
The essential oil of leaf and/or terminal shoot is effective against a large number of species including Aspergillus spp., Candida spp., Mucor spp., and Geotrichum candidum.
There are many rituals and beliefs associated with basil. Basil is sometimes referred to in French as "l'herbe royale" ('the royal herb'), while Jewish folklore suggests it adds strength while fasting. In Portugal, dwarf bush basil is traditionally presented in a pot, together with a poem and a paper carnation, to a sweetheart, on the religious holidays of John the Baptist (see Saint John's Eve § Portugal) and Saint Anthony of Padua. Conversely, basil represented hatred in ancient Greece. Herbalist Nicholas Culpeper similarly saw basil as a plant of dread and suspicion.
Holy basil, also called tulsi, is highly revered in Hinduism. Basil has religious significance in the Greek Orthodox Church, where it is used to sprinkle holy water. The Bulgarian Orthodox Church, Serbian Orthodox Church, Macedonian Orthodox Church and Romanian Orthodox Church use basil (Bulgarian: босилек, bosilek; Serbian: босиљак, bosiljak; Macedonian: босилек, bosilek) to prepare holy water and pots of basil are often placed below church altars. Some Greek Orthodox Christians even avoid eating it due to its association with the legend of the Elevation of the Holy Cross.
In Hinduism, basil is placed in the hands of the dead to ensure a safe journey.[better source needed] In India,[clarification needed] basil is placed in the mouth of the dying to ensure they reach God. The ancient Egyptians and ancient Greeks believed basil would open the gates of heaven for a person passing on.
In Giovanni Boccaccio's 14th century Decameron, the fifth story of the narrative's fourth day involves a pot of basil as a central plot device. This famous story inspired John Keats to write his 1814 poem "Isabella, or the Pot of Basil", which was in turn the inspiration for two paintings of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood: John Everett Millais's Isabella in 1849 and in 1868 the Isabella and the Pot of Basil by William Holman Hunt.
Acyclic monoterpenoid trienes such as p-myrcene and configurational isomers of p- ocimene are found in the oils of basil (leaves of Ocimum basilicum, Labiatae), bay (leaves of Fimenta acris, Myrtaceae), hops (strobiles of Humulus lupulus, ...
Eugenol is a vanilloid contained in relatively high amounts in clove oil from Eugenia caryophyllata, as well as cinnamon leaf oil (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) and oil from the clove basil Ocimum gratissimum. While eugenol is often referred to as ...
The name "basil" comes from the Greek word for "king" — so greatly did the Greeks esteem this king of herbs. Herbe royale, the French respectfully call it. In Italy basil serves the goddess Love; a sprig of it worn by a suitor bespeaks his loving ...
During one of their talks, Satan told God to pick a bunch of basil flowers, lay them under his pillow, and sleep on them overnight. In the morning, God should take them to a virgin, have her smell them, and she would conceive. This one time ...
A basil-like tulsi leaf, which is considered to be a holy plant, may be placed in the mouth as well.